Más contenido relacionado





  3. REALITY…..! 3
  4. Management Measures…..? 4
  6. 6
  7. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES BIOLOGICAL • To maintain the target species at or above the levels necessary to ensure their continued productivity. ECOLOGICAL • To minimise the impacts of fishing on the physical environment and on non-target (by- catch), associated and dependent species. ECONOMICAL SOCIAL • To maximise the net incomes of the participating fishers. • To maximise employment opportunities for those dependent on the fishery for their livelihoods. 7
  8. 8
  9. ECOLOGICAL INTEGRITY • “The structure, composition, and function of an ecosystem operating within the bounds of natural or historic range of variation” (EIA). • The summation of chemical, physical, and biological integrity. • This concept extends beyond fish and represents a holistic approach for ecosystem management. 9
  11. ENVIRONMENTAL INTEGRITY • The sustenance of important biophysical processes which support plant and animal life and which must be allowed to continue without significant change. • Climate change, pollution, Ocean current etc… • Human activities Trawling, Overfishing… 11
  12. 12
  13. ECONOMIC INTEGRITY • Refers to consumer and investor (Fisher folk) confidence in that fisheries is a safe and secure field to conduct business, livelihood, invest and save money. -Fishery resources are limited. -Recruitment overfishing. -Growth overfishing. 13
  14. “ Fishing down the food chain” • No big fish because of overfishing • Many medium fish because nothing eats them • No small fish, all eaten by the many medium fish • Many plankton and algae because there are no small fish to eat them IMPACTS -more dead zones -red tides -jellyfish who die and sink to the bottom of the ocean and mix with the dissolved oxygen while they rot -oxygen-depleted waters -Nothing can live there except bacteria (the simplest organism) 14
  15. Fisheries Management • “The integrated process of information gathering, analysis, planning, decision-making, allocation of resources and formulation and enforcement of fishery regulations by which the fisheries management authority controls the present and future behaviors of the interested parties in the fishery, in order to ensure the continued productivity of the living resources" (FAO, 1995b). • Strongly based on the ecosystem theory but focuses primarily on fishing activity and target fish resources. 15
  16. Outside the direct control of fisheries managers ¥ The degradation of coastal waters as a result of agricultural or industrial runoff; ¥ Introduction of exotic species through ballast water and the hulls of container ships; ¥ Destruction of fish habitats through foreshore development, offshore mining, oil and gas exploration and extraction and other human activities; ¥ The contamination of fishery products by agriculture and industry; ¥ Coastal erosion and the degrading of coastal habitat; ¥ The use of freshwater for power stations, irrigation and human settlements which changes river flow; ¥ Climate change which affects the distribution and productivity of stocks; 16
  17. Ecosystem Management “The application of ecological, economic, and social information, options, and constraints to achieve desired social benefits within a defined geographic area and over a specified period" Lackey (1999). 17
  18. Ecosystem Approach “A strategy for the integrated management of land, water, and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way" 18
  19. Ecosystem Approach to Management An ecosystem is a geographically specified system of organisms (including humans), the environment and the processes that control its dynamics. Characteristics of EAM are: 1. Adaptive 2. Incremental 3. Takes account of ecosystem knowledge and uncertainties 4. Considers multiple external influences 5. Strives to balance diverse social objectives and geographically specified (NOAA working definition in Murawksi, 2005). 19
  20. EAF “An extension of conventional fisheries management recognizing more explicitly the interdependence between human well-being and ecosystem health and the need to maintain ecosystems productivity for present and future generations, (e.g) conserving critical habitats, reducing pollution and degradation, minimizing waste, protecting endangered species“, Ward et al (2002) . 20
  21. 21
  22. • The Convention on Biological Diversity considers that a general application of an Ecosystem Approach will help achieve a balance of three objectives, 1. Conservation – Ecological Integrity. 2. Sustainable use – Environmental & Economic Integrity. 3. The fair and equitable sharing of benefits. The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries (EAF) is a practical way to implement sustainable development principles. ( 22
  23. CONVENTIONAL FISHERIES MANAGEMENT • Stakeholders are those directly involved in fishing activities. • Management is commonly by Govt. fisheries authority. (Top-down) • Operates through regulations and penalties for non compliance. EAF • Stakeholders are found through out the fishery system and society. • Participation and co- management with a broad spectrum of stake holders. (Down-top) • Compliance to regulations encouraged through incentives.23
  24. CONVENTIONAL FISHERIES MANAGEMENT • Single species or target resource management. • Focus on the fishery. • Indicators related to fish catches and fish stock. • Scientific knowledge is the only valid knowledge for decision making. EAF • Includes also broader ecosystem management and biodiversity. • Focus enlarged to he broader fishery system including interaction with other sectors. • Indicators related to all parts of the aquatic ecosystem, goods and services. • Traditional, local and scientific knowledge is used for decision making. 24
