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visual literacy

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visual literacy

  1. 1. Educational Technology 1 Semi Final Joerigene Odette C. Neri Ms. Mercylene M. Briones S.Y June 2015
  2. 2. Visual Literacy: WHAT IS IT? Visual literacy is the ability to SEE, UNDERSTAND, THINK, CREATE, & COMMUNICATE GRAPHICALLY. (Thibault and Walbert, 2003) Anne Bamford (2003) states: Visual Literacy History - Visual literacy has emerged from a number of disciplines including Visual arts, Art History, Linguistics, Literacy, Philosophy, Psychology, Perceptual physiology, Sociology, Cultural studies Media studies, Instructional design, Semiotics, Communications studies, Educational technology. Visual Grammar - There is no visual dictionary because it would be unrealistic. Visual literacy is the successful combination of syntax (the organization of the image) and semantics (the symbolic meaning of the image). When It Starts - Beginning at 12 months of age, children can read graphically with some accuracy and by 3 years of age they can accurately read and produce graphics that are capable of abstraction and symbols. A. Visual Literacy
  3. 3. WHERE IS IT USED? Visual literacy is necessary to make sense of the images that are all around us. Of note, it is used in: Communication Interpreting Media, Illustrations, Semiotics, Manipulation, Visual Data, Process & Sequence and Spatial- Ability. Visualization From prehistoric times, man has desired to communicate. Before the development of language, man was able to convey a series of ideas and observations through the use of images and symbols. If you look at the Paleolithic cave paintings in France, which are estimated to be roughly 30,000 years old, you can see early forms of visual literacy. Paleolithic Cave Paintings: Chauvet Cave; Pont d’Arc, France; 28,000 B.C A VITAL SKILL “We live in an increasingly visual culture. We are surrounded by images everywhere in our lives - in newspapers and magazines, in advertising, on television, and on the Web. This makes the need for visual literacy and the ability to “read” images a vital skill. ” (Bamford, 2003; Henry, et al., 2010) Visual Literacy
  4. 4. INTERPRETING MEDIA "The image survives the subject and becomes the rememberedreality.”JohnSzarkowski“Awisemanoncesaidthatapictureiswortha 100words.Butwhenvisualsymbolsareusedinplaceofwordstoexpressanideaor evoke a feeling or a mood within us, it is necessary for the viewer to be able to understand the message. “Migrant Mother, Dorothea Lange, photograph, 1936 (Oring,2000) Visual Literacy
  5. 5. ILLUSTRATIONS Visual literacy can involve the ability to interpret visual representations of stories. Illustrations in a children’s picture book can provide wordless interpretations of the written story. Illustrations in picture books have the power to teach children how to read and make sense of the story. Ask, “What objects and people, do you see? What are they doing? Why are they there?”(Thibault, 2010) Visual Literacy
  6. 6. Visual Literacy • SEMIOTICS Visual literacy is seen in semiotics, which is the study of symbolic processes in which a visual image is combined with a meaning or is the carrier of a meaning. In this case, a Red Rose has the carrier meaning of ‘I Love You’, so the red rose becomes a symbol. (Kress, et al., 2001) MANIPULATION Often visual literacy is needed to understand manipulated images, which are seen in some forms of media. A visual pun is the use of symbolic imagery to suggest two or more meanings or different associations. (Rohrer, 2010) What is represented in this visual play on words?
  7. 7. Visual Literacy • ABSTRACTION Visual Literacy is sometimes needed to express or understand abstract visual representations of familiar concepts. Often seen in logo design, visual abstraction has many uses. Have you ever texted or emailed a colon next to a closing parentheses to visually express to someone that you were happy? This abstract representation of a face becomes a symbol. People don’t really look like this, but we all know what it means. • PROCESS & SEQUENCE Visual literacy is not just the ability to interpret an image in order to understand a story, a moment from the past, or a symbol. Visual literacy can involve the ability to understand a process or sequence, as seen here in the visual instructions for how to create an origami crane.
