2. Warm Up: Crack the Code Challenge
The followingare the Unlockedwordandmy owndefinition:
Language is the pathway use to communicate people, nation or groups of individual. Language is
either verbal and nonverbal. Verbal language (word symbols) produce by vocal organs or it would be
written or printed. Nonverbal language ( signs) involves actions or movement to share and acquire
Readingisa methodof communicationthatenablesapersontoturnwritingintomeaning.It
allowsthe readertoconvertthe writtentextintoa meaningfullanguage withindependence,
Is a linguisticcommunicationthatcomprise of componentsof twoormore otherlanguages,and
isusedfor communicationamongpeople.Itcanalsobe calledbusinesslanguage.
Englishisa language whichisuse for communication.
Multilingual isatermusedfor"Multiple Languages".Itmeansthatif we speaktwoor more
than twolanguagesata time,thenit'smultilingual.
Activity1: Articulate yourideasonthe followingconceptsof macroskills:
3. 1. Listening is said to be the gasoline in the engine of second language and of the four macro skills. (10
Listening is the most important skill in communication. It is a mental operation involving
processing sound waves, interpreting their meaning, and storing their meaning in memory. It is a
communication technique that requires the listeners to understand, interpret, and evaluate what they
hear of. listening effectively improves personal relationship through the reduction of conflict and
strengthens cooperation through a collective understanding. Listening is necessary in the sense that it
also enables individuals to be able to pay attention to others in order to understand what is being
Good listening allows us to demonstrate that we are paying attention to the thoughts, feelings
and behaviours of the other person. Good listening give a powerful message to those with whom you
interact, and are an inherent part of most life skills. Without the ability to listen effectively, messages
are easily misunderstood. As a result, communication breaks down and the sender of the message can
Listening is considered as a neglected art. People tend to neglect the art of listening because
of the different language barriers apart from the dominant fact that people are fond of talking rather
than listening. Almosteveryone can hear, but few can really listen. Many people fail to recognize the art
of listening and the value of listening to acquire information. They tend to ignore the fine line that
separates the distinction between the natures of passive listening and active listening. In our daily
conversation with people, meetings or conferences, listening is believed to be of paramount concern.
Few people can achieve understanding the essence of what has been said by a certain speaker because
they have not mastered the skills necessary for listening. Close-mindedness and over-stimulation which
make a person too quick to judge because of the speaker’s accent, appearance, impression and poor
deliverycanalso be contributingfactorswhylisteningisneglected.
Bottom up processes Focuses on individual linguistic components of discourse Comprehension
4. viewed as a process of decoding messages, proceeding from phonemes to words, to phrases and clauses
and other grammatical elements, to sentences Focuses on macro-features of discourse such as the
speaker’s purpose and the discourse topic Comprehension is viewed as a process of activating the
learners’ background information, prior knowledge about the context and the topic - for global
understanding of the message. Top-down Activities Identify sounds or lexical items according to their
linguistic function Use phonological cues to distinguish between positive and negative sentences or
statement and questions Identify the speaker’s communicative purpose or the main idea of discourse
Use schematato inferthe contextual informationfromthe heardspeechorconversation.
5. Listenif you want to learn.Talkif you don’t.(10pts.)
Listening is something when you don't have any preconceived notions within you and you are
just paying attention to what is being said. When you pay attention then there opens a possibility that
you may learn something new. When you talk, you are repeating what you know, but when you listen,
Hearing is an accidental and automatic brain response to sound that requires no effort. We are
surrounded by sounds most of the time. For example, we are accustomed to the sounds of airplanes,
lawn mowers, furnace blowers, the rattling of pots and pans, and so on. We hear those incidental
sounds and, unless we have a reason to do otherwise, we train ourselves to ignore them. We learn to
filter out sounds that mean little to us, just as we choose to hear our ringing cell phones and other
sounds that are more important to us. Listening, on the other hand, is purposeful and focused rather
than accidental. As a result, it requires motivation and effort. Listening, at its best, is active, focused,
concentrated attention for the purpose of understanding the meanings expressed by a speaker. We do
not always listen at our best, however, and later in this chapter we will examine some of the reasons
whyand some strategiesforbecomingmore active critical listeners.
7. What causes anxietyinspeakinginEnglish?(10pts.)
speaking anxiety are caused by many factors, such as fear of making mistakes, or someone
laugh because of broken or ungrammatical use of English, lack in vocabulary, and lack in pronunciation.
It has correlation to affect each other in speaking English. English had an important role in many cases,
it can be used in all world activities, such as conferences, sport events and world trade, business, and
daily life communication. Speaking is kind of productive skill that has an important role in
communication. Students can enhance their English input through speaking. Speaking is the way to
communicate with other people by conveying the ideas, feeling, create and build the information.
Speaking English also becomes the important because it is very helpful for facing the globalization era.
