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Mapping Post-it Conventions Step #
Activity (Verb / Noun) Function that performs the task # Staff (if relevant) Barriers to flow (if relevant) PT (process time) % Complete & Accurate LT (Lead time)
Current State Value Stream Map
Service Delivery – Call to Cash Source Refrigeration & HVAC, Inc. Current State Value Stream Map Serv ice Deliv ery Created February 11, 2009 CONFIDENTIAL Customer Great Plains Verisae (Customer) Special Order Part Excel Spreadsheet (Customer) Supplier Tech Upload time card Close call in Verisae Process Time Cards Tech Account Manager (West) Payroll Admin PT = 0 mins. %C&A = 70% Batch: 1x/day PT = 1 mins. %C&A = 90% Batch: 1x/day Complete Call in GP Pick up Part at Parts Store Review Service Call Data ?% Tech 40% Receive customer call Select & Dispatch Tech Call Center Dispatcher & Service Manager 5 m. 120 m. PT = 2 mins. %C&A = 60% 0.0833 hours PT = 5 mins. %C&A = 60% Tech PT = 90 mins. %C&A = 90% PT = 0 mins. 640 m. 240 m. PT = 5 mins. %C&A = 80% PT = 120 mins. %C&A = 40% 2 hours 75 minutes Dispatcher Tech 120 m. 1.25 hours 90 minutes Make Repair; Call to raise the NTE Get Part from Truck 75 m. 1.5 hours 5 minutes ?% Tech 90 m. 2 hours 2 minutes Assess Problem PT = 75 mins. %C&A = 95% 5 minutes PT = 15 mins. %C&A = 85% Batch: 1x/day Billing Admin 6 days PT = 25 mins. %C&A = 75% Posting Admin 240 mins. PT = 3 mins. %C&A = 98% Batch: 1x/day 640 m. Account Manager 3 minutes Enter Invoices into Verisae & Excel; Mail Invoices Billing Admin 120 m. PT = 10 mins. %C&A = 85% Batch: 3-5x per wk 10.7 hours 4 hours 25 minutes Review Invoices; Close in Verisae (Pac) Review & Post Invoices Review Open Ticket Report 48 hours 10 minutes A/P Admin PT = 10 mins. %C&A = 90% Batch: 1x/day PT = 10 mins. %C&A = 50% Batch: 2x/day 10.7 hours 4 hours 120 minutes Service Manager Process A/P Receive Cash; Post Payment Collections 60 days PT = 4 mins. %C&A = 95% Batch: 1x/week 480 hours 2 hours 10 minutes 4 minutes Lead Time = 572 hours Process Time = 349 minutes Acronym Key %C&A %Complete and Accurate AR Activity Ratio FTE Full Time Equivalent LT Lead Time PT Process Time RFPY Rolled First Pass Yield Lead Time to invoice = 86.2 hrs Process Time =5.9 hrs. NOTE: Business hours Activity Ratio = 6.8% RFPY = 1.1% Lead time to cash = ? days RFPY = 1.1%
Future State Value Stream Map
Service Delivery – Call to Cash Future State Value Stream Map Source Refrigeration & HVAC, Inc. Service Delivery T&M Target example, refrigeration component repair, non-peak season (35 w ork orders per day) Created February 13, 2009 CONFIDENTIAL Create Source preferred T & C's Explore flat rate pricing Customer %C&A = 99% Establish parameters for time & parts by service type EDI Interf ace Create EDI Interface w/ Customers Create Tech performance report Create EDI Interface w/ Verisae Supplier Great Plains No EDI Special Order Part Improve Tech Training; Create Sub-levels Improve Tech Onboarding Tech Create Tech Support Center Implement GPS Contact Tech Support As Needed Install kanban on trucks ? Centralize Dispatch 10% Assess Problem Dispatcher 120 mins. PT = 7 mins. %C&A = 85% 2 hrs. Make Repair; Complete call on handheld Tech PT = 75 mins. %C&A = 90% PT = 0 mins. ` 24 hrs. PT = 120 mins. %C&A = 75% 2 hrs. 1.25 hrs. Create stnd work for invoicing PT = 5 mins. %C&A = 99% 1x daily Billing Admin Compare invoice register to invoices and mail invoices 4 hrs. PT = 25 mins. %C&A = 95% 24 hrs. 2 hrs. Create Customer Billing Teams Review W.O., payroll, AP & invoice; post immediately Tech 2 hrs. 1.25 hrs. 1.25 hrs. Create invoice exception report Get Part from Truck 75 mins. 1.25 hrs. 0.117 hrs. ? Enter data into Verisae and Excel from Daily Report Billing Admin Standardize Truck Inventory PT = 75 mins. %C&A = 95% Tech 75 mins. Separate labor & payroll Pick up Part at Parts Store Tech Tech Create W.O. Dispatch Tech Excel Spreadsheet (Customer) Verisae (Customer) Billing Admin Receive Cash; Post Payment Collections 60 days PT = 5 mins. %C&A = 99% 1x daily 4 hrs. 0.417 hrs. 480 hrs. 0.0833 hrs. Lead Time = 520 hrs. Process Time = 5.12 hrs. Acronym Key %C&A %Complete and Accurate AR Activity Ratio FTE Full Time Equivalent LT Lead Time PT Process Time RFPY Rolled First Pass Yield Lead Time to invoice = 34.5 hrs NOTE: Business hours Process Time = 5.1 hrs. Activity Ratio = 14.8% RFPY = 45.4% Lead time to cash = 67 days
