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Patterns for collaborative creativity

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HCII 2005 talk about a pattern language for collaborative creativity

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Patterns for collaborative creativity

  1. 1. Patterns to Promote Individual and Collective Creativity How do we help design socio-technical systems to facilitate creativity? John Thomas, IBM Research Las Vegas, Nevada 27 July 2005
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Kinds of Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>The Fantasy of Technology Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of Social Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Social – Technical Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns and Pattern Languages </li></ul><ul><li>Some Proposed Socio-Technical Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Potential Forms of Knowledge Known, Predictable, Unchanging, Simple Unknown, Unpredictable, Changing, Complex Algorithms, Formulae, Programs, Machines Patterns Guidelines Heuristics, Principles, Properties Case Studies Stories Ethical values and fluid intelligence
  4. 4. The Fantasy of Transfer <ul><li>Social Scientists discover important principles of socio-technical system </li></ul><ul><li>Social Scientists report findings in the literature </li></ul><ul><li>Systems designers, ever eager to apply what is known about social science to the design of their systems, will read these articles and.. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply what has been learned to design better systems; in this case, systems to enhance individual and collective creativity </li></ul>
  5. 5. Reality? <ul><li>Findings must be incorporated into convenient, useful, usable methods and tools </li></ul><ul><li>Only then will they have (a reasonable chance) for positive impact </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Importance of the Social <ul><li>Robert Putnam: Making Democracy Work (Italy) Bowling Alone (America) </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts health of individual more than smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts on whether we have a sustainable approach to the world’s resources </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on war and other miseries </li></ul><ul><li>Corporations now supporting collaboration and communities of practice </li></ul><ul><li>Socially defined intelligence: Evan’s Thesis on figures analogies </li></ul>
  7. 7. Some ways social and technical can interact <ul><li>Technology supports existing practice (NOTES TeamRoom) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology changes, or destroys existing practices (garages in phone company) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology allows systems otherwise too costly (Babble, Co-labs) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology designed for one purpose; is adopted for social purpose (e-mail) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology designed for one function has unintended social consequences (microwave, dishwasher) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology impacts individual minds & this impacts social functions (video games & impatience) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology changes society (automobile) </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in technology lead to desired changes in social systems ( verifiable electronic voting) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Some Aspects of Socio-Technical Interaction <ul><li>Is coordinated rhythm Required (R), Helpful (+),Neutral (0), Harmful (-), or Incompatible with respect to goals ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is conversation R, +,0,-, I with respect to goals? </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation ? </li></ul><ul><li>Shared stimlus in terms of the gross context ? </li></ul><ul><li>Shared fine stimulus context ? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the Physical positioning of people? </li></ul><ul><li>How are Goals controlled? Jointly? From above? </li></ul><ul><li>Is physical contact Required, Helpful, Neutral, Harmful or Incompatible with meeting goals? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Additional Aspects of Socio-Technical Situation <ul><li>Perceived game-theoretic aspects (zero-sum?) </li></ul><ul><li>Preconscious game-theoretic aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Fidelity, timing of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory Fidelity, timing of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Other senses involved (tactile, smell, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Token interaction: cf. Football, Chess, Golf </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental Space of Conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive Space of Conversation </li></ul>
  10. 10. E.g. Washing Dishes <ul><li>Hand Washing Duo </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythm required </li></ul><ul><li>Side by side “confessional” </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation OK </li></ul><ul><li>Team accomplishes the work </li></ul><ul><li>High shared stimulus context </li></ul><ul><li>Possible venue for collaborative creativity </li></ul><ul><li>“ In the moment” </li></ul><ul><li>Using Dishwasher </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythm not required </li></ul><ul><li>Unitary better </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation ? </li></ul><ul><li>Team or One prepares machine to accomplish the work </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate shared stimulus context </li></ul><ul><li>Rushing to the next moment </li></ul>