5. However for foreignlanguage learners, speaking English is not easy to be practiced. Students go through
many processes and kinds of learning in the target language. Along these processes, the students are
faced by the internal and external factors that follow the positive and negative impact toward the
process of learning English. One of the factors is the feeling of anxiety which sometimes may arise in
response toa particularsituationoreventwhichcanbe consideredtobe a major character.
8. How to counterspeakinganxiety?(10pts.)
Most people experience some level of speech anxiety when they have to speak in front of a
group; in fact, public speaking is many people’s greatest fear. Speech anxiety can range from a slight
feeling of “nerves” to a nearly incapacitating fear. Some of the most common symptoms of speech
anxiety are: shaking, sweating, dry mouth, rapid heartbeat, and squeaky voice. Although it is often
impossible to completely eliminate speech anxiety there are a variety of ways to deal with it and even
make it workto youradvantage.
Experiencing speech anxiety is normal. Nearly everyone gets nervous when they have to give a
speech or a presentation, even experienced speakers. The speakers that look relaxed and confident
have simply learned how to handle their anxiety and use it to enhance their performance. Fear of public
speaking is a common form of anxiety. It can range from slight nervousness to paralyzing fear and panic.
Many people with this fear avoid public speaking situations altogether, or they suffer through them with
shaking hands and a quavering voice. But with preparation and persistence, you can overcome your fear.
9. Readersmake the bestwriters.(10pts.)
Only a person who reads a lot and has extensive knowledge can write well. One also needs to be
a good listener to be a good writer who is capable of taking feedback and criticism. Feedback is
important for a writer's growth and so is interaction with fellow litterateurs and readers. Reading makes
you a better writer by teaching you what’s most effective in terms of building sentences, developing a
structure and creating metaphors. For fiction writers, it teaches successful ways to build plot and
Readingand listeninginvolvereceivinginformationandsotheyare calledthe receptive skills.
learnersdonotneedto produce language todo these,theyreceive andunderstandit.Theseskillsare
sometimesknownaspassive skills.Theycanbe contrastedwiththe productive oractive skillsof
6. 11. DiscussReadingforCommunicationand ReadingforEducation.(10pts.)
Reading teaches you new words and perspectives. It helps strengthen language and sharpens
sentence structure. It gives you a better command over the language. All of these are critical to being a
good speaker. Reading helps develop higher levels of focus and concentration. It also forces the reader
to sort thingsoutin theirownmind – includingtopicsthatmightnotbe familiartothemat all.
12. Micro skillsinwritingandtheirsignificance indeveloping one’scompetence inwriting.(10pts.)
To write clearly it is essential to understand the basic system of a language. In English this
includes knowledge of grammar, punctuation and sentence structure. Vocabulary is also necessary, as is
correct spelling and formatting. A writer may write for personal enjoyment or use, or for an audience of
one person or more. The audience may be known (targeted) or unknown. Taking notes for study
purposes is an example of writing for one's self. As with speaking, it is important to consider your
audience whenwriting.There are manydifferentstylesof writing,frominformaltoformal.
13. Role of technologyandteachersinthe classroomfocusingonaddressingvisual literacyandvisual-
auditorylearners.Look forreferencesthatwill supportyourdiscussionandpresentyourideasinaform
of literature review.(30points)
Classrooms are diverse environments where no two children are exactly the same. Learning
styles, like personalities, also differ and can impact how teachers teach their students. Learning style
theories state that everyone has the ability to learn if they are taught in a way that is adjusted to their
style. This means that students who may have had learning difficulties in the past may not experience
the same difficulties if taught with their learning style in mind. For teachers, this can be a challenge, as
you mustlearn to teach in ways that can benefit each student in the classroom. Fortunately, the world is
a technological one, and technology in the form of computers and even video and music players can
improve the ability of students to get the most out of their education. Because these students learn
through hearing, teachers can reach them with technological tools such as audio books, recorded
lessons, and webinars and podcasts as well as by integrating music into lessons. PowerPoint
presentations that include an oral lecture are also a valuable tool for teaching auditory learners.
Technology in education enables children to adjust to their own pace of learning. Students who need
extra time can spend more time going over exercises until they understand, whilst students who need
less support can continue ahead. It also frees up the teacher to help kids who need more support on an
7. Activity2: Make a brief yetcomprehensive response onthe followingitems:
14. Define language anddiscussitsdefinition.
A language is a system of communication which consists of a set of sounds and written symbols
which are used by the people of a particular country or region for talking or writing. The language is the
principal method of human communication, consisting of words used in a structured and conventional
15. As a Filipino student who regards English as medium of instructions in English classes, what is your
stance on code-switchingandcode mixingduringclassparticipations?
Schools are places where children from all different cultural backgrounds meet. People from
different cultures have different ways of speaking. We often change the way we speak to accommodate
others. This phenomenon is called code switching. Code-switching has gained a bad reputation because
it has been identified as the reason for people losing their identities or accommodating prejudices
towards their social class,ethnicity, or religion. Code-switching is not all bad, though. In many situations,
it becomes a way for individuals in a system to be more productive with one another. Code-switching is
a way to communicate more productivelywithpeople whomaynotshare yourcultural background.