  8. 8. Visual Literacy • SPATIAL-ABILITY Visual literacy can involve the ability to understand a spatial concept, such as how 2D shape nets become 3D objects or how architectural design plans represent the proposed reality of construction. Spatial-ability involves the capacity to visualize how parts and sections become a whole. • VISUAL DATA Visual literacy can involve the ability to interpret visual representations of data. Remembering to be a critical consumer of information, Tufte (1991) encourages viewers to look for the Lie Factor within visual data, by checking that “the representation of numbers, as physically measured on the surface of the graphic itself, should be directly proportional to the quantities represented. “In this case, 22% (14) of the people in the image are shaded blue to create an abstract U.S. flag. 4 (rows) X 16 (columns) = 64 64 ÷ 22 = 14.08
  9. 9. Visual Literacy • VISUALIZATION “Most of the things we make begin with a mental picture. “This is true for planning a meal or organizing research, planning a vacation or a trip to the mall, and even visualizing the parts of a story to “jog your memory”. Visualization is used by almost everyone. And yes, some are a little more inclined than others, but it is something that we all do to a certain extent. (Preble & Preble, 2004) • IN THE CLASSROOM Visual literacy is vital to understanding the world around us. AS EDUCATORS, WE NEED TO teach individuals to be critical consumers and creators of information. (Diem, 2006) • IN THE CLASSROOM “Young people learn more than half of what they know from visual information, but few schools have an explicit curriculum to show students how to think critically about visual information.”- Mary Alice White (McKenzie, 1998)
  10. 10. Visual Literacy • DATA: The Periodic Table of Visualization Methods is a great tool to organize information for presentations or research. It helps focus the end goal of the data to ensure accurate interpretation, whether it is to solve a dilemma (dilemma diagram) or to show that something is greater than the sum of its parts (funnel). SPATIAL-ABILITY: The Math is Fun website provides great resources for exploring mathematical concepts. The information on solid geometry is very useful in that it provides 2D and 3D representations along with printable shape nets to allow for hands-on exploration.
  11. 11. Visual Literacy PICTURE WALKS: When learning to read or learning a new language, illustrations can be used to draw upon previous experiences and knowledge to help learners make sense of the book and textual language. Try it with Reading Picture Books or Analyze a Picture Book. • Goals of Visual Design: 1.Ensure legibility 2.Reduce effort 3.Increase active engagement • Things to consider when making Visual Design: 1.Elements (Visual elements, Verbal elements, Elements that add appeal) 2.Pattern (Alignment, Shape, Balance, Style, Color scheme, Color appeal) 3.Arrangement (Proximity, Directional, Figure-ground contrast)
  12. 12. SUMMARY Visual literacy relates closely to aspects within technology, communication, technical, and multicultural literacies in that it provides a visual language for interpreting and creating meaning from graphics and symbols. Visual + Technology = animation, graphic design, software Visual + Multicultural = symbols, gestures Visual + Communication = literature, advertising, media Visual + Technical = engineering, geometry
  13. 13. B. Non- Projected Visual STILL PICTURES are those which require no projection material or any electric power, are mostly composed of study prints, charts, posters, maps, flash cards, photographs, textbook illustrations, and illustrations found in magazines and newspapers. they are all much the same except that study prints are mounted and curriculum oriented. Still picture gives illusion of space Photographs are made by stereoscopic camera Observer receives the impression of reality. Two photographs being taken from slightly different angle which are enlarged and merged into one view. Uses of non-projected pictures • Educators, scholars, and students may use or display non projected images in connection with lectures or presentations in their fields. • Motivates the students • Presents matter symbolically • Presents abstract ideas in visual form • Creates problems and stimulates thinking The Guidelines to be Followed Relevance the direct relevance of an image to what is being read or heard is vital. Because sight is the most receptive sense for most people, an obscure or irrelevant image wild is tract from other messages being given. Further, to be useful and add to the learning context, an image used in teaching must relate to both the substance of the lecture and the needs of the students.
