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Educational Technology 1
Joerigene Odette C. Neri
Ms. Mercylene M. Briones
S.Y June 2015
Visual Literacy: WHAT IS IT? Visual literacy is the ability to SEE,
UNDERSTAND, THINK, CREATE, & COMMUNICATE GRAPHICALLY.
(Thibault and Walbert, 2003) Anne Bamford (2003) states: Visual Literacy
History - Visual literacy has emerged from a number of disciplines including
Visual arts, Art History, Linguistics, Literacy, Philosophy, Psychology, Perceptual
physiology, Sociology, Cultural studies Media studies, Instructional design,
Semiotics, Communications studies, Educational technology. Visual Grammar -
There is no visual dictionary because it would be unrealistic. Visual literacy is
the successful combination of syntax (the organization of the image) and
semantics (the symbolic meaning of the image). When It Starts - Beginning at
12 months of age, children can read graphically with some accuracy and by 3
years of age they can accurately read and produce graphics that are capable of
abstraction and symbols.
A. Visual Literacy
WHERE IS IT USED? Visual literacy is
necessary to make sense of the images that
are all around us. Of note, it is used in:
Interpreting Media, Illustrations,
Semiotics, Manipulation, Visual Data,
Process & Sequence and Spatial-
Visualization From prehistoric times, man has
desired to communicate. Before the
development of language, man was able to
convey a series of ideas and observations
through the use of images and symbols. If you
look at the Paleolithic cave paintings in France,
which are estimated to be roughly 30,000 years
old, you can see early forms of visual literacy.
Paleolithic Cave Paintings: Chauvet Cave; Pont
d’Arc, France; 28,000 B.C
A VITAL SKILL “We live in an
increasingly visual culture. We are
surrounded by images everywhere in
our lives - in newspapers and
magazines, in advertising, on
television, and on the Web. This
makes the need for visual literacy
and the ability to “read” images a vital
skill. ” (Bamford, 2003; Henry, et al.,
INTERPRETING MEDIA "The image survives the subject and becomes the
evoke a feeling or a mood within us, it is necessary for the viewer to be able to
understand the message. “Migrant Mother, Dorothea Lange, photograph, 1936
ILLUSTRATIONS Visual literacy can involve the
ability to interpret visual representations of stories.
Illustrations in a children’s picture book can provide
wordless interpretations of the written story.
Illustrations in picture books have the power to teach
children how to read and make sense of the story.
Ask, “What objects and people, do you see? What
are they doing? Why are they there?”(Thibault, 2010)
• SEMIOTICS Visual literacy is seen
in semiotics, which is the study of
symbolic processes in which a
visual image is combined with a
meaning or is the carrier of a
meaning. In this case, a Red Rose
has the carrier meaning of ‘I Love
You’, so the red rose becomes a
symbol. (Kress, et al., 2001)
MANIPULATION Often visual literacy
is needed to understand manipulated
images, which are seen in some
forms of media. A visual pun is the
use of symbolic imagery to suggest
two or more meanings or different
associations. (Rohrer, 2010) What is
represented in this visual play on
• ABSTRACTION Visual Literacy is
sometimes needed to express or
understand abstract visual
representations of familiar
concepts. Often seen in logo
design, visual abstraction has
many uses. Have you ever texted
or emailed a colon next to a closing
parentheses to visually express to
someone that you were happy?
This abstract representation of a
face becomes a symbol. People
don’t really look like this, but we all
know what it means.
• PROCESS & SEQUENCE Visual
literacy is not just the ability to
interpret an image in order to
understand a story, a moment from
the past, or a symbol. Visual
literacy can involve the ability to
understand a process or sequence,
as seen here in the visual
instructions for how to create an
• SPATIAL-ABILITY Visual literacy can
involve the ability to understand a
spatial concept, such as how 2D
shape nets become 3D objects or
how architectural design plans
represent the proposed reality of
construction. Spatial-ability involves
the capacity to visualize how parts
and sections become a whole.