16. You overhearsomebodysay,“That’snota language,it’sadialect.”Compose abrief retort.
Language is the method of human communication, either spoken or written, consisting of the
use of words in a structured and conventional way. Dialect is a variety of language distinguished by
grammar, pronunciation,orvocabulary,spokeninaspecificareabya specificgroupof people.
17. Research and discuss the role of first language in the second language acquisition. Do not forget to
cite your references.
As we are talking about kindergarten students starting their literacy process, it is important to
take into account the stages of language development. In fact, during the first stages of language
acquisition it is important to constantly refer to the mother tongue in order to make connections
(Cummins, 2001). Previous knowledge in kindergarten students is a starting point for acquiring a new
language, leading to language transfer (Baker, 2001). Language transfer is understood as the use of the
first language during the second language acquisition, which represents the first stage of language
8. Moreover, during the first year of school it is vital that the first language is developed in students.
In fact, first language development is required in order to have good strategies to transfer to the new
language. If students do not have good strategies in their mother tongue, they will not have good
strategies to transfer to the new language, and therefore the cognitive development will be reduced
(Friedlander, 1997). Due to the importance of first language development, the school in this study has
now increased the number of Spanish hours in kindergarten. In the second language acquisition process,
it may be useful for teachers to teach the new language using the mother tongue as support in order to
develop not only the target language but also the cognitive development required to be academically
and professionally successful. It is a very important aspect in education because second language
teachers in bilingual schools need to ensure that their students acquire a level of proficiency that will
allowthemtodeal withacademiccontentduringthe school year.
It has been found that the use of first language in the second-language classroom helps students
make connections with their existing knowledge of the mother tongue, facilitating the process of
understanding. Research suggests that the first language should not be banned in the second-language
classroom but that neither should its use be constantly encouraged, otherwise the mother tongue may
replace the target language rather than support it. It has been found that the use of first language in the
second-language classroom helps students make connections with their existing knowledge of the
mothertongue,facilitatingthe processof understanding.
18. Why are personsof authorityconsideredprescriptivism?
The prescriptivists are the people who setdown the rules for the correct language use. Being
prescriptivist, grammar is amatter of conformity to pre-determined rules. People of authority is
considered aspresciptivist because they are the once who are well-educated speakers in their profession.
They assert that there is one ‘correct’ or ‘proper’ way of using alanguage. Prescriptivists are not
judgmental,theyare justteachingtheappropriatewhenitcomestolanguage anditsgrammar.
19. Although the existence of Standard English is a much-debated issue, do you agree with the
Standard English will depend on both the locality and the particular varieties that Standard
English is being contrasted with. A form that is considered standard in one region may be nonstandard
in another, and a form that is standard by contrast with one variety. however, Standard English in this
sense shouldn't be regarded as being necessarily correct or unexceptionable, since it will include many
kinds of language that could be faulted on various grounds, like the language of corporate memos and
9. 20. Differentiate a pidgin language from a creole one. Is Chabacano/Chavacano in the Philippines pidgin
Pidgin is a linguistic communication that comprised of components of two or more other languages and
is used for communication among people - It is not a first language. Whereas, creole is a language that
was at first a pidgin but has “transformed” and become a first language. Philippine Creole Spanish,
composed of the main local varieties , Zamboangueño (spoken in Zamboanga City, Mindanao), and
known collectively as Chabacano, is the most extensive Spanish‑ based creole language now inexistence,
the only one found outside of the Americas. The only dialect to have maintained and even increased its
vitality is the Chabacano of Zamboanga (Zamboangueño), spoken by several hundred thousand
residents of Zamboanga del Sur province (Mindanao) centering on Zamboanga City and nearby Basilan
Island.A small groupof ChabacanospeakersisfoundinCotabatoCity,Mindanao.
21. Listexamplesof the followingcharacteristicsof Philippine English:
a. Two pronunciationfeatures;
- varyingsuccess withthe vowel contrastssuchas; sheep/ship,full/fool,andboat/bought.
b. One grammatical feature;and
-Philippine English is RHOTIC, but the local /r/ is an alveolar flap, not an AmE retroflex. (2) It is
syllabletimed, following the rhythm of the local languages; full value is therefore given to unstressed
syllablesandSCHWA isusuallyrealizedasa full vowel.
c. Two unique expressionsfromPhilippine Englishandtheirmore commonlyunderstoodequivalents.
-Five-six - loanat20% interest(loansharking)
-CR (comfortroom) - bathroom
22. Is PhilippineEnglishone of the more-correctvarietiesof English?Justifyyouranswer.
10. Yes, English has always been one of the official languages of the Philippines and is spoken by
million of Filipinos. Itis the language of commerce and law, as well as the primary medium of instruction
ineducation.AswhatNicholasThomassaid,“Englishhasa distinctive place inthe Philippine.