  14. 14. Non- Projected Visual The most valuable image will complement what is being said. For example, an image may be used to: • explain a technical term (or simply to spell it), • trigger the description of an example or short anecdote so that the lecturer may elaborate on a new idea, • obtain a response from the students (multiple- choice questions may be used, or a problem posed by a projected image), or • Link one argument with the next. An intelligent balance in tertiary teaching, a productive image will challenge the viewer to think because it will represent a balance between being easily understood and posing a question or problem which needs resolution. Images used in this way will not simply support a presentation but challenge the viewer to respond. Clarity Visual clarity assists interpretation. It is essential to the image and the message it represents. There are a number of ways to promote visual clarity:
  15. 15. Non- Projected Visual • Carefully select the image with its background. A white (or clear) background for a black image is not the most successful for projection because the bright light is tiring on the eyes. Either a yellow background for a black image or a dark blue background for a white or yellow image is preferable. • Consider the shape, size and spacing of letters. A bold, simple and lower case lettering style is most legible. • Omit distracting detail and include selective emphasis. Attention to these elements of clarity will make visual information more accessible. The corollary of this is that, when they are drawn clearly, the gradual revelation of details will facilitate an explanation and allow for a greater amount of visual information to be presented. • Simplicity of lay-out: It refers to the arrangement of the elements of the image. • Efficient use of colors: (i) Use bold illustrations, (ii) Avoid fancy lettering style, (iii) Proper use of color • Neatness: The graph should be neat, clean and artistic. It should be of good quality. • Accuracy: The scales and the measurement of the graph should be accurate and intelligible to the students. • Drawing and paper: The image should be properly drawn. The paper should be good. The pencil that is used should also be good. • Hints: The hints should be properly explained. The marks on the image should be such that the students may know them by themselves.
  16. 16. Non- Projected Visual Advantages of non-projected pictures • Do not need a power source and apparatus to make them seen either on the wall or screen. • They can be viewed straight as they are. • They are flexible. • They have visual appeal and are easy to move. • They can be carefully stored and preserved for use in the future. • They display specific information. • They can be used at all levels of learning. • Pictures can also maintain high level of interest in the lesson. • Numerous • Inexpensive • Readily accessible to the teacher • They have an educational value. • Easy to carry. Disadvantages of non-projected pictures: • It may become outdated. • They cannot present motion materials effectively as a result, their ability to engage all of our senses for a total learning experience is quite limited. • Copies may wear out when overused. Picture quality may diminish overtime. • They are difficult to revise and update if produced in a hardbound format. • Easy to damage. • Not interactive. • Not visible to all the students in the class. • Misinterpretation. • Takes up the time of the teacher if she has to prepare the materials. • Images lose their charm, if it contains too much matter on it. • Poor use of color combination, improper spacing and margins creates confusion in the minds of the students. • If used for a prolonged period it becomes boring for the students.
  17. 17. Non- Projected Visual What are their impact to the learner or learning process? • Students learn in a variety of different ways, some students need visual aids, some need to creatively stimulated, others need to be constantly entertained in order to keep them from falling asleep or disrupting the class. • Visuals or just one way out of many to meet the needs of all students. • Design developmentally appropriate learning opportunities that apply technology-enhanced instructional strategies to support the diverse needs of learners. • Reasoning can be developed through the use of images. Students might be asked to explain the sequence, patterns or logic in a series of images that relate to a particular process. • Skills of analysis and synthesis can be taught and developed using images. Students can be involved in the dissection and classification of diagrammatic information or assembling a series of seemingly unrelated images into meaningful information. • Cause-and-effect relationships can be seen more clearly when the information is presented visually. • Identification of sequence in processes or procedures and the recognition of errors can be taught with the assistance of well-drawn images. • Students can be asked to make judgments based on a series of given criteria when part of the information is presented visually. Aims to develop the power of observation, identification, quick comprehension and retention. To help students improve their ability to find and use information. Objectives: • To develop students’ reasoning and analysis skills and other higher order thinking skills. • To easily motivate the students for better learning. • To promote greater student participation.