  25. History • 1995 FAO CCRF, stress the need for the adoption of ecosystem approaches to fisheries (EAF). • 2001, 57 countries issued the Reykjavik Declaration on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem -work on incorporating ecosystem considerations into fisheries management. • The 2002 Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development called for, amongst other things, • The application of the Reykjavik Declaration by 2010 as one of the steps essential for ensuring the sustainable development of the oceans. 25
  26. Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Strives to balance diverse societal objectives, by taking account of ecosystem knowledge and uncertainties of biotic and abiotic and human components of ecosystem and their interactions and applying an integrated approach to fisheries within ecologically meaningful boundaries (FAO, 2002). 26
  27. Institutional HumanEcological Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries as defined by FAO (2003) 27
  29. Objective of EAF The management and sustainable use of the aquatic resources in their marine environment for Efficient and effective delivery of food Economic wealth Recreation 29
  30. Ecosystem approach to managing fisheries Impact of fishing on ecosystems 30
  31. Impact of ecosystems on fisheries • water 31
  32. Principles of the EA • Principle 1; The objective of management of land, water and living resources are a matter of societal choices. • Principle 2; Management should be decentralized to the lowest appropriate level. • Principle 3; Ecosystem managers should consider the effects(actual or potential) of their activities on adjacent and other ecosystem. • Principle 4; Recognizing potential gains from management, there is usually a need to understand and manage the ecosystem in an economic context. 1.Reduce that market distortions that adversely affect biological diversity. 2.Align incentives to promote biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. 32
  33. Principle 5; Conservation of ecosystem structure and functioning. Principle 6; Ecosystems must be managed within the limits of their functioning. Principle 7; The ecosystem approach should be undertaken at the appropriate spatial and temporal scales. Principle 8; Objectives for ecosystem management should be set for the long term. Principle 9; Management must recognize that change is inevitable. 33
  34. Principle 10; The ecosystem approach should seek the appropriate balance between conservation and use of biological diversity. Principle 11; Consider all forms of relevant info, including scientific and indigenous and local knowledge. Principle 12; Ecosystem approach should involve all relevant sectors. 34
  35. Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs) • Launched after the 1992 Earth Summit. • ‘’Regions of ocean space encompassing coastal areas from river basins and estuaries to the seaward boundary of continental shelves and the seaward margins of coastal current systems’’. • Large regions (200 000 km2 or more) characterized by distinct bathymetry, hydrography, productivity and trophically dependent populations. • World-64 (India-2). 35
  36. The LME approach uses five modules: •productivity module considers the oceanic variability and its effect on the production of phyto and zooplankton •fish and fishery module concerned with the sustainability of individual species and the maintenance of biodiversity •pollution and ecosystem health module examines health indices, eutrophication, bio toxins, pathology and emerging diseases •socio-economic module integrates assessments of human forcing and the long- term sustainability and associated socio- economic benefits of various management measures, and •governance module involves adaptive management and stakeholder participation.36
  37. BOBP - LME Area • Total maritime area : 6.2 million km2 • Total area of EEZs : 4.3 million km2 • Combined length of coastline : 14,000 km Environment • 8% of the world’s mangroves • 12% of the world’s coral reefs • Some of the largest estuaries in the world Fisheries • Employment in fisheries : 4.5 million • Number of fishers : 2.2 million 37
  38. 38
  39. The BOBLME project is working on • Coastal resource management • Marine protected areas • Ecosystem health • Fisheries statistics • Hilsa shad • Indian mackerel • Sharks • Critical habitats and iconic species • Large-scale processes • Climate change • Marine pollution 39
  40. Ecosystem Based Management Management of the uses and values of ecosystems in conjunction with stakeholders to ensure ecological integrity is maintained, and recognizing that ecosystems are dynamic and inherently uncertain (ward et al., 2002) Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management A new direction for fishery management, essentially reversing the order of management priorities to start with the ecosystem rather than the target species (Pikitch et al., 2004). 40
  41. Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management • “An approach that takes major ecosystem components and services - both structural and functional - into account in managing fisheries... • It values habitat, embraces a multispecies perspective, and is committed to understanding ecosystem processes... • Its goal is to rebuild and sustain populations, species, biological communities and marine ecosystems at high levels of productivity and biological diversity. 41