Root Cause Analysis: 4 Key
Tools Cause-and-Effect Diagram 5 Why’s People Material / Info Lack of experience Budgets Submitted Late Forecast in other system Manual vs. PC System avail. Quality issue requiring rework Staffing/absenteeism Order entry error Changing customer requirements w/ no adjustment to expected delivery Equipment failure Tally ||||| || ||||| ||| ||||| ||||| ||||| ||||| ||| | No standard work Email vs. FedEx Check Sheets Quantify Occurrences Material shortage Changing schedule Input rec’d late No sense of import Machine Reason No stnd spread sheet Time availability Why? Why? Why? Why? Why? Method No milestones $ vs. units Measurement Weather delays Dispersed sales force Environment
Five Why’s Example Problem: Report
is taking too much of an employee’s time; team questions whether the report is needed 1. Why is the error report being prepared? My supervisor told me to. 2. Supervisor – Why are you asking for this report? One of the standard reports to be prepared per my predecessor – I have yet to determine its usage. 3. Predecessor – Why did you initiate this report? Report was required in the past because personnel in order entry were making data input errors. 4. Data entry – Why were orders being input with errors? Orders received via fax were blurry and hard to read. 5. Data entry - Why were the fax orders hard to read? Fax machine was old and of low quality. It was replaced 10 months ago and errors no longer are occurring.
Problem Analysis Tree Problem: Documents
are not being translated well and on time In physical transit Lost docs* No tracking In cyberspace Large batches In in-basket Confusing formats In out-basket Poor original Late or poorly translated documents Translator doesn’t understand original Translation problems** Translator understands original, but still poor translation Faxed / poor resolution Random vocabulary Translator skills Selection Lack of training Wrong technical vocabulary Training No standard Poor editing Poorly expressed * Lost and found = 40%; lost & never found = 5%; stuck in system = 55% ** Rework on over 50% of documents Unclear expectations Uneven workload
Call back cause-and-effect diagram.igx Cause
and Effect Diagram – Call Backs Method Material People Tech ambition Wrong tech sent Bad part Tech training No criteria for calling for help Wrong part Not reaching out for help No help available Rushing Substitute part Call Backs Inherent problem in case Repeat failure Machine Poor data Lack of defined metrics Measurement Unplanned conditions Equipment variety Environment Circled items indicate likely highest volume root causes
Error Proofing Priorities Goals: Make
it impossible to make the error. Make it harder to make the error. Make it obvious the error has occurred. Make the system robust so it tolerates the error. 52
Mistake Proofing Goals:
First, avoid making errors. Second, avoid passing errors to downstream internal customer. Third, avoid passing errors to external customer. Design robust processes with: No errors No “impact errors” if errors occur at all We have a tendency to be less diligent when we know a downstream inspection will occur. 58
Error-Proofing Help people do
the right thing; prevent them from doing the wrong thing (e.g. automation, physical restrictions, warnings) Create easy standard work tools (e.g. checklists) Provide adequate training & retraining Visual work instructions See one, do one, teach one Send work back upstream for completion and/or correction and follow-up with add’l training Have customer requirements discussions with upstream suppliers 63
Reasons for Errors Lack of
training Lack of standardization Overly complicated processes Time delays between input and output Multi-tasking Interruptions Rushing Ambiguous information Unclear instruction Poor handwriting Blurry images (technology-related) 65