  18. 18. Non- Projected Visual REALIA Realia refers to objects or items from real life, which are used in the classroom to illustrate and teach vocabulary or to serve as an aid to facilitate language acquisition and production. It concretizes vocabulary, language and places it in a frame of reference. It also allows language learners to see, hear, and in some cases touch the objects. To illustrate and teach young learners vocabulary use real objects for young learners, it's a very useful tool in making the abstract concrete. W h e n I g r o w u p. . . Choose the things that fit you, to dress up… Like your dream! Don’t be shy; at the end when you are ready… You are going to tell us what you are and WHY…Have Fun!!! I want to be a doctor. I want to be a teacher. I want to be a rock star. MODELS • Recognizable representation of a real thing three dimensionally • Height, width, depth is felt as reality TYPES OF MODELS • Solid Models • Cut-way and x-ray models • Working models • Sand models
  19. 19. Non- Projected Visual Display Formats Non-displayed m have to be pr Non-projected m have to be dis Non-projected m have to be dis Non-displayed m have to be pr Do you agree that these non-projected visuals make the students uninterested and pessimistic in the learning process? Audience Nature of your Visuals Communication / Instructional Setting Lesson / Communication Objective Availability of the Various Display Formats A DEBATE LAPTOP VS.VISUALS What are the general PURPOSES of BULLETIN BOARDS? Describe an EFFECTIVE BULLETIN BOARD. Generate a theme and adopt it as a headline. Wordings should be simple and according to viewer’s language. Gather or produce materials such as photos. Select a background material. Lines can be made from ribbon, yarn, string, wire, or paper strips. Letters can be freehand drawn from lettering guide, cut from construction paper. Appraise display from a technical standpoint.
  20. 20. C. Projected Visuals OVERHEAD PROJECTION Overhead projection is done using an overhead projector- a device like a box with a large stage on the top surface. Vital teaching aid, replaces chalk board, produces images behind and over the head of the teacher It consists metal box with 1000w bulb and a concave reflector vertical rod on the side of the box carries objective convex lens and mirror which can be slows up and down by using rock and pinion arrangement Size of the sheet is 25cm *25 cm ABOUT PROJECTOR the film strip projector consists of: Projection camp Concave reflector Condenser lenses Heat filter Air blower rotating film-strip carrier Projection lens Projection lamp it normally used in projection. It is a gas filled tubular lamp. Many projector manufactured today have a halogen lamp of quartz iodine lamp. The quartz iodine lamp gives out a very bright necessary for projection. 2. Concave Reflector it is placed behind the filament assembly. It is used to reflect back the light radiated from the back of the filament assembly. 3. Condenser lenses it condenses the light on the transparency. Heat filter it is kept in between the censer lenses this filter, which is made of special glass, absorbs the heat & projects the transparency from getting heated excessively. 5. Air Blower cooling in filmstrips using lower voltage lamp are by convection. In some protections it is by air cooler.6. Rotating film-strip carrier this consists of 2 wheels on which the film- strips are cooled. This rotating carrier is rotated manually. Modern projectors have remote control of automatic transport of filmstrips system. 7. Projection lens the projection lens used in projectors is a converging coated compound lens. All surfaces are coated with a film of magnesium fluoride to increase the percentage of transmitted light.
  21. 21. Projected Visuals CARE AND OPERATION OF THE PROJECTOR Handle it gently so as to prevent the damage of lamp tube & photoelectric cells. Protect the projector from shakes, jerks while transporting Never force apart for movement, as misalignment may result in poor operation Frequent and proper cleaning is necessary to assume a smooth operation and prevent damage to the film All projector use 110-120 volts A.C. use proper transformers to change 22o volts. Otherwise film may get burnt. Check all the cables and connections frequently and replace damage cables and plug. Always hold the film by edges and with slight tension. Do not trail the film on the floor or table as it may lead to scratches. Use carbon tetra chloride to clear films but never use it for color films. The lens and the two glass plates through with the filmstrip pass may be clean with a soft camel hairbrush. In the projector , lamp should not be switched on unless the blower is operating Switching order ON (1) Blower (2) lamp Switching order OFF (1) lamp (2) Blower STEPS IN USING OHP Put the plug into Move the objective power lens and Place the Explain the wall mirror up OHP on material on the socket and the table transparency switch down to facing to with a small on the get the screen pointer blower image on first and the screen lamp • Permits the teacher OHP is too costly pointing the material & writing by some type of observe the student on pen get blotted out on the same time plastic • It can be used in fairly lighted room • Materials projected can be changed quickly and easily • Operation of OHP is convenient • OHP can be used with other type of AV aids
  22. 22. Projected Visuals SLIDES The term slide refers to a small-format photographic transparency individually mounted for one-at-time projection. Teacher – and Student- Produced Slides a major advantage of slides as an instructional medium is the ease with which both teachers and students can produce them. Producing “Slide Shows” by Digital Photography Digital cameras have quickly found a place in the computer realm. They are widely use to capture images for incorporation into documents produced by presentation software or desktop publishing. Producing Slides by Copying Visuals You can take close-ups using macro portion of the range, allowing you to copy flat visuals such as maps, charts, etc. Producing Slides with Computers. Computers now offer capability of generating graphic images that can become slides. FILMSTRIPS A filmstrip is one of the projective audio visual that a fixed sequence related still on a roll of 35 mm film. The filmstrip can be projected backside of the map as convenience of the teaching situation demand. A large number of subjects come within the range of filmstrips. The teacher only needs to tap the right type of strip for his teaching purpose. DEFINITION Filmstrip is a continuous strip of 35 mm or 16mm or 8mm film consisting of individual frames or pictures arranged in sequence, usually with exploratory titles. PREPARATION OF FILM STRIPS Filmstrips can be prepared either by employing photographic methods or by drawing picture by hand on the film itself. The steps in preparation are Select a suitable topic from the syllabus after considering the possibilities of depicting the subject matter by drawing photographs. Prepare a detail script describing the contents of each frame indicating the method of preparing it. I.e. whether by at work or by photograph. Make rough sketches of the figure on the paper so as to serve as guide when final sketches are drawn Draw the sketches in suitable size Arrange the drawings $ enlarged photographs the material in correct sequence thus arranged using 36mm film camera & prepare negative. Prepare the guidebook, which is to follow the filmstrips explaining the details of each frame.