• VISUAL DATA Visual literacy can
involve the ability to interpret visual
representations of data.
Remembering to be a critical
consumer of information, Tufte
(1991) encourages viewers to look
for the Lie Factor within visual data,
by checking that “the representation
of numbers, as physically measured
on the surface of the graphic itself,
should be directly proportional to the
quantities represented. “In this case,
22% (14) of the people in the image
are shaded blue to create an
abstract U.S. flag. 4 (rows) X 16
(columns) = 64 64 ÷ 22 = 14.08
• VISUALIZATION “Most of the
things we make begin with a
mental picture. “This is true for
planning a meal or organizing
research, planning a vacation or a
trip to the mall, and even
visualizing the parts of a story to
“jog your memory”. Visualization is
used by almost everyone. And yes,
some are a little more inclined than
others, but it is something that we
all do to a certain extent. (Preble &
• IN THE CLASSROOM Visual
literacy is vital to understanding the
world around us. AS EDUCATORS,
WE NEED TO teach individuals to
be critical consumers and creators
of information. (Diem, 2006)
• IN THE CLASSROOM “Young
people learn more than half of what
they know from visual information,
but few schools have an explicit
curriculum to show students how to
think critically about visual
information.”- Mary Alice White
• DATA: The Periodic Table of
Visualization Methods is a great
tool to organize information for
presentations or research. It helps
focus the end goal of the data to
ensure accurate interpretation,
whether it is to solve a dilemma
(dilemma diagram) or to show that
something is greater than the sum
of its parts (funnel).
SPATIAL-ABILITY: The Math is Fun
website provides great resources for
exploring mathematical concepts.
The information on solid geometry is
very useful in that it provides 2D and
3D representations along with
printable shape nets to allow for
PICTURE WALKS: When
learning to read or learning a
new language, illustrations can
be used to draw upon previous
experiences and knowledge to
help learners make sense of
the book and textual language.
Try it with Reading Picture
Books or Analyze a Picture
• Goals of Visual Design:
3.Increase active engagement
• Things to consider when making Visual Design:
1.Elements (Visual elements, Verbal elements, Elements
that add appeal)
2.Pattern (Alignment, Shape, Balance, Style, Color
scheme, Color appeal)
3.Arrangement (Proximity, Directional, Figure-ground
SUMMARY Visual literacy relates closely to aspects within technology,
communication, technical, and multicultural literacies in that it provides a
visual language for interpreting and creating meaning from graphics and
symbols. Visual + Technology = animation, graphic design, software
Visual + Multicultural = symbols, gestures
Visual + Communication = literature, advertising, media
Visual + Technical = engineering, geometry
B. Non- Projected Visual
are those which require no projection material or any
electric power, are mostly composed of study prints,
charts, posters, maps, flash cards, photographs,
textbook illustrations, and illustrations found in
magazines and newspapers. they are all much the
same except that study prints are mounted and
Still picture gives illusion of space Photographs are
made by stereoscopic camera Observer receives the
impression of reality. Two photographs being taken
from slightly different angle which are enlarged and
merged into one view. Uses of non-projected pictures
• Educators, scholars, and students may use or
display non projected images in connection with
lectures or presentations in their fields.
• Motivates the students
• Presents matter symbolically
• Presents abstract ideas in visual form
• Creates problems and stimulates thinking
The Guidelines to be Followed Relevance the direct
relevance of an image to what is being read or heard
is vital. Because sight is the most receptive sense for
most people, an obscure or irrelevant image wild is
tract from other messages being given. Further, to be
useful and add to the learning context, an image used
in teaching must relate to both the substance of the
lecture and the needs of the students.
Non- Projected Visual
The most valuable image will
complement what is being said. For
example, an image may be used to:
• explain a technical term (or simply to
• trigger the description of an example or
short anecdote so that the lecturer may
elaborate on a new idea,
• obtain a response from the students
(multiple- choice questions may be
used, or a problem posed by a projected
• Link one argument with the next.
