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  1. 1. From the Unborn Child UNIT 2 Live and Let Live
  2. 2. Learning Objectives: At the end of the lesson, the students are able to: • discuss the pros and cons of abortion • compare and contrast two text types that share the same theme • examine the relationship between text and context
  3. 3. What is abortion? 01 02 03 04 05 06
  4. 4. 01 02 03 04 05 06 Abortion • known as a termination of pregnancy. • is the removal of pregnancy tissue, products of conception or the fetus and placenta from the uterus.
  5. 5. 01 02 03 04 05 06 The reasons for having an abortion vary, but a woman might choose this option if:  Not being financially prepared  Bad timing  Partner-related issues  The desire to focus on other children  Concern that the pregnancy would interfere with future opportunities
  6. 6. 01 02 03 04 05 06  Not being emotionally prepared  Health-related reasons  Believing the baby deserved a better life  Not being independent or mature enough  Influences from family or friends  Victims of sexual assault  Not wanting to place the baby for adoption
  7. 7. 01 02 03 04 05 06
  8. 8. 01 02 03 04 05 06 In the Philippines…  Abortion is illegal under all circumstances and is thus highly stigmatized.  Abortion is common, but is often performed in unsanitary conditions.
  9. 9. 01 02 03 04 05 06  An estimate a rate of 27 abortions per 1,000 women of reproductive age in 2000, with lower and upper estimates of 22 and 31 abortions per 1,000 women.  This rate was considerably higher than a more recent estimate of the unsafe abortion rate in Southeastern Asia as a whole (22 abortions per 1,000 women)
  10. 10. 01 02 03 04 05 06  Poor women, rural women and young women are particularly likely to experience unintended pregnancy and to seek abortion under unsafe conditions  The most common reason given by women for having abortion: * 3 out of 4 women not able to afford the cost of raising a child *1/3 felt that their pregnancy would endanger their health
  11. 11. 01 02 03 04 05 06 *1/3 believed that their partner did not want to support their pregnancy. *13% of women who had had an abortion were victims of sexual assault *46% of women younger than 25, who had had an abortion wanted to avoid interrupting their schooling, had problems with their partner or considered themselves too young to have a baby.
  12. 12. 01 02 03 04 05 06  In 2008,an estimated 1,000 maternal deaths in the Philippines were attributable to abortion complications.  The country’s maternal mortality ratio increased from 161 to 221 deaths per 100,000 live births between 2006 and 2011.  Tens of thousands of Filipino women are hospitalized each year as a result of complications from unsafe abortion.
  13. 13. 01 02 03 04 05 06  A rate of 4.5 individuals per 1,000 women, and countless others have complications but do not receive treatment.  560,000 abortions occurred in 2008 and 610,000 abortions in 2012.
  14. 14. A Prayer from the Womb by Saju Abraham 01 02 03 04 05 06
  15. 15. Vocabulary 1. Tear (verb)-to separate parts of or pull apart by force. (Merriam-Webster, Dictionary ,2022) Example: I saw my sister tear up the letter. 2. Midst (noun)- a period of time about the middle of a continuing act or condition. (Merriam-Webster, Dictionary ,2022) Example: The region is currently in the midst of a terrible drought.
  16. 16. Vocabulary 3. Vocal cords (Noun)- One of two small bands of muscle within the larynx that vibrates to produce the voice. (National Cancer Institute,2022) Example: She wanted to scream, but her vocal cords were paralyzed. 4. System (Noun) a group of interacting bodies under the influence of related forces. (Merriam-Webster, Dictionary ,2022) Example: It's time for us to change the system.
  17. 17. Vocabulary 5. Womb (noun)-uterus. (Merriam-Webster, Dictionary ,2022) Example: Researchers are looking at how a mother's health can affect the baby in the womb.
  18. 18. About the Author Saju Abraham • is a lecturer in English at Sohar University, Oman. • He was born in India and became a missionary at the age of 15. It is during this time that he developed his poetry – writing skills. • He quit the missionary life and eventually left India to word under the under the Ministry of Education in Oman.