  23. 23. Projected Visuals METHODS OF USING FILMSTRIPS:- A common manually operated film-strip protector is used in following steps. 1. Place the film-strip projector on a rigid & stable table. 2. Place the screen at an appropriate place so that the whole class can see it. 3. Insert the film – strip on its carrier in its place behind the object lens tube after opening the tube. 4. Mount a film strip on its carrier 5. Insert the projector card plug into the wall socket. Darken the room in which projection is to be carried out. 7. Switch the cooling fan first & than the projection bulb. 8. Focus the image on the screen sharply by moving or objective lens forward & backward. 9. Show the slide, explain your subject matter with its aid. 10. Move the film-strip to get the next frame 11. Present the frames sequentially. 12. After the lesson, switch off the bulb first then the cooling fan unplug the film-stripe projector store it back in its box. WHERE FILM STRIP CAN BE PROJECTED Film strip can be projected on the Screen Wall Paper screen back side the map etc… ABOUT SCREEN Projection screen are the based on which light from the projectors is incident and the image is formed. there are 2 types of projections. Front projection Rear projection In front projection, the projector and audience are on the same side of the screen. In rear projection, the audience and the projector are separated by translucent projection screen. TYPE OF SCREEN Matte screen: This screen is ideal for indoor & outdoors. The screen surface when it gets dirty can be washed using soap and with sponge. Beaded screen: On the surface of write plastic base tiny glass beads of diameter about 0.1 mm are spread. The intrinsic brightness of image formed on beaded screen is very high. Processed metallic surface screens: There are special screen of wide viewing angle, with corrugated surface and coated with phosphorescent substances. A beaded screen, of either per table type or fixed is ideal. But for general purpose and use in indoors and outdoors, mettle screen may be preferred.
  24. 24. Projected Visuals EQUIPMENT TIP The projection equipment should be placed parallel to the screen to prevent “key stoning” (a projected image that is trapezoidal rather than rectangular) Correction for key stoning, To maintain a parallel relationship between the projection equipment and the screen, may require moving the projector or the projection lens or moving or trying back the bottom of the screen. A screen placed in the corner of the classroom allows for simultaneous use of it. To lessen the amount of ambient light that reaches the screen and reduces images Place the screen in front of windows that have the greatest linkage. PRECAUTION WHILE USING FILM –STRIP The Film strip, because of its fixed sequence, is not as flexible for individual stills as the slides, which can be in any order. The film strip is a “skill” medium .It cannot portray effectively and is not intended to do so. The film strip is easily damaged and is not easy to repair. For presenting film strips in the class room teacher need to analyses the significance of the use of strip for educational purpose. Determine the lessons that could be effectively illustrated with a strip. Preview film strip before using them. Show again any part of the film strips needing move specific study. Use film strip to stimulate emotions built attitude and to point out us problem. Use a pointer to direct attention to specific details on screen. AVAILABILITY Many useful filmstrips are available in:- The state department of education Public museum City libraries Municipal Education Department A wonderful inspiring as well as informative series of 20 film –strip entitled “Bring India to your class –room” has been recently by the Al Mervyns studio Bombay. A Number of film strip are available &the central film library, government of India, New Delhi. (i) Current affairs – The united nation at work (ii) History – Clive; making of modern Germany (iii) Civics –citizenship (iv) Geography – Switzerland; Japan – life and Industries. (v) Physics –Atomic energy. (vi) Hygiene – Nutrition; care of teeth. (vii) Chemistry –Iron and steel; Sulphur and it’s compounds. ADVANTAGE It is an economical visual materials It is easy to make and convenient to handle and carry. Takes up little space and can be easily stored. Provides a logical sequence to the teaching procedure and the individual picture on the strip can be kept before the student for a length of time. Film –strip can be projected on the screen or wall or paper screen as the convenience and the teaching situation demands. It is available both in color & blank & white. Good to use – afterward, have a discussion to see whether people have understood the subject. DISADVANTAGES its frame connect be remove or substitute .It this becomes necessary them the strip can be cut into slides & mounted. USES OF FILM-STRIP ON A.V.AIDS Use of motion –picture films The films strip can be shown at the speed that appears desirable. The entire class can discuss the pictures as they are shown It much less cost & with far greater flexibility.
