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categories of geologic processes.pptx

  1. 2 Categories of geologic processes 1. Exogenous Processes 2. Endogenous Processes Exogenous Processes – occur on or near the surface of the earth. - they are usually influenced or driven by gravity, water, wind and organi- sms.
  2. Types of exogenous processes 1. Weathering 2. Erosion 3. Mass wasting 4. Sediments
  3. Weathering – breakdown of rock materials at the near earth’s surface.
  4. Types of weathering 1.Physical Weathering 2.Chemical weathering Physical weathering or mechanical weathering - breaking smaller fragments from a larger block or outcrop of rock. - a process where the outer layer of the rock peels away.
  6. 5 Principal Types of Physical Weathering 1.Unloading - when the outer layers of the rock break down away from the rest of the rock. - rocks are formed with layers they become compact and become a solid rock. 2.Freeze-thaw weathering – occurs when water continually seeps in cracks ,freezes and expands eventually break the rock.
  7. 3. Thermal expansion – involvement of temp. when the sun rays heating the rock in daytime. At night ,rocks contract when temp. go down. 4. Salt-crystal growth (salt crystalization) - causes saltwater rocks to rapture due to a saline solution entering a rock through cracks and then evaporating this causes crystal form.
  8. 5.Hydration – water molecules attach to the crystalline structure of a mineral w/o causing a permanent change in that’s mineral composition.
  9. Chemical weathering – is the process by which rocks break down by chemical reaction.
  10. Erosion – one of exogenous process which earth’s surface is worn by wind ,water or ice.
  11. Mass wasting – refers to the movement of large masses of materials down a slope or steep sided hill or mountain due to the pull of gravity. Forms of mass wasting 1.Debris flow 2.Mudflow 3.Slump
  12. Debris flow- happens when a large amount of sediments or rocks falls down the slope.
  13. b. Mudflow – combined of soil and water flow down a slope. c. Slump – is a slow movement of soil along a curved surface.
  14. SLUMP
  15. Sedimentation – is the accumulation of materials such as soil, rock fragments and soil particles setting on the ground.
  16. ENDOGENOUS PROCESSES - responsible for earthquakes, develop- ment of continents and other related to earth’s crust. Endogenous process that played a role in the evolution of landforms on earth: 1.Magmatism- happens when magma is genera- ted and develops into igneous rocks. magma- is the original material that make up
  17. igneous rock. magma is found beneath the surface of the earth. 2.Volcanisms (plutonism) – is the process that usually happens after magma is formed. 3.Metamorphism- it is the process of changing materials that make up a rock.