An intelligent balance in tertiary teaching,
a productive image will challenge the
viewer to think because it will represent a
balance between being easily understood
and posing a question or problem which
needs resolution. Images used in this way
will not simply support a presentation but
challenge the viewer to respond.
Clarity Visual clarity assists interpretation.
It is essential to the image and the
message it represents. There are a
number of ways to promote visual clarity:
Non- Projected Visual
• Carefully select the image with its background. A white
(or clear) background for a black image is not the most
successful for projection because the bright light is tiring
on the eyes. Either a yellow background for a black image
or a dark blue background for a white or yellow image is
• Consider the shape, size and spacing of letters. A bold,
simple and lower case lettering style is most legible.
• Omit distracting detail and include selective emphasis.
Attention to these elements of clarity will make visual
information more accessible. The corollary of this is that,
when they are drawn clearly, the gradual revelation of
details will facilitate an explanation and allow for a greater
amount of visual information to be presented.
• Simplicity of lay-out: It refers to the arrangement of the
elements of the image.
• Efficient use of colors: (i) Use bold illustrations, (ii)
Avoid fancy lettering style, (iii) Proper use of color
• Neatness: The graph should be neat, clean and
artistic. It should be of good quality.
• Accuracy: The scales and the measurement of the
graph should be accurate and intelligible to the
• Drawing and paper: The image should be properly
drawn. The paper should be good. The pencil that is
used should also be good.
• Hints: The hints should be properly explained. The
marks on the image should be such that the students
may know them by themselves.
Non- Projected Visual
Advantages of non-projected pictures
• Do not need a power source and apparatus to make them
seen either on the wall or screen.
• They can be viewed straight as they are.
• They are flexible.
• They have visual appeal and are easy to move.
• They can be carefully stored and preserved for use in the
• They display specific information.
• They can be used at all levels of learning.
• Pictures can also maintain high level of interest in the lesson.
• Readily accessible to the teacher
• They have an educational value.
• Easy to carry.
Disadvantages of non-projected pictures:
• It may become outdated.
• They cannot present motion materials effectively as a result,
their ability to engage all of our senses for a total learning
experience is quite limited.
• Copies may wear out when overused. Picture quality may
• They are difficult to revise and update if produced in a
• Easy to damage.
• Not interactive.
• Not visible to all the students in the class.
• Takes up the time of the teacher if she has to prepare the
• Images lose their charm, if it contains too much matter on it.
• Poor use of color combination, improper spacing and
margins creates confusion in the minds of the students.
• If used for a prolonged period it becomes boring for the
Non- Projected Visual
What are their impact to the learner or learning process?
• Students learn in a variety of different ways, some students
need visual aids, some need to creatively stimulated, others
need to be constantly entertained in order to keep them from
falling asleep or disrupting the class.
• Visuals or just one way out of many to meet the needs of all
• Design developmentally appropriate learning opportunities
that apply technology-enhanced instructional strategies to
support the diverse needs of learners.
• Reasoning can be developed through the use of images.
Students might be asked to explain the sequence, patterns or
logic in a series of images that relate to a particular process.
• Skills of analysis and synthesis can be taught and developed
using images. Students can be involved in the dissection and
classification of diagrammatic information or assembling a
series of seemingly unrelated images into meaningful
• Cause-and-effect relationships can be seen more clearly
when the information is presented visually.
• Identification of sequence in processes or procedures and
the recognition of errors can be taught with the assistance of
• Students can be asked to make judgments based on a series
of given criteria when part of the information is presented
Aims to develop the power of observation, identification,
quick comprehension and retention. To help students
improve their ability to find and use information.
• To develop students’ reasoning and analysis skills and other
higher order thinking skills.
• To easily motivate the students for better learning.
• To promote greater student participation.
Non- Projected Visual
Realia refers to objects or items from real life, which
are used in the classroom to illustrate and teach
vocabulary or to serve as an aid to facilitate language
acquisition and production.
It concretizes vocabulary, language and places it in a
frame of reference. It also allows language learners to
see, hear, and in some cases touch the objects.