  25. 25. Projected Visuals Opaque Projection If overhead projection uses transparent materials, opaque projection uses nontransparent ones on a screen. built of large black Consists two mirrors at top & bottom; 1000w bulb principle Light rays passes through the first mirror, then to the object, light rays from the illuminated picture then focuses to the second mirror, then it is projected to screen by using a convex lens operation: handle beneath the epidiascope is lowered then the picture want to project is placed on the plate and handle is fixed again, then switch on light Helps in retention it is easily of material breakable Attract attention it should be Arouse interest planned in among the student sequence Tests students interesting Advantages: 1. There is no need to produce transparencies since the materials are the ones projected. 2. This allows group viewing of students’ works. 3. There is a wide variety of materials to be projected, including three-dimensional materials. Limitations: 1. The projector cannot effectively operate unless the room is completely darkened. 2. The opaque projector is heavy 3. Some parts of the projector are unsafe to touch due to the heat generated by the lamp.
  26. 26. D. Audio Media Audio media are sounds transmitted, purchased or received through high fidelity waves which are heard through audio equipment. Audio media are used in connection with speech rehearsals, drama, poetry, animal and nature sounds, student presentations, or live radio broadcasts. Audio is a sound that lies within the range of sensitivity of the human ear. It has a frequency of approximately 20- 20 000 hertz. Types of Media Video: - Digital (CD, DVD), VHS, Streaming Audio: - MP3s, Cassettes, CDs Text: - Web pages, Text books, Handouts Visuals: - Pictures, Diagrams, Simple Animations Advantages of Audio Media: Useful to add, maintain and stimulate interest Can be used as a set induction strategy Can clarify problems and ambiguity Can aid memory Can be use in stimulating emotions Useful in distant learning Helpful in stimulating creative thinking, increase imagination Helpful in learning languages Limitation of Audio Media: Extra resources are needed Audio media could be costly Power failure issues can disturb the learning environment Strong lesson planning is to be done Trained teachers are needed who can manage it effectively
  27. 27. Audio Media Physical Properties of Audio: 1.Loudness -physiological sensation sensed in the brain 2. Pitch -subjective impression about the frequency of sound 3. Duration Hearing vs Listening Hearing is a physiological process in which sound waves entering the outer ear is transmitted to the eardrum, converted in the middle ear, and changed in the inner ear into electrical impulses to the brain. Hearing vs listening: Listening on the other hand, is a psychological process that begins with receiving the sound, then, identification and recognition of specific auditory signals and ends in comprehension. Audio media is an effective way of teaching if managed properly .It includes tape recorders, mp3’s. IPods, radio, cassettes, audio CD’s. Audio conferencing Characteristics of Audio Media: Mind Oral Aural Complete information should be Minimize the vague concepts in provided. Students mind. Information should be précised it helps in retaining interest of students can relate to the Consider the audience information, real life examples Helps students to create vivid Information should be clear image of the concept. Stimulates students critical Knowledge should be concrete thinking To Grab the attention of the Courtesy should be added students correct information should be to build unbiased attitude in provided students DEMONSTRATION CHARACTERISTICS OF AUDIO MEDIA: 1- Clarity of voice 2 - Relevant to the topic 3- Clear pitch of the audio 4- Appropriate length 5- Appropriate language 6- Unbiased content Research: In 1982, the international agency UNESCO declared, “We must prepare young people for living in a world of images, words and sounds.”
