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  1. 1. Gymnastics
  2. 2. History of Gymnastics
  3. 3. Etymology • The word gymnastics derives from the common Greek adjective “gymnos” meaning "naked", by way of the related verb “gymnazo”, whose meaning is "to train naked”. • The verb had this meaning, because athletes in ancient times exercised and competed without clothing. It came into use in the 1570s, from Latin gymnasticus, from Greek gynmastikos "fond of or skilled in bodily exercise," from gymnazein "to exercise or train"
  4. 4. • In 1569, Girolamo Mercuriale from Forlì (Italy) wrote Le Arte Gymnastica, which brought together his study of the attitudes of the ancients toward diet, exercise and hygiene, and the use of natural methods for the cure of disease. Le Arte Gymnastica also explained the principles of physical therapy and is considered the first book on sports medicine. History of Gymnastics
  5. 5. • In the late 18th and early 19th century : - Johann Friedrich GutsMuths and Friedrich Ludwig Jahn – created exercises for boys and young men on apparatus they had designed that ultimately led to what is considered modern gymnastics. - Don Francisco Amorós y Ondeano – troduce educative gymnastic in France. Jahn promoted the use of parallel bars, rings and high bar in international competition. History of Gymnastics
  6. 6. • 1881 - The Federation of International Gymnastics (FIG) was founded in Liege. By the end of the nineteenth century, men's gymnastics competition was popular enough to be included in the first "modern" Olympic Games in 1896. History of Gymnastics
  7. 7. • The Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique (FIG) or International Federation of Gymnastics (IFG) is the governing body of competitive gymnastics. Its headquarters is in Lausanne, Switzerland. It was founded on July 23, 1881 in Liège, Belgium, making it the worlds oldest existing international sport organisation. Originally called the European Federation of Gymnastics, it had three member countries – Belgium, France and the Netherlands – until 1921, when non-European countries were admitted, and it was renamed to its current name.
  8. 8. • From then on until the early 1950s, both national and international competitions involved a changing variety of exercises gathered under the rubric, gymnastics, that would seem strange to today's audiences and that included for example, synchronized team floor calisthenics, rope climbing, high jumping, running, and horizontal ladder History of Gymnastics
  9. 9. • During the 1920s, women organized and participated in gymnastics events. The first women's Olympic competition was primitive, only involving synchronized calisthenics and track and field. These games were held in 1928, in Amsterdam History of Gymnastics
  10. 10. • By 1954, Olympic Games apparatus and events for both men and women had been standardized in modern format, and uniform grading structures (including a point system from 1 to 15) had been agreed upon. - Nadia Comăneci received the first perfect score, at the 1976 Summer Olympics held in Montreal, Canada. She was coached in Romania by coach, (Hungarian ethnicity), Béla Károlyi. History of Gymnastics
  11. 11. • In 2006, a new points system for Artistic gymnastics was put into play. With an A Score (or D score) being the difficulty score, which as of 2009 is based on the top 8 high scoring elements in a routine (excluding Vault). The B Score (or E Score), is the score for execution, and is given for how well the skills are performed History of Gymnastics
  12. 12. Equipments for Gymnatics
  13. 13. Still rings - Two parallel rings 50cm apart, suspended from a cable and straps and held, one in each hand, for a series of exercises in men's artistic gymnastics particularly requiring stillness of the body; also called the "rings".
  14. 14. Uneven bars - An apparatus in women's artistic gymnastics with a top bar 2.4m above the floor and a lower bar 1.6m high, used for a continuous series of grip changes, releases, new grasps and other complex moves.
  15. 15. High bar - A bar standing 2.75 metres high, used in men's artistic gymnastics; also called the "horizontal bar".
  16. 16. Parallel bars (Artistic) - An apparatus consisting of two wooden rails on uprights, adjustable in height and used for swinging, vaulting and balancing exercises in men's artistic gymnastics.
  17. 17. Pommel horse - A solid apparatus 115 centimetres high with two handles, or pommels, on top that men in artistic gymnastics use for a series of manoeuvres defined by complex hand placements and body positions while holding themselves above the apparatus.