  11. 11. Fixing Dinner <ul><li>Traditional cooking </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation Required </li></ul><ul><li>High shared stimulus context (same meal) </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronous activity </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation likely </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative creativity possible </li></ul><ul><li>Microwave </li></ul><ul><li>No negotiation required (separate meals) </li></ul><ul><li>Asynchronous activity </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation less likely (person who is ready first starts some other activity) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Traditional Queue <ul><li>Some shared context; however… </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived as competition for limited resource (tickets may run out) </li></ul><ul><li>People in front are costing you time </li></ul><ul><li>Face to Back of Head orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Asynchronous movement reinforces individual identity (cf. rowing) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Vibrating Pager Queue <ul><li>The obviousness of the competition has been greatly reduced </li></ul><ul><li>No requirement to “face the same direction” </li></ul><ul><li>Face to face interaction possible </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation is much more likely </li></ul>
  14. 14. Enhanced Telephone Help Desk Queue <ul><li>Many more people need help solving technical problem than servers available </li></ul><ul><li>People describe problem </li></ul><ul><li>ASR used to group similar problems </li></ul><ul><li>People are bridged onto a conference call </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis announces to group their areas of overlapping interest </li></ul><ul><li>Group may be able to solve the individual problems; may create new knowledge collectively </li></ul><ul><li>When available, help first gives generic advice </li></ul>
  15. 15. A Pattern Language <ul><li>Christopher Alexander </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural “Patterns” that capture recurring problems and solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Organized into a “Pattern Language” – a lattice of inter-related Patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eccentric Town Center encourages commuter traffic to stop at Town Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European Pub </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradient of Privacy in homes: porch, entry, living room, dinning room, kitchen, bedroom </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Patterns <ul><li>Behavioral Patterns vs. Design Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Application Areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OO Programming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Process Patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Computer Interaction & Sociotechnical Patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CHI ’97 Workshop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interact ’99 Workshop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CHI 2000 Workshop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CHI 2001Panel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DIAC 2002 & subsequent on-line work on Pattern Language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CHI 2002 Workshop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CSCW 2002 Workshop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CHI 2003 Workshop  DTD for XML (PLML) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ECSCW 2003 Workshop in Helsinki </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two books in process </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Parts of a Pattern <ul><ul><li><< Pattern Name >> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Author, reviewer and revision dates: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synonyms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract (including evocative picture) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solution (including schematic) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resulting Context </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rationale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Related Patterns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Known Uses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>References </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Some Socio-Technical Patterns <ul><li>Community of Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Reality Check </li></ul><ul><li>Radical Co-location </li></ul><ul><li>Small Successes Early </li></ul><ul><li>Who Speaks for Wolf? </li></ul><ul><li>Support Conversation at Boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Social Proxy </li></ul><ul><li>Greater Gathering </li></ul><ul><li>Cycles of Diversity & Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Context-setting Entry </li></ul><ul><li>Answer Garden </li></ul><ul><li>Registered Anonymity </li></ul><ul><li>Anonymized Stories for Organizational Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring Circle </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Rites of Passage </li></ul>
  19. 19. Reality Check
  20. 20. Reality Check
  21. 21. Who Speaks for Wolf? Visual by
  22. 22. Small Successes Early
  23. 23. Support Conversation at the Borders
  24. 24. Cycles of Diversity and Identity <ul><li>Context: A group, team, or community is working long-term to accomplish a set of interrelated goals. Tangible progress is required and what is known about the domain shows both a moderate degree of stability and a moderate degree of change due to new conditions, new knowledge gained or both. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem: The group, team, or community runs the dual risks of becoming too fragmented as well as becoming too in-bred, smug, and stale. </li></ul><ul><li>Forces: </li></ul><ul><li>Common work practices, assumptions, methods, values, and language can all help increase efficiency and effectiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>People working alone or in non-communicating smaller teams will tend to have novel experiences and perspectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Novel experiences and perspectives lead to new ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>New ideas eventually need to be evaluated by a wider circle of stakeholders (See “Who Speaks for Wolf?”). </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: Provide support for both diversity and for identity. This may be done by instituting alternating cycles of diversity (where communication among teams is minimal and variety is encouraged) and identity (where communication across teams and sharing experiences are both encouraged) </li></ul><ul><li>Related Pattern: One way to help implement this is “Greater Gathering” </li></ul>
