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GESCI 203 Presentation Group 01.pptx

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GESCI 203 Presentation Group 01.pptx

  1. 1. GESCI 203 Presentation Group 01 | Brazil Image by Muhammed Ballan by: Allyson Jenks, Airam Longart, Kadarah Highwood, Jersen Meim, Kade Mecham
  2. 2. Population By: Allyson Jenks
  3. 3. 1960 – 72,179,226 1980 – 120,694,009 2020 – 212,559,417 How does this issue impact this country? • Brazil has a low population density at 25 per 66 people per square mile. • Most Brazilians live in big cities with 90% of the population living in San Paola. • Population is expected to peak at 238 million in 2050 then decline to 200 million by 2100. Source: https://knoema.com/uvabmyb/brazil-population Source: https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/brazil-population/
  4. 4. What concerns are there about population? • Birthrate has decreased since 1960s – average of fewer than 2 children per couple. • People are living longer (life expectancy is 76.5 years) which means there are more elderly than children. “Children 14 and under makeup 21.3% of Brazil’s population; nearly 80% of Brazil’s total population are between the ages of 15 and 64.” • There are slightly more women (51%) than men (49%) in Brazil; however, women make 23% less than men with the same qualifications. Source: https://borgenproject.org/10-facts-about- overpopulation-in-brazil/
  5. 5. How are they dealing with population growth? • Brazil’s population is equivalent to 2.73% of the total world population and is the 5th most populous country in the world. • The biggest issue is the age gap – the elderly are tapping into the public pension system and the labor force is declining. “The pension system is financially unstable. An in-depth reform is necessary and inevitable.” Source: https://www.oecd.org/brazil/reforming-brazil-pension-system-april-2017-oecd-policy- oecd-policy-memo.pdf
  6. 6. Sustainability By: Airam Longart
  7. 7. Sustainability Because of the Amazon, Brazil removes more greenhouse gases from the atmosphere than it emits. However, it has lost 20% rainforest to deforestation, making the country one of world’s biggest contributors to greenhouse gases and global climate change. The Nature Conservancy is working hard to change that. Is this country living sustainably?
  8. 8. What is their ecological footprint? Biocapacity per person Ecological footprint per person Biocapacity reserve 8.6 2.8 5.8 1961 2018 24.3 2.4 21.9
  9. 9. How are they dealing with this issue? • Partnership with US Forest Service (USFS) and Instituto Internacional de Educação do Brasil (IEB) • Partnership Platform for the Amazon (PPA) • Amazon Biodiversity Fund (ABF) Brazil • Support Indigenous and Quilombola Peoples
  10. 10. Water By: Jersen Meim
  11. 11. What water issue this country face? • Access to Water Supply and Water Services • Physical water supply • Local Water Resource Governance • Land Use Issues • Socioeconomic and Reputation • Upstream Water Issues • Compliance with Local Regulations and Widely-Accepted Standards • Water Demand and Competition among Users • Influent • Water Pricing (Water Action Hub, 2022) Image Source: by ededchechine on Freepik
  12. 12. What is their water footprint? Their water footprint 1466 gallons per person per day. It is 33% less than in the United States. Image by Freepik (Water Footprint Network, 2022)
  13. 13. What are their water resources? • Less than 1000m deep groundwater for irrigation and water supply • 300,000 average wells drilled • Dams • Rivers, including the São Francisco river, is the largest river entirely within Brazil • River basins such as Paraná, Upper Paraguay, and Uruguay. (Water Action Hub, 2022) Image source: https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Usina_Hidrel%C3%A9trica_de_Jaguara
  14. 14. How are they dealing with water issue? • Shift from a risk-based approach to a resilience approach. This includes training, education, and awareness. • Make river basin organizations deliver and use economic instruments. For example, Allocate water where it is most needed and attribute a value to water through economic instruments such as abstraction charges. • Accompany infrastructure development with regulatory oversight and monitoring. For example, set up effective coordination mechanisms with sub-national authorities to ensure that the application of the new law creates no formal or perceived conflict across levels of government in relation to taking decisions. (Pinkhasov & Morena, 2021) Image by Freepik
  15. 15. Energy By: Kadarah Highwood
  16. 16. Where is their energy coming from? The #1 source of energy comes from hydro-power. (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2021)
  17. 17. • Droughts in Brazil are one of the main energy struggles. • When these occur, Brazil's hydropower is severely threatened. • Its infrastructure needs continuous improvement and modernization. (Brazil invites investment in Infrastructure & Renewable Energy, 2022) What energy issues does this country face?
  18. 18. What is their carbon footprint? Fossil CO2 Emissions (2016) 462,994,920tons Yearly Change -6.08% Global Share 1.29% Tons per capita 2.25 (Brazil CO2 emissions)
  19. 19. Do they import or export fossil fuels? In 2020, Brazil exported 19.8 billion dollars in crude petroleum. In the same year, they imported 2.36 billion dollars. China, United States, India, Spain and Portugal are the main countries receiving fossil fuel exports from Brazil. (Crude petroleum in Brazil, 2022)