To illustrate and teach young learners vocabulary use
real objects for young learners, it's a very useful tool
in making the abstract concrete.
W h e n I g r o w u p. . .
Choose the things that fit you, to dress up… Like
your dream! Don’t be shy; at the end when you are
ready… You are going to tell us what you are and
WHY…Have Fun!!! I want to be a doctor. I want to be
a teacher. I want to be a rock star.
• Recognizable representation of a real thing three
• Height, width, depth is felt as reality
TYPES OF MODELS
• Solid Models
• Cut-way and x-ray models
• Working models
• Sand models
Non- Projected Visual
Non-displayed m have to be pr
Non-projected m have to be dis
Non-projected m have to be dis Non-displayed m
have to be pr
Do you agree that these non-projected visuals make
the students uninterested and pessimistic in the
Audience Nature of your Visuals Communication /
Instructional Setting Lesson / Communication
Objective Availability of the Various Display Formats
What are the general PURPOSES of BULLETIN BOARDS?
Describe an EFFECTIVE BULLETIN BOARD.
Generate a theme and adopt it as a headline.
Wordings should be simple and according to viewer’s
Gather or produce materials such as photos.
Select a background material.
Lines can be made from ribbon, yarn, string, wire, or paper
Letters can be freehand drawn from lettering guide, cut from
Appraise display from a technical standpoint.
C. Projected Visuals
Overhead projection is done using an overhead projector- a
device like a box with a large stage on the top surface. Vital
teaching aid, replaces chalk board, produces images behind
and over the head of the teacher It consists metal box with
1000w bulb and a concave reflector vertical rod on the side of
the box carries objective convex lens and mirror which can be
slows up and down by using rock and pinion arrangement Size
of the sheet is 25cm *25 cm
ABOUT PROJECTOR the film strip projector consists of:
Projection camp Concave reflector Condenser lenses
Heat filter Air blower rotating film-strip carrier Projection
Projection lamp it normally used in projection. It is a gas filled
tubular lamp. Many projector manufactured today have a halogen
lamp of quartz iodine lamp. The quartz iodine lamp gives out a very
bright necessary for projection. 2. Concave Reflector it is placed
behind the filament assembly. It is used to reflect back the light
radiated from the back of the filament assembly. 3. Condenser
lenses it condenses the light on the transparency.
Heat filter it is kept in between the censer lenses this filter, which is
made of special glass, absorbs the heat & projects the
transparency from getting heated excessively. 5. Air Blower
cooling in filmstrips using lower voltage lamp are by convection. In
some protections it is by air cooler.6. Rotating film-strip carrier this
consists of 2 wheels on which the film- strips are cooled. This
rotating carrier is rotated manually. Modern projectors have remote
control of automatic transport of filmstrips system. 7. Projection
lens the projection lens used in projectors is a converging coated
compound lens. All surfaces are coated with a film of magnesium
fluoride to increase the percentage of transmitted light.
CARE AND OPERATION OF THE PROJECTOR
Handle it gently so as to prevent the damage of lamp
tube & photoelectric cells. Protect the projector
from shakes, jerks while transporting Never force
apart for movement, as misalignment may result in
poor operation Frequent and proper cleaning is
necessary to assume a smooth operation and prevent
damage to the film All projector use 110-120 volts
A.C. use proper transformers to change 22o volts.
Otherwise film may get burnt.
Check all the cables and connections frequently and
replace damage cables and plug. Always hold the
film by edges and with slight tension. Do not trail the
film on the floor or table as it may lead to scratches.
