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  2. TOPICS 1.Functions of Art 2.Philosophical Perspectives on Art
  3. LEARNING OUTCOMES At the end of the lesson, students should be able to: 1. understand the functions of art for the individual as well as how art is significant for cultures and societies.; and 2. explain and discuss some of the key philosophical perspectives on art.
  4. TOPIC 1: FUNCTIONS OF ART Compared to other activities of man, art is generally regarded as impractical, not meant to meet the requirements of day-to-day living. Architecture, weaving, furnituremaking, and a few other crafts have obvious purposes and are therefore classified as functional. But painting, sculpture, literature, music, and the theater arts seem to serve no other end than to amuse or provide a pleasant escape from life’s daily problems. Thus, they are classified as non-functional. However, all arts have a function, for man, the maker, creates things because he has a particular need for them (Ortiz et al., 1976).
  5. We may consider art as having the general function of satisfying: 1. Our individual needs for personal expression 2. Our social needs for display, celebration, and communication 3. Our physical needs for utilitarian objects and structures To know the function of a particular work of art, you must be able to answer the question, “WHAT IS IT FOR?” (Ortiz et TOPIC 1: FUNCTIONS OF ART
  6. TOPIC 1: FUNCTIONS OF ART When it comes to function, different art forms come with distinctive functions. There is no one-to-one correspondence between an artwork and its function. Some art forms are more functional than others. Architecture, for example, as an art, is highly functional, just like most applied arts. Roughly and broadly, the functions of art are classified into three: personal (public display or expression), social (celebration or to affect collective behavior), and physical
  7. TOPIC 1: FUNCTIONS OF ART ART AND THE INDIVIDUAL (THE PERSONAL FUNCTION) The personal functions of art are varied and highly subjective. This means that its functions depend on the person- the artist who created the art. An artist may create artwork out of the need for self-expression. This is the case for an artist who needs to communicate an idea to his audience. It can also be mere entertainment for his intended audience. Often, the artist may not even intend to mean anything in his work.
  8. TOPIC 1: FUNCTIONS OF ART Arts are vehicles for the artists’ expression of their feelings and ideas. Likewise, for us, layman or non-artists, the arts also serve as a means of expression for us. Art helps to educate our senses and sharpens our perception of colors, forms, textures, designs, sounds, rhythms, and harmonies in our environment. Art makes us more aware and appreciative of the things around us. Visual and auditory “literacy” through contact with the arts can lead us to an intensified awareness of the beautiful in life. It can thus make our existence less humdrum; it can refine and elevate our aesthetic taste.
  9. TOPIC 1: FUNCTIONS OF ART Works of art make us aware of other ways of thinking, feeling, and imagining that have never occurred to us before. They offer us fresh insights into nature and human nature so that we gain a better understanding of ourselves and the world around us. They help us improve our lives. This is especially true of literature, drama, and cinema, which capture and vivify human experience (Ortiz et al., 1976).
  10. TOPIC 1: FUNCTIONS OF ART ART, CULTURE, AND SOCIETY (THE SOCIAL FUNCTION) One cannot conceive of a society without art, for art is closely related to every aspect of social life (Ortiz et al., 1976).
  11. TOPIC 1: FUNCTIONS OF ART Art performs a social function when: It seeks or tends to influence the collective behavior of a people (INFLUENCING SOCIAL BEHAVIOR)  Many works of art influence the way we think, feel, or act.  They can bring about in us decisions to collectively change, correct, or improve upon the human condition.  Paintings, photographs, posters, and cartoons have been used to express humanitarian concerns as well as ideological or political comment.
  12. TOPIC 1: FUNCTIONS OF ART It is created to be seen or used primarily in public situations (DISPLAY AND CELEBRATION)  One function of sculpture and painting is a commemoration of important personages in society.  Often they serve to record important historical events or reveal the ideals of heroism and leadership that the community would want the young to emulate.  The arts are also linked to rituals. Rituals have played an important role in people’s lives and have influenced the growth of certain arts as well.  Public celebrations, such as festivals, involve rituals of some kind, and these, in turn, employ the arts. It expresses or describes the social or collective aspect of existence as opposed to individual and personal kinds of experiences (SOCIAL DESCRIPTION)  Artworks are vital historical documents. They describe aspects of existence at certain periods. Because many of them focus on facets of daily life, they tell us what the societies that produced them were like.
  13. TOPIC 1: FUNCTIONS OF ART Influencing Social Behavior We Can Do It Poster. Image from Google Image. Influencing Display and Celebration Pahiyas Festival. Image from Google Image Manunggul Jar. Image from Google Image. Social Description
  14. Art is considered to have a social function if and when it addresses a particular collective interest as opposed to a personal interest. Political art is a very common example of art with a social function. Art may convey messages of protest, contestation, or whatever message the artist intends his work to carry. TOPIC 1: FUNCTIONS OF ART
  15. TOPIC 1: FUNCTIONS OF ART ART AND THE PHYSICAL WORLD (THE PHYSICAL FUNCTION) The physical functions of art are the easiest to spot and understand. The physical functions of art can be found in artworks that are crafted to serve some physical purpose. The best examples are the kitchen utensils we have at home since they were not just displayed but also serve a physical function.
  16. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS More on conceptualizing the functions of art:  What is Art for? (  Cases for Political Art | The Art Assignment | PBS Digital Studios ( Guide question: Will you consider art as something “political”? Or it’s just “neutral” and unbiased?
  17. TOPIC 2: PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVES ON ART Three (3) philosophers have their different takes on the nature, function, and purpose of arts to human beings (Caslib et al., 2018 pp. 31-33).  In The Republic, a renowned masterpiece of Plato, he described the artists as imitators and art as mere imitation or mimesis.  Plato was convinced that artists merely reinforce the belief in copies and discourage men to reach for the real entities in the World of Forms.  Plato was deeply suspicious of arts and artists for two reasons: o They appeal to the emotion rather than the rational faculty of men. o They imitate rather than lead one to reality.  For Plato, art is dangerous because it provides a petty replacement for the real entities that can only be attained through reason. PLATO: ART AS AN IMITATION
  18.  Aristotle considered art as an aid to philosophy in revealing truth.  For Aristotle, all kinds of art, including poetry, music, dance, painting, and sculpture, do not aim to represent reality as it is. What art endeavors to do is to provide a vision of what might be or the myriad possibilities of reality.  Unlike Plato who thought that art is an imitation of another imitation, Aristotle conceived of arts as representing possible versions of reality.  Art serves two particular telos or purpose: o Art allows for the experience of pleasure. o Art also has an ability to be instructive and teach its audience things about life; thus it is cognitive as well. ARISTOTLE: ART AS REPRESENTATION
  19.  Kant considered that the judgment of beauty, the cornerstone of art, as something that can be universal despite its subjectivity.  Judgment of beauty, and therefore, art, is innately autonomous from specific interests.  Even aesthetic judgment is a cognitive activity.  For Kant, when one judges a particular painting as beautiful, one in effect is saying that the said painting has induced particular feeling of satisfaction from him and that he expects the painting to rouse the same feeling from anyone. KANT: ART AS DISINTERESTED JUDGMENT
  20. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS More on the philosophical perspectives on art through the discussion of aesthetics:  Aesthetics: Crash Course Philosophy #31 ( Guide question: How does philosophy’s take on art helps you better understand its essence/nature?

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