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PORTER’S
Forces
Model
Porter's Five Forces is a simple but
powerful tool for understanding the
competitiveness of your business
environment, and...
Michael E. Porter (1979)
to analyze an industry's
attractiveness and likely
profitability
THE FIVE-FORCES MODEL OF
COMPETITION
3-4
THE FIVE-FORCES MODEL
Rivalry among competing firms
▪ Most powerful of the five forces
▪ Focus on competitive advantage of...
TABLE 3-7 Conditions That Cause High Rivalry Among Competing Firms
▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬
1. When the numb...
THE FIVE-FORCES MODEL
Potential Entry of New Competitors
▪ Barriers to entry are important
▪ Quality, pricing, and marketi...
BARRIERS TO ENTRY
▪ Need to gain economies of scale quickly
▪ Need to gain technology and specialized know-how
▪ Lack of e...
BARRIERS TO ENTRY
▪ Government regulatory policies
▪ Tariffs
▪ Lack of access to raw materials
▪ Possession of patents
▪ U...
THE FIVE-FORCES MODEL
Potential development of
substitute products
▪ Pressure increases when:
▪ Prices of substitutes decr...
THE FIVE-FORCES MODEL
Bargaining Power of Suppliers
▪ increased when (there are):
▪ Few suppliers
▪ Few substitutes
▪ Cost...
THE FIVE-FORCES MODEL
Bargaining power of consumers
▪ Customers being concentrated or
buying in volume affects intensity
o...
CONDITIONS WHERE CONSUMERS
GAIN BARGAINING POWER
1. If buyers can inexpensively switch
2. If buyers are particularly impor...
Sample Five-forces
Model Analysis
Extremely
High
Low Medium
Low
Low
Thank you.
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Porter's 5 Forces Model

  1. 1. PORTER’S Forces Model
  2. 2. Porter's Five Forces is a simple but powerful tool for understanding the competitiveness of your business environment, and for identifying your strategy's potential profitability. https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMC_08.htm
  3. 3. Michael E. Porter (1979) to analyze an industry's attractiveness and likely profitability
  4. 4. THE FIVE-FORCES MODEL OF COMPETITION 3-4
  5. 5. THE FIVE-FORCES MODEL Rivalry among competing firms ▪ Most powerful of the five forces ▪ Focus on competitive advantage of strategies over other firms Copyright©2017PearsonEducation,Inc. 3-5
  6. 6. TABLE 3-7 Conditions That Cause High Rivalry Among Competing Firms ▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬ 1. When the number of competing firms is high 2. When competing firms are of similar size 3. When competing firms have similar capabilities 4. When the demand for an industry’s products is falling 5. When the product or service prices in the industry are falling 6. When consumers can switch brands easily 7. When barriers to leaving the market are high 8. When barriers to entering the market are low 9. When fixed costs are high among competing firms 10. When the product is perishable 11. When rivals have excess capacity 12. When consumer demand is falling 13. When rivals have excess inventory 14. When rivals sell similar products/services 15. When mergers are common in the industry Copyright©2017PearsonEducation,Inc. 3-6
  7. 7. THE FIVE-FORCES MODEL Potential Entry of New Competitors ▪ Barriers to entry are important ▪ Quality, pricing, and marketing can overcome barriers Copyright©2017PearsonEducation,Inc. 3-7
  8. 8. BARRIERS TO ENTRY ▪ Need to gain economies of scale quickly ▪ Need to gain technology and specialized know-how ▪ Lack of experience ▪ Strong customer loyalty ▪ Strong brand preferences ▪ Large capital requirements ▪ Lack of adequate distribution channels Copyright©2017PearsonEducation,Inc. 3-8
  9. 9. BARRIERS TO ENTRY ▪ Government regulatory policies ▪ Tariffs ▪ Lack of access to raw materials ▪ Possession of patents ▪ Undesirable locations ▪ Counterattack by entrenched firms ▪ Potential saturation of the market Copyright©2017PearsonEducation,Inc. 3-9
  10. 10. THE FIVE-FORCES MODEL Potential development of substitute products ▪ Pressure increases when: ▪ Prices of substitutes decrease ▪ Consumers' switching costs decrease Copyright©2017PearsonEducation,Inc. 3-10
  11. 11. THE FIVE-FORCES MODEL Bargaining Power of Suppliers ▪ increased when (there are): ▪ Few suppliers ▪ Few substitutes ▪ Costs of switching raw materials is high Copyright©2017PearsonEducation,Inc. 3-11
  12. 12. THE FIVE-FORCES MODEL Bargaining power of consumers ▪ Customers being concentrated or buying in volume affects intensity of competition ▪ Consumer power is higher where products are standard or undifferentiated Copyright©2017PearsonEducation,Inc. 3-12
  13. 13. CONDITIONS WHERE CONSUMERS GAIN BARGAINING POWER 1. If buyers can inexpensively switch 2. If buyers are particularly important 3. If sellers are struggling in the face of falling consumer demand 4. If buyers are informed about sellers' products, prices, and costs 5. If buyers have discretion in whether and when they purchase the product Copyright©2017PearsonEducation,Inc. 3-13
  14. 14. Sample Five-forces Model Analysis
  15. 15. Extremely High Low Medium Low Low
  16. 16. Thank you.
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Porter's five forces model by Michael Porter

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