  18. 18. Plane - An imaginary surface where moves are performed, i.e. lateral, frontal, horizontal or diagonal. Diagonal plane - An imaginary surface at less than a 90-degree angle to the floor, where moves are performed. Horizontal plane - An imaginary surface, level with the ground, where moves are performed. Lateral plane - An imaginary surface to the side of, and parallel to, the body, where moves are performed. Safety platform - A large, thick mat that sits on the floor at each end of the trampoline to cushion the impact if anyone falls from the apparatus.
  19. 19. Vault - A solid apparatus similar to the pommel horse, but lacking handles, and used in men's and women's artistic gymnastics for a variety of handsprings from a running approach.
  20. 20. Beatboard - The springboard used in the men's and women's vault.
  21. 21. Ball - It is made of either rubber or synthetic material (pliable plastic) provided it possesses the same elasticity as rubber. It is from 18 to 20 cm in diameter and must have a minimum weight of 400g. The ball can be of any colour and should rest in the gymnast's hand, not the wrist.
  22. 22. Hoop - A hoop is an apparatus in rhythmic gymnastics and may be made of plastic or wood, provided that it retains its shape during the routine. The interior diameter is from 51 to 90 cm, and the hoop must weigh a minimum of 300g.
  23. 23. Ribbon - It is made of satin or another similar material cloth of any colour and may be multi-coloured as well as have designs on it. The ribbon itself must be at least 35g (1 oz), 4–6 cm (1.6–2.4") in width and for senior category a minimum length of 6m (20') (5m (16.25') for juniors). It is made of satin or another similar material cloth of any colour and may be multi-coloured as well as have designs on it. The ribbon itself must be at least 35g (1 oz), 4–6 cm (1.6–2.4") in width and for senior catego
  24. 24. Clubs - The club is built along an internal rod, providing a base on which a handle made of polyolefin plastic is wrapped, providing an airspace between it and the internal rod. This airspace provides flex, cushioning impact, making the club softer on the hands. Foam ends and knobs further cushion the club. It is made of satin or another similar material cloth of any colour and may be multi-coloured as well as have designs on it. The ribbon itself must be at least 35g (1 oz), 4–6 cm (1.6–2.4") in width and for senior catego
  25. 25. Clubs - The club is built along an internal rod, providing a base on which a handle made of polyolefin plastic is wrapped, providing an airspace between it and the internal rod. This airspace provides flex, cushioning impact, making the club softer on the hands. Foam ends and knobs further cushion the club.
  26. 26. Costumes for Gymnatics
  27. 27. Leotards are worn by acrobats, gymnasts, dancers, figure skaters, athletes, actors, and circus performers both as practice garments and performance costumes. A leotard is a unisex skin- tight one-piece garment that covers the torso but leaves the legs free. It was made famous by the French acrobatic performer Jules Léotard (1838–1870).
  28. 28. They are often worn together with ballet skirts on top and tights or sometimes bike shorts as underwear. There are sleeveless, short-sleeved and long- sleeved leotards. A variation is the unitard, which also covers the legs. As a casual garment, a leotard can be worn with a belt, it can also more commonly worn under overalls or short skirts.
  29. 29. The sole is made of soft, composite rubber so as to provide both high traction and cushioning, and it provides excellent protection from skin abrasion as it covers the entire bottom of the foot. Acro shoes - They are typically laceless, slip-on shoes, with tight-fitting leather uppers that are designed to prevent the dancer's feet from shifting inside the shoes. Because of their thin, pliable leather uppers and split soles, acro shoes have excellent flexibility, thus enabling dancers to attain both good dance form and acrobatic control.
  30. 30. Flesh colored foot thongs endow the wearer with the appearance of having bare feet, while retaining some degree of the traction, cushioning, and abrasion protection provided by acro shoes. Foot thongs - which are slip-on, partial foot covers that protect only the ball of the foot—are sometimes preferred over acro shoes for aesthetic reasons.
  31. 31. Strength & Conditioning for Gymnatics
  32. 32. Arch-ups are the exact opposite of hollow body. Lie on your stomach with your arms above your head and your legs straight. Lift your arms and legs so that your stomach is the only part of your body still on the floor. Lower to the ground and repeat.
  33. 33. Push-ups are the simplest way to work your triceps, shoulders, and pectorals. A good push-up requires a straight or hollow core, with the back flat and shoulders over your hands — the precise position that you’ll need for great casts on bars and swings on pommel horse.
