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Musical instruments

Musical Instruments

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Musical instruments

  1. 1. • Anything set up to create sound vibration can become a musical instrument. • Of all the instruments, the “human voice” is the oldest and most popular. The voice as a medium of musical expression is so intimate, personal and direct. • It is the most ideal exponent of lyric melody and has been the model of instrumentalist in expressing musical impulses.
  2. 2. Musical Instruments are divided into 4 families: • String • Woodwind • Brass • Percussion
  3. 3. String Instruments
  4. 4. • The stringed section includes the violin, viola, cello, guitar, and double bass. • These instruments have four strings which are played by means of a “bow”. They can also be played by plucking called “pizzicato”.
  5. 5. • Is a plucked (pizzicato) instrument, with a flat black and inward curving sides somewhat six strings and is said to be of oriental origin. Revival of interest in guitar music was done by the Spanish GUITAR
  6. 6. VIOLIN • Has an extremely wide range, admired for its singing tone which is the instrument closest to the human voice. The greatest violin maker was Antonio Stradivari an Italian of origin.
  7. 7. VIOLA • Is bigger than a violin. Its strings are longer, thicker and heavier and is lower in range. It is an ideal instrument to express mournful and passionate nature and situation.
  8. 8. CELLO (VIOLONCELLO) • Is popularly known as “cello”. It has lower range than the viola, notable for its lyric quality and dark resonance in the lower range. In the orchestra, the cellos can perform functions similar to the violins and violas.
  9. 9. DOUBLE BASS • Is so large that it is played standing. It has the lowest range in the string section. It plays the bass part, the foundation of the harmony.
  10. 10. Woodwind Instruments
  11. 11. • The woodwind of the orchestra consists of members of four different families: • Piccolo • Flute • Oboe • Clarinet (an English Horn) • The tone of the woodwind instrument is produced by a column of air vibrating within a pipe that has little holes at the sides.
  12. 12. PICCOLO • Means “little flute”. It has a piercing tone that produces the highest note in the orchestra. The tone is shrill in the upper register that sounds like a birdcall.
  13. 13. FLUTE • It is the orchestra soprano of the woodwind choir. It is one of the oldest instruments. Its tone color ranges from the poetic to the brilliant, cool and velvety in the lower register and smooth in the middle.
  14. 14. OBOE • Is made up of wood; the double reed in the mouthpiece consists of two slips of cane so shaped as to leave between them a small passage for air. This instrument is associated with pastoral scenes and nostalgic melodies. It sounds mysterious
  15. 15. CLARINET • Is a single reed instrument. The tone is beautiful, clear and powerful in the higher register, relax in the middle and cool and almost expectral in the low register. This is considered the alto of the woodwind family.
  16. 16. BASS CLARINET • It has a rich, flexible, wide and dynamic tone, making it an invaluable member of an orchestra. The range is one octave lower than that of the clarinet.
  17. 17. THE BASSOON • It has a heavy, thick tone in the low register, dry and sonorous in the middle, reedy, intense and somewhat funny in the upper register. It is called the “clown of the orchestra”.
  18. 18. THE CONTRABASSOON • Also known as the “double bassoon” , produces the lowest tone in the orchestra. In the woodwind section it is compared to the double bass among the strings and that it supplies the foundation for the harmony of the
  19. 19. ENGLISH HORN • It has a heavy, thick tone in the low register, dry and sonorous in the middle, reedy, intense and somewhat funny in the upper register. It is called the “clown of the orchestra”.
  20. 20. Brass Instruments
  21. 21. • The brass family consists of the trumpet, cornet, trombone, horn and tuba. • This section can be utilized in playing melodies, sustaining harmony, rhythmic accent for massed tone and sonority that contributes to the climax of the music. • These instruments have cup-shaped mouthpieces, except for the French horn, whose mouthpiece is shaped like a funnel.
  22. 22. TRUMPET • It is associated with martial music. The tone is firm, brilliant that gives radiance to the orchestral mass.