  19. 19. 01 02 03 04 05 06 A Prayer from the Womb by Saju Abraham Why did you tear me off you, When you knew I’d die without you? I promised you peaceful sleep, But you wouldn't hear me. You were in the midst of planning your future. I promised I wouldn't pull at your gown. Nor tear my vocal cords when I'm hungry, But still you didn't let me be. I promised I would behave when your friends visit, And when you're on the phone or in the kitchen. But you still threw me out of your system. Why mama, why? Am I so unagreeable? I don't keep it against you mama. I know that now you know 7 8 7 5 11 9 10 7 12 11 10 12 9 6
  20. 20. A Letter from an Unborn Baby 01 02 03 04 05 06
  21. 21. 01 02 03 04 05 06 Vocabulary 1.Despair (noun)-to lose all hope or confidence(Merriam- Webster, Dictionary ,2022) Example: She uttered a wordless cry of despair. 2. Restless (adjectives)- continuously moving(Merriam- Webster, Dictionary ,2022) Example: The children always get restless on long trips.
  22. 22. 01 02 03 04 05 06 Vocabulary 3.Defend (verb)-to protect someone or something against attack or critics (Cambridge University Press 2022) Example: I have a right to defend myself. 4.Fateful (adjective)-having an important and usually negative effect on the future (Cambridge University Press 2022) Example: He gave a detailed account of what happened on the fateful night.
  23. 23. 01 02 03 04 05 06 Vocabulary 5. Retreat (noun)- an act or process of withdrawing especially from what is difficult,dangerous, or disagreeable. (Merriam-Webster, Dictionary ,2022) Example: The army was forced to retreat after suffering heavy losses. 6.Unborn (adjective)-not born: not brought into life. (Merriam- Webster, Dictionary ,2022) Example: I believe life begins at conception and therefore unborn babies have rights.
  24. 24. 01 02 03 04 05 06 About the text The following text is retrieved from the Pregnancy Crisis Service organization in Singapore. The text was originally meant as an advertisement and was modified to remove contact details. Disclaimer: The following is a hypothetical letter from the perspective of an unborn child.
  25. 25. 01 02 03 04 05 06 A Letter from an Unborn Baby Hi Mom! How are you? I am doing just fine, thanks. Only a few days have gone by since I was conceived and I am now growing in your tummy. To tell you the truth, I can't explain how happy I am to know that you are my mom. It also makes me proud to know that I was conceived out of love. I'm sure I am going to be the happiest baby alive.
  26. 26. 01 02 03 04 05 06 Mommy, a month has gone past and I have started to notice how my body is forming. I know I am not much to look at now but just wait and see-I'll make you so proud! Even though I am feeling happy, I sense that something is wrong! You seem to be having strange thoughts that leave me restless and worried; but I am sure everything is going to be okay! Don't despair!
  27. 27. 01 02 03 04 05 06 Two and a half months have gone by, Mom, I now have hands that I can use to play with. Oh, I am so happy! Mommy, please tell me what's wrong? Why are you crying so much lately? Why do you and Dad argue every time you meet up with one another? Don't you guys want me anymore? I'm going to do everything I can to make you want me....
  28. 28. 01 02 03 04 05 06 Three months have now passed, Mom, but you still seem to be so sad. I am not sure what is going on... I am so confused. Today we went to see the doctor and he booked an appointment for you tomorrow. I don't understand why I am feeling so good and you aren't, Mom!
  29. 29. 01 02 03 04 05 06 Mommy, where are we going? What's happening? Mommy, this is not normally the time that you take your afternoon nap; don't lie down. Besides, I am not tired! I still want to play! Uh!!! What is this thing doing inside of my house?! Is it a new toy? Hey! It's sucking up my house...