  34. 34. V-ups - Lie flat on the floor with your arms and legs extended, and then simultaneously lift your arms and legs, touching your toes over the midsection of your body to form a “v.” At the height of the v-up, you should be balanced on your lower back. Extend back to the floor, and repeat.
  35. 35. Sit Ups - Lie down on the floor on your back with your knees bent or straight, and someone or something holding your legs or not. Sit up to an upright position.
  36. 36. Basic Skills in Gymnatics
  37. 37. • Split - The split “shape” is everywhere in gymnastics—split leaps, jumps, switch leaps, in the middle of backwalkovers, etc. The better you can do your splits on the ground, the better you will be able to do them in the middle of a skill. You should be able to do a split on your left leg, your right leg and a middle split with your legs straight and all the way to the ground.
  38. 38. • Cast - Casting is the most basic bar element and learning how to cast well early on will help you learn so many other skills. Body position in the cast is a hollow body shape. The hollow body shape is similar to the shape you have in a perfect handstand other than your back is slightly rounded with your stomach pulled towards your spine. You will eventually be casting to handstand so the higher you can cast with a nice tight body position the better. You want your legs to be together and straight, your stomach pulled in, your back rounded and your eyes looking at the bar.
  39. 39. Tap swings on bars, along with casts, are a building block of bar routines in all gymnastics levels. A tap swing is a swing on bars, but at the back of the swing you should “regrip”. This means you should come off the bar briefly and re grab. At the back of the bar your body should be in a hollow position, underneath the bar you should move to a slight arch position as you “tap” your feet higher in the front of the bar. This just means that your feet will come forwards to create a slight hollow in your body again.
  40. 40. • A roundoff is just as important as a backhandspring to master for tumbling on floor. The roundoff gives power just like the backhandspring does to the tumbling pass.
  41. 41. The split leap is another skill that is required in every floor and beam routine levels 4-10. To have a perfect split leap you want to be able to do your perfect split position in the air as high as you can off the ground. You want your split to be even also–both legs should be the same distance from the ground.
  42. 42. A handstand is the act of supporting the body in a stable, inverted vertical position by balancing on the hands. In a basic handstand the body is held straight with arms and legs fully extended, with hands spaced approximately shoulder- width apart.
  43. 43. A cartwheel is a sideways rotary movement of the body. It is performed by bringing the hands to the floor one at a time while the body inverts. When both hands are on the floor, the legs travel over the body and feet return to the floor one at a time, ending with the performer standing upright.
  44. 44. A handspring is an acrobatic move in which a person executes a complete revolution of the body by lunging headfirst from an upright position into a vertical position and then pushing off from the floor with the hands so as to leap back to an upright position.
  45. 45. Safety Rules in Gymnatics
  46. 46. • Overall - Use a spotter when attempting any new routine or floor technique. This is especially important for novice gymnasts. Perform warm-up exercises such as stretches prior to beginning a routine to prevent injury. Never attempt a routine or floor technique that you are not trained or qualified to do.
  47. 47. • Trampoline - Never go under the trampoline when someone else is using it. Consistently aim toward the center of the trampoline when landing. Keep the tarp of the trampoline free and clear of anything like clothes, shoes or other items. Make sure there is a padded safety zone around the trampoline before using.
  48. 48. • Safety Aids - Use wrist straps when performing bar exercises to prevent injury and strain on the wrist joints. Wear hand protectors when performing bar or ring routines to prevent chafing and burning of the palms. Use belts with harnesses when working on ring and bar techniques to prevent slips and falls.
  49. 49. • General Rules of Competition - Gymnasts are allowed to use bandages or grips on their hands. Dismounts and final landings should occur with feet firmly together in a standing position. Coaching during the routines is not allowed. Gymnasts are graded on the skill level of the routine as well as how well the movements flow. Points are also awarded or deducted for appearance, sportsmanship and posture.
  50. 50. • General Rules of Gymnastics - Use the equipment correctly and for its intended purpose. Wear suitable, fitted clothing when performing gymnastic routines. Tie long hair away from the eyes. Be attentive to your surroundings to avoid colliding with other gymnasts during routines. Listen to and follow the coach's directions closely. Be considerate of fellow gymnasts