Use carbon tetra chloride to clear films but never use
it for color films. The lens and the two glass plates
through with the filmstrip pass may be clean with a
soft camel hairbrush. In the projector , lamp should
not be switched on unless the blower is operating
Switching order ON (1) Blower (2) lamp Switching
order OFF (1) lamp (2) Blower
STEPS IN USING OHP Put the plug into Move the
objective power lens and Place the Explain the wall
mirror up OHP on material on the socket and the
table transparency switch down to facing to with a
small on the get the screen pointer blower image on
first and the screen lamp
• Permits the teacher OHP is too costly pointing the
material & writing by some type of observe the
student on pen get blotted out on the same time
• It can be used in fairly lighted room
• Materials projected can be changed quickly and
• Operation of OHP is convenient
• OHP can be used with other type of AV aids
The term slide refers to a small-format photographic
transparency individually mounted for one-at-time projection.
Teacher – and Student- Produced Slides a major advantage of
slides as an instructional medium is the ease with which both
teachers and students can produce them.
Producing “Slide Shows” by Digital Photography Digital
cameras have quickly found a place in the computer realm.
They are widely use to capture images for incorporation into
documents produced by presentation software or desktop
Producing Slides by Copying Visuals You can take close-ups
using macro portion of the range, allowing you to copy flat
visuals such as maps, charts, etc.
Producing Slides with Computers. Computers now offer
capability of generating graphic images that can become
A filmstrip is one of the projective audio visual that a fixed sequence
related still on a roll of 35 mm film. The filmstrip can be projected
backside of the map as convenience of the teaching situation demand.
A large number of subjects come within the range of filmstrips. The
teacher only needs to tap the right type of strip for his teaching purpose.
DEFINITION Filmstrip is a continuous strip of 35 mm or 16mm or 8mm
film consisting of individual frames or pictures arranged in sequence,
usually with exploratory titles.
PREPARATION OF FILM STRIPS Filmstrips can be prepared either by
employing photographic methods or by drawing picture by hand on the
film itself. The steps in preparation are Select a suitable topic from
the syllabus after considering the possibilities of depicting the subject
matter by drawing photographs. Prepare a detail script describing the
contents of each frame indicating the method of preparing it. I.e. whether
by at work or by photograph.
Make rough sketches of the figure on the paper so as to serve as guide
when final sketches are drawn Draw the sketches in suitable size
Arrange the drawings $ enlarged photographs the material in correct
sequence thus arranged using 36mm film camera & prepare negative.
Prepare the guidebook, which is to follow the filmstrips explaining the
details of each frame.
METHODS OF USING FILMSTRIPS:- A common manually
operated film-strip protector is used in following steps. 1. Place
the film-strip projector on a rigid & stable table. 2. Place the
screen at an appropriate place so that the whole class can see it.
3. Insert the film – strip on its carrier in its place behind the object
lens tube after opening the tube. 4. Mount a film strip on its carrier
5. Insert the projector card plug into the wall socket.
Darken the room in which projection is to be carried out. 7.
Switch the cooling fan first & than the projection bulb. 8. Focus the
image on the screen sharply by moving or objective lens forward
& backward. 9. Show the slide, explain your subject matter with its
aid. 10. Move the film-strip to get the next frame 11. Present the
frames sequentially. 12. After the lesson, switch off the bulb first
then the cooling fan unplug the film-stripe projector store it back in
WHERE FILM STRIP CAN BE PROJECTED Film strip can be projected on the
Screen Wall Paper screen back side the map etc…
ABOUT SCREEN Projection screen are the based on which light from the
projectors is incident and the image is formed. there are 2 types of projections.
Front projection Rear projection In front projection, the projector and audience
are on the same side of the screen. In rear projection, the audience and the
projector are separated by translucent projection screen.
TYPE OF SCREEN Matte screen: This screen is ideal for indoor & outdoors.
The screen surface when it gets dirty can be washed using soap and with
sponge. Beaded screen: On the surface of write plastic base tiny glass beads
of diameter about 0.1 mm are spread. The intrinsic brightness of image formed
on beaded screen is very high. Processed metallic surface screens: There are
special screen of wide viewing angle, with corrugated surface and coated with
phosphorescent substances. A beaded screen, of either per table type or fixed
is ideal. But for general purpose and use in indoors and outdoors, mettle screen
may be preferred.