  42. 42SOURCE :
  44. Relevant international agreements and frameworks • 1971 Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance • 1973 Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) • 1979 Bonn Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals • 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) • 1991 Global Environment Facility (GEF) 44
  45. Contd… • 1992 Declaration of the UN Conference on Environment and Development • UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) • 1992 UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) • 1995 UN Agreement on Straddling and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks 45
  46. Contd… • 1995 Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries • Convention on Biological Diversity • Jakarta Mandate on Marine and Coastal Biological Diversity • UNEP Regional Seas Conventions • 2001 Reykjavik Declaration on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem • 2002 Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development. 46
  47. EQUITY • The relative distribution of value and resources among individuals and groups in society according to notions of fairness and justice and interpersonal comparisons of utility. • Equity implies that similar options are available to all parties. 47
  48. Inter-generational equity • Future generations be given the same opportunity as the present ones to decide on how to use resources. • Consideration of long-term consequences in decision-making, and rehabilitation of degraded physical and biological environments. 48
  49. Intra-generational equity • Equity among sections of the present generation. • Recognized as a major source of both conflict and non- compliance. • Eg..Conflicts between Country craft fishermen and Mechanized Trawlers, € Gear wars conflicts, € Differences in fishing ground, € commercial versus recreational fishers. 49
  50. Inter - sectorial equity • Very hard to define and make operational, but implies, for instance, that the fishery sector be treated fairly when its interests conflict with those of other sectors. (Eg) The fishery vs competing aquatic uses:  Shipping (particularly involving oil spills),  Ocean mining (as in Canada, Indonesia, Norway and elsewhere),  Tourism (as in many Caribbean islands). 50
  51. • Cross boundary equity may be condition for success full shared stocks agreements. (Eg) IOTC for Tuna, Bill fishes. • Inter-cultural equity is relevant when allocating resources to different cultures or defining rights (e.g. between indigenous and other populations). 51
  52. RIGHTS-BASED MANAGEMENT APPROACHES • An appropriate system of allocating access rights in a fishery should ensure that fishing capacity and effort correspond to the productivity of the resource. • Rights granted to individuals, groups or communities to fish in certain, clearly defined locations. • It should ensure longer-term security for the rights holders. • Enable them to view the resource as an asset to be used responsibly. 52
  53. Territorial use rights (TURFs) TURFs are frequently used in combination with decentralization of control, giving the rights holder in a particular TURF control over some or all management functions, for example surveillance and compliance. 53
  54. Limited-entry systems • It allow only a certain number of individuals or vessels to take part in a fishery. • Entry being granted by way of a license or other form of permit. • Entry may also be regulated through a system of effort rights (input rights) or by setting catch controls (output rights) 54
  55. Individual Transferable Quota • " Individual fishing quotas (IFQs) " are one kind of catch share. • The regulator sets a species-specific total allowable catch (TAC), typically by weight and for a given time period. • ITQs were first implemented in Iceland in 1979 for Herring. 55
  56. Constructing an ITQ system 1) Recommendations by fish biologists, fisheries authority annually determines and declares a TAC for each commercial species fishery; 2) Depending on historical landings and size of boat, each fisherman/fishing firm is initially allocated a percentage of TAC for each species , where an ITQ is usually attached to a specified fishing vessel (also called IVQ). • Allocation of TAC- share is conducted only once when ITQ is introduced. • Newcomer must through quota market to obtain his quota. • A fisherman/fishing firm can keep his TAC-share forever unless he actively transfers it to others. 56
  57. Advantages & disadvantages • The ecological, social, economic and political environment varies from fishery to fishery. • TURFs may be particularly suitable for the management of sedentary resources. • Total allowable catch (TAC) management systems, is particularly common in fisheries where the catch is based upon fewer species. 57
  58. Contd… • Effort rights Catch rights - there are no reliable estimates of biomass - where species diversity is high • Catch rights may best facilitate the management of highly migratory and trans boundary stocks. • Effort management may be more effective - fishery uses primarily the same gear type. • Catch rights - fishery using many different gear types, may be preferable. 58
  59. References • Gabriella Bianchi, Hein R. Skjoldal (eds): The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 40 - 53. • http://www.oag- • • 3.pdf • • 59
  60. 60