  20. 20. How are they dealing with energy issues? • Around 84% of Brazil’s electricity is generated from renewable sources. The world average is around 38%. • Wind and solar generation have increased hugely in recent years – with three quarters of the power plants entering service in 2021 being either wind or photovoltaic – as has the percentage of energy sourced from biofuels. • They continue to build up their transportation system to be able transport their sources of energy to make them less expensive and to make them more marketable (2022).
  21. 21. Climate Change By: Kade Mecham
  22. 22. How is global climate affecting this country? • Brazil's mean temperature has risen from 24.91 degrees Celsius in 1900 to 25.58 degrees Celsius as of 2021. • Brazil's average precipitation, in millimeters, is steadily declining with this rise of temperature. • The rise of emissions is easily correlated with rise in temperature.
  23. 23. What steps, if any, are being taken to mitigate these issues? • The Government of Brazil has dedicated protected areas for preservation. • The Government of Brazil launched the Amazon Biodiversity Fund and raises money to conserve biodiversity.
  24. 24. Are there future implications for change? • With the recent droughts that Brazil has faced, their hydropower has become unreliable and have been switching to fossil fuels. • The use of fossil fuels will result in more emissions into their atmosphere and must be mitigated.
  25. 25. Do they have future plans to continue to make changes? • In July of 2022, the Government of Brazil's Supreme Court declared that their Climate Fund must be re-opened and put into action. • However, there are no plans for the Government of Brazil to reduce emissions from fossil fuels and deforestation.
  26. 26. References  Alexander, L. (2020, January 25). 10 facts about overpopulation in Brazil. The Borgen Project. Retrieved December 5, 2022, from https://borgenproject.org/10-facts-about-overpopulation-in-brazil/  Becker, M., et al. (2012). The ecological footprint of Campo Grande collaboration of BR the ... The Ecological Footprint of Campo Grande and its Footprint Family. Retrieved December 6, 2022, from https://wwfbr.awsassets.panda.org/downloads/campo_grande_ecological_footprint.pdf  Brazil CO2 emissions. Worldometer. (n.d.). Retrieved December 5, 2022, from https://www.worldometers.info/co2-emissions/brazil-co2-emissions/  Brazil invites investment in Infrastructure & Renewable Energy. euronews. (2022, December 2). Retrieved December 5, 2022, from https://www.euronews.com/green/2022/12/01/brazil-invites-investment-in- infrastructure-renewable-energy  Brazil invites investment in Infrastructure & Renewable Energy. euronews. (2022, December 2). Retrieved December 5, 2022, from https://www.euronews.com/green/2022/12/01/brazil-invites-investment-in- infrastructure-renewable-energy  Brazil population (live). Worldometer. (n.d.). Retrieved December 5, 2022, from https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/brazil-population/  Brazil population. Knoema. (2019, August 2). Retrieved December 5, 2022, from https://knoema.com/uvabmyb/brazil-population
  27. 27. References  Brazil. Climate Action Tracker. (n.d.). Retrieved December 6, 2022, from https://climateactiontracker.org/countries/brazil/  Crude petroleum in Brazil. OEC. (2022, September). Retrieved December 6, 2022, from https://oec.world/en/profile/bilateral-product/crude-petroleum/reporter/bra#market-concentration  International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. (2021, September 21). To solve Brazil's energy and food crisis: Store more water, researchers say. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 6, 2022 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/09/210921125119.htm  Kawawa-Beaudan, C. (2021, June 12). Ecobytes: Beef and Brazil's declining biocapacity. Global Footprint Network. Retrieved December 6, 2022, from https://www.footprintnetwork.org/2021/06/11/ecobytes-beef- and-brazils-declining- biocapacity/#:~:text=Brazilians%20on%20average%20have%20an,2.8%20global%20hectares%20per%20pers on  Morris, J. (2016). Climate change and the Amazon. The Nature Conservancy. Retrieved December 6, 2022, from https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/latin-america/brazil/stories-in- brazil/deforestation-and-climate-change/  OECD Policy Memo Pension Reform in Brazil. (n.d.). Retrieved December 6, 2022, from https://www.oecd.org/brazil/reforming-brazil-pension-system-april-2017-oecd-policy-memo.pdf
  28. 28. References • Pinkhasov, M., & Morena, E. (Eds.). (2021, December 9). Fostering Water Resilience in Brazil : Turning Strategy into Action. Fostering Water Resilience in Brazil : Turning Strategy into Action | OECD iLibrary. Retrieved December 5, 2022, from https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/sites/85a99a7c- en/index.html?itemId=%2Fcontent%2Fpublication%2F85a99a7c-en  U.S. Agency for International Development. (n.d.). Retrieved December 6, 2022, from https://www.usaid.gov/  Water Action Hub. (2022, December 2). Water action hub | country: Brazil. Water Action Hub | Country: Brazil. Retrieved December 5, 2022, from https://wateractionhub.org/geos/country/31/d/brazil/  Water Footprint Network. (2022, July 15). Water footprint comparisons by country. Water Footprint Calculator. Retrieved December 5, 2022, from https://www.watercalculator.org/footprint/water-footprints-by-country/  World Bank Climate Change Knowledge Portal. Summary | Climate Change Knowledge Portal. (n.d.). Retrieved December 6, 2022, from https://climateknowledgeportal.worldbank.org/country/brazil

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