EQUIPMENT TIP The projection equipment should be placed
parallel to the screen to prevent “key stoning” (a projected image
that is trapezoidal rather than rectangular) Correction for key
stoning, To maintain a parallel relationship between the projection
equipment and the screen, may require moving the projector or the
projection lens or moving or trying back the bottom of the screen.
A screen placed in the corner of the classroom allows for
simultaneous use of it. To lessen the amount of ambient light that
reaches the screen and reduces images Place the screen in front
of windows that have the greatest linkage.
PRECAUTION WHILE USING FILM –STRIP The Film strip,
because of its fixed sequence, is not as flexible for individual stills as
the slides, which can be in any order. The film strip is a “skill”
medium .It cannot portray effectively and is not intended to do so.
The film strip is easily damaged and is not easy to repair. For
presenting film strips in the class room teacher need to analyses the
significance of the use of strip for educational purpose.
Determine the lessons that could be effectively illustrated with a
strip. Preview film strip before using them. Show again any part
of the film strips needing move specific study. Use film strip to
stimulate emotions built attitude and to point out us problem. Use a
pointer to direct attention to specific details on screen.
AVAILABILITY Many useful filmstrips are available in:- The state
department of education Public museum City libraries Municipal
Education Department A wonderful inspiring as well as informative series
of 20 film –strip entitled “Bring India to your class –room” has been recently
by the Al Mervyns studio Bombay.
A Number of film strip are available &the central film library, government of
India, New Delhi. (i) Current affairs – The united nation at work (ii) History –
Clive; making of modern Germany (iii) Civics –citizenship (iv) Geography –
Switzerland; Japan – life and Industries. (v) Physics –Atomic energy. (vi)
Hygiene – Nutrition; care of teeth. (vii) Chemistry –Iron and steel; Sulphur
and it’s compounds.
ADVANTAGE It is an economical visual materials It is easy to make and
convenient to handle and carry. Takes up little space and can be easily
stored. Provides a logical sequence to the teaching procedure and the
individual picture on the strip can be kept before the student for a length of
time. Film –strip can be projected on the screen or wall or paper screen as
the convenience and the teaching situation demands. It is available both
in color & blank & white. Good to use – afterward, have a discussion to
see whether people have understood the subject. DISADVANTAGES its
frame connect be remove or substitute .It this becomes necessary them the
strip can be cut into slides & mounted.
USES OF FILM-STRIP ON A.V.AIDS Use of motion –picture films The
films strip can be shown at the speed that appears desirable. The entire
class can discuss the pictures as they are shown It much less cost & with
far greater flexibility.
If overhead projection uses transparent materials,
opaque projection uses nontransparent ones on a
screen. built of large black Consists two mirrors at top &
bottom; 1000w bulb principle Light rays passes through
the first mirror, then to the object, light rays from the
illuminated picture then focuses to the second mirror,
then it is projected to screen by using a convex lens
operation: handle beneath the epidiascope is lowered
then the picture want to project is placed on the plate and
handle is fixed again, then switch on light
Helps in retention it is easily of material breakable
Attract attention it should be Arouse interest planned
in among the student sequence Tests students
1. There is no need to produce transparencies since
the materials are the ones projected.
2. This allows group viewing of students’ works.
3. There is a wide variety of materials to be projected,
including three-dimensional materials.
1. The projector cannot effectively operate unless the
room is completely darkened.
2. The opaque projector is heavy
3. Some parts of the projector are unsafe to touch
due to the heat generated by the lamp.
D. Audio Media
Audio media are sounds transmitted, purchased or
received through high fidelity waves which are heard
through audio equipment. Audio media are used in
connection with speech rehearsals, drama, poetry, animal
and nature sounds, student presentations, or live radio
broadcasts. Audio is a sound that lies within the range of
sensitivity of the human ear. It has a frequency of
approximately 20- 20 000 hertz.