  28. 28. Audio Media Media Resources Audio formats Audio Tapes Advantages of Using Cassette Tapes 1. Durable 2. Economical 3. Easy to use 4. Requires little storage space Audio Tapes Disadvantages of Using Cassette Tapes 1. Prone to noise 2. Tape sometimes sticks or tangles 3. Poor Frequency response and over-all quality vs. CD’s Compact Discs Advantages of Using Compact Discs 1. Random search 2. Very durable 3. No background noise 4. High fidelity Compact Discs Disadvantages of Using Compact Discs 1. Initial expense of equipment 2. Impractical to prepare locally 3. Sensitive to movements MPEG/ WAVE MP3 (MPEG Audio Layer 3) audio compression file format that makes large audio files available by shrinking them into smaller files. It is an “open” standards, which means it is available to anyone who has access to the internet. It relies on sampling frequencies, multiple channels and compression algorithms. MPEG/ WAVE Advantage of Using Wave File 1. High quality of audio files 2. Use of multiple channels for the sound MPEG/ WAVE Disadvantages of Using Wave File 1. Confusion and complications among users 2. Very large files
  29. 29. Audio Media Audio Media Resources Application to education 1. Audio may be used by a teacher to bring into the classroom sounds which are of significance to the learning process 2. Enhances learning of verbal information 3. Ideal for teaching foreign language. Audio resources allow students to hear words pronounced by native speakers 4. Useful for those who have reading difficulties, or are nonreaders Application 5. It can be used as mood music for some subjects like arts. 6. Audio is frequently used in rhythmic activities like dancing. 7. Related songs can be used as a motivation for a class discussion 8. Animal voice audio can be used in teaching different animal sounds to kindergarten students Application 9. Audio book may be used to assess students’ listening comprehension 10. Recorded audio of historical speeches and lines of prominent people in the past can be used to create an interesting atmosphere in Social Studies class. 11. Catchy tunes can help students memorize Math formula 12. Radio drama can be used as an activity to assess students’ speech capability Conclusion: AUDIO MEDIA CAN ONLY GIVE EFFICIENTRESULTS IF THE ABOVE STATED WEAKNESSESARE CONTROLLED.
  30. 30. References: Visual Literacy Bamford, A., (2003). The visual literacy white paper. Adobe Systems Incorporated: Tools for the new work. Retrieved from http://www.adobe.com/uk/education/pdf/adobe_visual_literacy_paper.pdf Diem, R., (2006). A positive or negative force for democracy: The technology instructional paradox. International Journal of Social Education, 21, 148-154. Henry, B., et al., (2010). Picture this: California’s perspectives on American history. Oakland Museum of California. Retrieved from http://museumca.org/picturethis/index.html Kress, G., Jewitt, C., Ogborn, J., & Tsatsarelis, C. (2001). Multimodal teaching and learning: The rhetoric’s of the science classroom. London: Continuum. Oring, S. (2000). A call for visual literacy. School Arts, April, 58-59. Preble, D., & Preble, S. (2004). Art forms. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Rohrer, K., (2010). Incredible art lessons. Incredible art Department. Retrieved from http://www.princetonol.com/groups/iad/lessons/high/puns.htm Shlain, L. (2005). Visually speaking. Edutopia, October. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/visually-speaking Thibault, M., (2010). Learn NC. Reading picture books. Retrieved from http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/669 Thibault, M., & Walbert, D. (2003). Learn NC. Reading images: An introduction to visual literacy. Retrieved from http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/675 Tufte, E., (1991). The visual display of quantitative information. Graphics Press: USA. Hewitt, Paul. Conceptual Physics. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Inc., 1997.Smaldino, Sharon et al. Instructional Technology and Media for Learning. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson/Merill Prentice Hall, 2005. “Audio” http://searchciomidmarket.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid183_gci211617,00.html “Audio Equipment”. www.wikipedia.com Bullough,. Creating Instructional Materials. 1988

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