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Advanced memory allocation

  1. 1. Advanced memory allocation in Go
  2. 2. Joris Bonnefoy DevOps @ OVH @devatoria
  3. 3. Before we get started...
  4. 4. Keep it simple, readable ● Avoid premature optimizations ○ Sometimes, readability and logicalness are better than performances ● Use go tools in order to point out real problems ○ pprof ○ gcflags
  5. 5. Introduction to memory management
  6. 6. Virtual and physical memory ● When you launch a new process, the kernel creates its address space ● In this address space, the process can allocate memory ● For the process, its address space looks like a big contiguous memory space ● For two identical processes, (logical) addresses can be the same ○ Depending on the compiler, the architecture, ...
  7. 7. Virtual and physical memory ● Each process has its own “memory sandbox” called its virtual address space ● Virtual addresses are mapped to physical addresses by the CPU (and the MMU component) using page tables ● Per-process virtual space size is 4GB on 32-bits system and 256TB on 64-bits one
  8. 8. Virtual and physical memory ● Virtual address space is split into 2 spaces ○ Kernel space ○ User mode space (or process address space) ● Split depends on operating system configuration
  9. 9. How is user space managed? (C example)
  10. 10. Stack vs. Heap
  11. 11. The stack ● On the top of the process address space ○ Grows down ● Last In First Out design ○ Cheap allocation cost ● Only one register is needed to track content ○ Stack Pointer (SP register) ● Calling a function pushes a new stack frame onto the stack ● Stack frame is destroyed on function return ● Each thread in a process has its own stack ○ They share the same address space ● Stack size is limited, but can be expanded ○ Until a certain limit, usually 8MB
  12. 12. The heap ● Grows up ● Expensive allocation cost ○ No specific data structure ● Complex management ● Used to allocate variables that must outlive the function doing the allocation ● Fragmentation issues ○ Contiguous free blocks can be merged
  13. 13. Memory allocation in Go
  14. 14. Like threads, goroutines have their own stack.
  15. 15. <= Go 1.2 - Segmented stacks ● Discontiguous stacks ● Grows incrementally ● Each stack starts with a segment (8kB in Go 1.2) ● When stack is full a. another segment is created and linked to the stack b. stack segment is removed when not used anymore (stack is shrinked) ● Stacks are doubly-linked list
  16. 16. <= Go 1.2 - Segmented stacks
  17. 17. <= Go 1.2 - Hot split issue
  18. 18. >= Go 1.3 - Copying stacks ● Contiguous stacks ● Each stack starts with a size of 2kB (since Go 1.4) ● When stack is full a. a new stack is created, with the double size of the previous one b. content of the old one is copied to the new one c. pointers are re-adjusted d. old one is destroyed ● Stack is never shrinked
  19. 19. >= Go 1.3 - Copying stacks
  20. 20. Benchmarks
  21. 21. Efficient memory allocation (and compiler optimizations)
  22. 22. Reminders Heap (de)allocation is expensive Stack (de)allocation is cheap
  23. 23. Reminders Go manages memory automatically
  24. 24. Reminders Go prefers allocation on the stack
  25. 25. Go functions inlining
  26. 26. Go functions inlining ● The code of the inlined function is inserted at the place of each call to this function ● No more assembly CALL instruction ● No need to create function stack frame ● Binary size is increased because of the possible repetition of assembly instructions ● Can be disabled using //go:noinline comment just before the function declaration
  27. 27. Go escape analysis system
  28. 28. Escape analysis ● Decides whether a variable should be allocated on the heap or on the stack ● Creates a graph of function calls in order to track variables scope ● Uses tracking data to pass checks on those variables ○ Those checks are not explicitly detailed in Go specs ● If checks pass, the variable is allocated on the stack (it doesn’t escape) ● If at least one check fails, the variable is allocated on the heap (it escapes) ● Escape analysis results can be checked at compile time using ○ go build -gcflags '-m' ./main.go
  29. 29. One basic rule (not always right…) If a variable has its address taken, that variable is a candidate for allocation on the heap
  30. 30. Closure calls Closure calls are not analyzed
  31. 31. Assignments to slices and maps A map can be allocated on the stack, but any keys or values inserted into the map will escape
  32. 32. Flow through channels A variable passing through a channel will always escape
  33. 33. Interfaces Interfaces can lead to escape when a function of the given interface is called (because the compiler doesn’t know what the function is doing with its arguments)
  34. 34. And a lot of other cases... ● Go escape analysis is very simple and not so smart ● Some issues are opened to improve it
  35. 35. Conclusion
  36. 36. Keep it simple, readable ● Avoid premature optimizations ○ Sometimes, readability and logicalness are better than performances ● Use go tools in order to point out real problems ○ pprof ○ gcflags
  37. 37. Remember the basics ● Pointers are only useful if you directly manipulate variable value ○ Most of the time, a copy of the value is sufficient ● Closures are not always sexy ○ Do not overuse them just to overuse them ● Manipulate arrays when possible ○ Slices are cool, but arrays too... :)
  38. 38. Thank you for listening!
  39. 39. References ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●