  30. 30. 01 02 03 04 05 06 Please... don't tug at me! No... don't hit me! You're hurting me! Can't you see that I am still small?! I can't defend myself! Mommy!!! Stop them-that's my hand!!! Mommy, my leg... they are ripping it out!!! Defend me, Mom!!! Help me, Mom!!! Tell them to stop, I promise I'll stop kicking them if they do. How is it possible that someone can be doing this to me? Oh, Mommy, I can't go on anymore... h-he...lp me....
  31. 31. 01 02 03 04 05 06 Seventeen years have gone by since you made that fateful decision. Now you still suffer over the very thought of it. Please don't cry... I know you are still hurting, but you are not alone. Mommy, if you are still sad, you can try getting away from all the daily pressures of work and family and joining a spiritual retreat to focus on the hurt you are feeling.
  32. 32. 01 02 03 04 05 06 In that retreat, you can come to terms with your decision to let me go, and find forgiveness and peace of mind. Love you lots, Your baby
  33. 33. Summary 01 02 03 04 05 06
  34. 34. 01 02 03 04 05 06 A Prayer from the Womb A letter from an Unborn Baby Form Poetic prayer Letter Persona Fetus (straightforward and confrontational) Fetus (gentle and loving) Orientation Focuses on promises to avoid being a source of distress to the mother in child rearing Process-oriented- fetus narrates what is happening to him/her in the step-by- step process of abortion. Tone Accusative and directed (formal tone) Conversational and not only addresses the mother but also makes references about the process of abortion
  35. 35. 01 02 03 04 05 06 A Prayer from the Womb A letter from an Unborn Baby Literary devices used Parallel construction Shifts from present to past and from statements to question Words use by the speakers to refer to their mother Mama Mom and Mommy Message A plea to let live A plea to let live
  36. 36. 01 02 03 04 05 06 References: Hussain, R and Finer, L.B. (2013). Unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion in the Philippines: context and consequences, In Brief, New York: Guttmacher Institute, 2013, No. 3. < philippines.pdf> Taylor, M.L.G., Alonzo, R., & Flores, E.R. (2017).21st Century Literature from the Philippines and the World for Senior High School. C&E Publishing, Inc. 839 EDSA, South Triangle, Quezon City.

Notas del editor

  • Good morning/afternoon class. This lesson delves into an issue which feeds debates between people from around the world: abortion. The featured literary text A. In the Womb and B. A Letter from an Unborn Baby present the perspective of unborn children, the most important figures in this issue who, ironically, can’t have any say non the topic. The selections are then discussed in relation to each other.
  • Let's define the word abortion. For you class how would define the world abortion?
  • So these are the reasons why women engage in abortion.
  • For example , fetal anomalies, abnormalities, congenital disorders or birth defects) may cause chronic illness, serious disability or even stillbirth or neonatal death. Some rare pregnancy complications can also pose a threat to a mother’s life or health if she continues the pregnancy.
    In countries like Brazil and Argentina, women who were victims of sexual assult were allowed to abort their babies.
  • Let’s take a look the map of the world. The countries in red are the countries that abortion is prohibited altogether. For example countries , the philippines, Madacascar, E lsalvadar, Domican Republic.
    The countries in red orange are countries legalized abortion To save the Woman’s life for example, Afghanistan, Bangladesh , Bhutan
    The countries in orange legalized abortion to preserve health for example, The Bahamas, Belize, South Korea.
    For broad social or economic grounds highlighted in yellow. Countries like Japan, India, Ethiopia
    Countries allowing abortion on broad social or economic grounds have laws that are generally interpreted liberally to permit abortion under a broad range of circumstances. These countries often take into account a woman or girl’s actual or reasonably foreseeable environment and her social or economic circumstances in considering the potential impact of pregnancy and childbearing.
    Countries in blue practice Gestational limits prescribe the point within pregnancy when a termination is permissible. Such limits often vary depending on the legal framework, including the circumstances under which abortion is allowed. Countries like the USA, Canada, New Zealand.