  23. 23. TROMBONE • It is an Italian word which means “large trumpet”. It has its sonorous tone that combines the brilliance of the trumpet and the majesty of the horn. 2 types:
  24. 24. HORN • It is generally called “French Horn”, has 4 valves played by the left hand instead of the right hand like the trumpet and cornet. This instrument was first developed by the French kings for elaborate hunting calls.
  25. 25. TUBA • It is the bass of the brass choir. It furnishes the harmonic foundation of the section. It is made of metal and has three valves, but some tube has a fourth valve thus expanding the range of the instrument.
  26. 26. CORNET • It is very similar to the trumpet. It has 3 valves, the same cup- shaped mouthpiece, but partly cylindrical and partly conical in bore; the tone is more mellow, less piercing and shorter in length than the trumpet.
  27. 27. Percussion Instruments
  28. 28. • The term percuss means, “to strike” so that all instruments whose manner of playing is either by striking, plucking, or strumming, directly or indirectly, fall under the Percussion section. • The percussion of the orchestra is divided into two: a. Percussion with definite pitch b. Percussion without definite pitch
  29. 29. Percussion with definite pitch
  30. 30. TIMPANI • (Kettle drum) are used in sets of two, four or six drums. It is a hemisphere copper shell across which is stretched head of calfskin held by a metal ring. It is played with two padded sticks which may be either soft or hard.
  31. 31. XYLOPHONE • Is consists of tuned blocks of wood which produce a dry crisp timbre when struck. It is frequently used in primitive cultures particularly in Africa.
  32. 32. CELESTA • It resembles a small upright piano. It is operated by a keyboard, the steel plates when struck by a small hammer produces an ethereal sound. It is best adapted to light and graceful effects.
  33. 33. PIANOFORTE • Popularly known as “piano”. It is the most popular instrument used in the home as well as in the concert stage. Its strings, inside the body of the piano, are struck with little hammers controlled by a keyboard
  34. 34. HARP • It is said to be the oldest musical instruments. It was the traditional instrument of the bands of the ancient Britain and Ireland. Its strings are played by plucking and produce a crystalline tone that blends well with the
  35. 35. CHIMES • Are bell-like sounds. It is a set of metal tubes, suspended from a metal frame, chromatically tuned and struck with a wooden hammer. They are employed to produce the effect of church bells, hence the alternative name
  36. 36. Percussion without definite pitch
  37. 37. SNARE DRUM • Also known as “side drum”. It is a small drum with two heads stretched over a shell of metal. The upper head, which is struck by the player with his two drumsticks is called batterhead. The lower is called the snare-head which is equipped with
  38. 38. CASTANETS • Consist of cup- shaped wooden clappers clicked rhythmically together by Spanish dancers to whose hands they are attached. In orchestral use, they are mounted in a handle which is shaken.
  39. 39. BASS DRUM • With its Italian name a “gran cassa”. A large drum which varies in size both in depth and diameter, the heads are thicker and the tension is much less than with smaller drums, which produces a deep sonorous sound like that of a cannon.
  40. 40. CYMBALS • It is consist of two large circular brass plates of equal size, made slightly convex so that only the edges will touch together. They are struck together with a sliding motion to create a crashing sound.
  41. 41. GONGS • Also called “tam-tam” of Chinese origin. A broad circular disc of metal slightly convex with the edges turned giving it the appearance of a shallow plate with low vertical sides. It is suspended on a frame so as to hand freely and is struck
  42. 42. TRIANGLE • It is a small round bar of steel bent in shape of a triangle, open at the upper end, struck with a beater of the same material. The tone is penetrating and should be used sparingly. It can play single strokes, rhythmic, sparingly
  43. 43. TAMBOURINE • It is a small single- headed drum, the shell of which is pierced at intervals to allow the insertion of loosely-hanging jingles made of circular metal plates, usually in pairs connected by a metal wire which passes through the holes of
  44. 44. END!!