Types of Media
Video: - Digital (CD, DVD), VHS, Streaming Audio: -
MP3s, Cassettes, CDs Text: - Web pages, Text books,
Handouts Visuals: - Pictures, Diagrams, Simple
Advantages of Audio Media:
Useful to add, maintain and stimulate interest Can be
used as a set induction strategy Can clarify problems and
ambiguity Can aid memory Can be use in stimulating
emotions Useful in distant learning Helpful in stimulating
creative thinking, increase imagination Helpful in learning
Limitation of Audio Media:
Extra resources are needed Audio media could be costly
Power failure issues can disturb the learning environment
Strong lesson planning is to be done Trained teachers
are needed who can manage it effectively
Physical Properties of Audio: 1.Loudness -physiological sensation
sensed in the brain 2. Pitch -subjective impression about the
frequency of sound 3. Duration
Hearing vs Listening Hearing is a physiological process in
which sound waves entering the outer ear is transmitted to the
eardrum, converted in the middle ear, and changed in the inner ear
into electrical impulses to the brain.
Hearing vs listening: Listening on the other hand, is a
psychological process that begins with receiving the sound, then,
identification and recognition of specific auditory signals and ends in
Audio media is an effective way of teaching if managed properly .It
includes tape recorders, mp3’s. IPods, radio, cassettes, audio CD’s.
Characteristics of Audio Media:
Mind Oral Aural Complete information should be Minimize the
vague concepts in provided. Students mind. Information should be
précised it helps in retaining interest of students can relate to the
Consider the audience information, real life examples Helps
students to create vivid Information should be clear image of the
concept. Stimulates students critical Knowledge should be concrete
thinking To Grab the attention of the Courtesy should be added
students correct information should be to build unbiased attitude in
DEMONSTRATION CHARACTERISTICS OF AUDIO MEDIA:
1- Clarity of voice 2 - Relevant to the topic 3- Clear pitch of the audio
4- Appropriate length 5- Appropriate language 6- Unbiased content
Research: In 1982, the international agency UNESCO declared,
“We must prepare young people for living in a world of images,
words and sounds.”
Media Resources Audio formats
Audio Tapes Advantages of Using Cassette Tapes 1.
Durable 2. Economical 3. Easy to use 4. Requires little
Audio Tapes Disadvantages of Using Cassette Tapes 1.
Prone to noise 2. Tape sometimes sticks or tangles 3.
Poor Frequency response and over-all quality vs. CD’s
Compact Discs Advantages of Using Compact Discs 1.
Random search 2. Very durable 3. No background noise
4. High fidelity
Compact Discs Disadvantages of Using Compact Discs
1. Initial expense of equipment 2. Impractical to prepare
locally 3. Sensitive to movements
MPEG/ WAVE MP3 (MPEG Audio Layer 3) audio
compression file format that makes large audio files
available by shrinking them into smaller files. It is an
“open” standards, which means it is available to anyone
who has access to the internet. It relies on sampling
frequencies, multiple channels and compression
MPEG/ WAVE Advantage of Using Wave File 1. High
quality of audio files 2. Use of multiple channels for the
MPEG/ WAVE Disadvantages of Using Wave File 1.
Confusion and complications among users 2. Very large
Audio Media Resources Application to education
1. Audio may be used by a teacher to bring into the classroom
sounds which are of significance to the learning process
2. Enhances learning of verbal information
3. Ideal for teaching foreign language. Audio resources allow
students to hear words pronounced by native speakers
4. Useful for those who have reading difficulties, or are
5. It can be used as mood music for some subjects like arts.
6. Audio is frequently used in rhythmic activities like dancing.
7. Related songs can be used as a motivation for a class
8. Animal voice audio can be used in teaching different animal
sounds to kindergarten students
9. Audio book may be used to assess students’ listening
10. Recorded audio of historical speeches and lines of
prominent people in the past can be used to create an
interesting atmosphere in Social Studies class.
11. Catchy tunes can help students memorize Math formula
12. Radio drama can be used as an activity to assess
students’ speech capability
Conclusion: AUDIO MEDIA CAN ONLY GIVE
EFFICIENTRESULTS IF THE ABOVE STATED
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