  • Abortion is illegal in the Philippines. The criminal provisions on abortion do not contain any exceptions allowing abortion, including to save the life of the pregnant woman or to protect her health.
    Abortion was criminalized through the Penal Code of 1870 under Spanish colonial rule, and the criminal provisions were incorporated into the Revised Penal Code passed in 1930 under U.S. occupation of the Philippines.
    Physicians and midwives who perform abortions in the Philippines with the consent of a pregnant woman may face up to six years in prison under the Revised Penal Code.
    Women who undergo abortion for any reason may be punished by imprisonment for two to six years.
    Because of the lack of access to safe abortion, Filipino women with life threatening pregnancies have no choice but to risk their lives, either through unsafe abortion or through continuation of high-risk pregnancies
  • As a result of the criminal abortion law and the discriminatory environment in the Philippines, women are left without a means to control their fertility, exposed to unsafe abortions, and made vulnerable to abuse in the health system
  • Open your book in page 212.
  • What is the form of the literary text?
    In what tense is the poem written?
    Past tense
    What are the promises of the fetus to the mother?
    The promise of the fetus to the mother is not to disturb or be a bother the mother. He/she will behave all the time.
    I promised you peaceful sleep,
    I promised I wouldn't pull at your gown. Nor tear my vocal cords when I'm hungry, I promised I would behave when your friends visit,
    And when you're on the phone or in the kitchen
    Point of view:
    First person point of view

    The fetus that was aborted and the person addressed is the mother. The persona is serious, straight-forward, and confrontational; he/she demands to know why his/her promises not to be source of distress to his/her mother were ignored.
    The poem focuses on promise to avoid being a source of distress to the mother in child rearing.
    Does the mother listen to the promises of fetus?
    No, because the mother still aborts the fetus.
    What is the tone of the poem?
    The prayer is accusative and directed only to the mother hence its formal tone.
    The poem used a parallel construction.
    I promised you peaceful sleep,
    But you wouldn't hear me.
    I promised I wouldn't pull at your gown. Nor tear my vocal cords when I'm hungry
    But still you didn't let me be. I promised I would behave when your friends visit, And when you're on the phone or in the kitchen. But you still threw me out of your system.
  • Open your book in pages 213-214.
  • How does life begin?
    Life begins at fertilization. Fertilization refers to the meeting of the female sex cell and male sex cell.
    The fetus/unborn baby tells his/her mom that he/she is happy.
  • The unborn baby noticed how his/her body is forming. During the 5 weeks of pregnancy or 1 month. A primitive face takes form with large dark circles for eyes. The mouth, lower jaw, and throat are developing. Blood cells are taking shape, and circulation will begin. By the end of the first month of pregnancy, the baby is around 6-7mm (1/4 inch) long - about the size of a grain of rice. The unbon baby sense that something wrong with his/her mother.
    Let’s continue.
  • During the two and half months the fetus develops a tiny buds that eventually grow into arms and legs are forming. Fingers, toes, and eyes are also forming in the second month of pregnancy. The neural tube (brain, spinal cord, and other neural tissue of the central nervous system) is well formed. The digestive tract and sensory organs begin to develop.
    In this case the unborn baby has now hands . He/She also asked his/her mom why she is crying lately and asked why her/his mom and dad argue every time they meet up.
    What do you think his/her mom and dad are arguing ?
  • Three months have now passed, but still the unborn baby noticed that still his/her mom seems to be sad. The unborn baby is not sure of what is going on. In others words he/she is confused. The unborn baby also narrates that today he/her mom went to see a doctor and book an appointment.
  • In this part, the unborn baby is unaware of what is happening.
    What do you think happened to the unborn baby?
  • In this section, the unborn baby is begging and at the same time asking for help because he/she can not defend herself/himself.
  • In this part , there is a shift from the past and present. The unborn baby narrates that even though 17 years have gone since his/her mom committed that fateful decision, but his/her mother still grieving and suffering. The unborn baby advices his/her mom to unwind and meditate