2 Categories of geologic processes
1. Exogenous Processes
2. Endogenous Processes
Exogenous Processes – occur on or near the
surface of the earth.
- they are usually influenced or
driven by gravity, water, wind and organi-
Types of weathering
Physical weathering or mechanical weathering
- breaking smaller fragments from a
larger block or outcrop of rock.
- a process where the outer layer of the
rock peels away.
5 Principal Types of Physical Weathering
1.Unloading - when the outer layers of the rock
break down away from the rest of the
- rocks are formed with layers they
become compact and become a solid
2.Freeze-thaw weathering – occurs when water
continually seeps in cracks ,freezes and
expands eventually break the rock.
3. Thermal expansion – involvement of temp.
when the sun rays heating the rock in
daytime. At night ,rocks contract when
temp. go down.
4. Salt-crystal growth (salt crystalization)
- causes saltwater rocks to rapture due
to a saline solution entering a rock
through cracks and then evaporating
this causes crystal form.
5.Hydration – water molecules attach to the
crystalline structure of a mineral w/o
causing a permanent change in that’s
Sedimentation – is the accumulation of materials
such as soil, rock fragments and soil particles
setting on the ground.
- responsible for earthquakes, develop-
ment of continents and other related to
Endogenous process that played a role in
the evolution of landforms on earth:
1.Magmatism- happens when magma is genera-
ted and develops into igneous rocks.
magma- is the original material that make up
magma is found beneath the surface of the
2.Volcanisms (plutonism) – is the process that
usually happens after magma is formed.
3.Metamorphism- it is the process of changing
materials that make up a rock.