  25. 25. Greater Gathering <ul><li>Context: </li></ul><ul><li>A group of people has been attempting to accomplish some task as effectively and efficiently as possible. In order to do this, one common method is to breakdown a large, complex task into smaller, less complex tasks. Often, those people working on a subtask naturally spend more time with others on that subtask than on other subtasks. It naturally occurs in this context that since people spend a lot of time together, they may develop common interests and also spend leisure time together as well. Sharing common sub-goals, physical contexts, and leisure activities as well as working on the same subtasks may eventually lead to an “in-group” feeling. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem: </li></ul><ul><li>People in the “in-group” may begin to limit their learning because of a lack of diversity in perspective. Furthermore, they may come to work so hard to solve their own sub-problem that they lose sight of the larger problem and make sub-optimizing decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Forces: </li></ul><ul><li>People working on a common problem often bond as well. </li></ul><ul><li>People working on a common sub-problem often lose sight of the larger problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Social sanctions can lead to a lack of diversity of perspectives. </li></ul><ul><li>All people share certain basic drives. </li></ul><ul><li>Shared special events help build social bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>People enjoy novel experiences and viewpoints, under some circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>An expectation of what happens (based on story and experience) can help mold what does happen. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Greater Gathering (Continued) <ul><li>Solution: </li></ul><ul><li>All the sub-groups that need to cooperate in a larger group should get together periodically for a meeting of “Greater Gathering.” This should be periodic and structured. Activities need to be formulated that help everyone visualize and experience common ground. Eating, drinking, dancing, singing, athletic contests, and other physical activities should also be included since these are experiences people will relate to and enjoy regardless of which sub-group they belong to or which sub-problem they are working on. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Company picnics. </li></ul><ul><li>Company sponsored sporting events. </li></ul><ul><li>Boy Scout Jamborees. </li></ul><ul><li>HCII. </li></ul><ul><li>Family reunions. </li></ul><ul><li>Early IBM yearly 100 % club meetings. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Potential Uses of a Pattern Language Approach <ul><li>Problem identification and formulation </li></ul><ul><li>Lingua franca among stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving (tool of thought) </li></ul><ul><li>Design, maintenance (understanding implications of change) and documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Capture, find, and share reusable intellectual assets </li></ul><ul><li>Structure empirical tests of usefulness </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing: ties to impacts on people’s image and experience </li></ul>
  28. 28. Challenges to Pattern Approach <ul><li>Developing the Pattern Language – capturing the “inter-connection and inter-dependencies of patterns” </li></ul><ul><li>Different tools for different pattern-user groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instantiating a pattern as a software artifact (e.g., Web service) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing methodology, services, etc. for using patterns (e.g., facilitating pattern-user via a Web service or wizard) </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Summary and Conclusions <ul><li>Knowledge, presented as a social science article, aids only in a few real-life situations </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern Languages and Properties may provide actionable knowledge representations </li></ul><ul><li>Initial focus on “Socio-technical patterns” as area of high leverage because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much has been learned that is not intuitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patterns already exist in software, HCI </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Discussion (For more information): <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http:// / </li></ul><ul><li>http:// /program/sphere/patterns/ </li></ul><ul><li>http:// / </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http:/ </li></ul><ul><li> / </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  31. 31. Christopher Alexander’s Fifteen Properties from The Nature of Order <ul><li>1. Levels of scale. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Strong centers. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Boundaries. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Alternating repetition. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Positive space. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Good shape. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Local symmetries. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Deep interlock and ambiguity. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Contrast. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Gradients. </li></ul><ul><li>11. Roughness. </li></ul><ul><li>12. Echoes. </li></ul><ul><li>13. The Void. </li></ul><ul><li>14. Simplicity and Inner Calm. </li></ul><ul><li>15. Not-separateness. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Can these be applied to the design of social systems? <ul><li>* Levels of Scale: Organizations, Divisions, </li></ul><ul><li>Departments, Projects, Teams, Individual. </li></ul><ul><li>* Positive Space: Opposite of “not my job”; better to have contention than gaps </li></ul><ul><li>* The Void: Need empty space and empty time; perhaps even roles of peace </li></ul><ul><li>* Roughness: Problems arise when designs presume that they have covered every case. </li></ul>