1. Language, Learning, and Teaching
2. First Language Acquisition
3. Age and Acquisition
4. Human Learning
5. Styles and Strategies
6. Personality Factors
7. Sociocultural Factors
8. Cross-Linguistic Influence and Learner Language
9. Communicative Competence
10. Theories of Second Language Acquisition
3. Language, Learning, and
Current Issues in Second Language
Language Learning and Teaching Schools
of Thought in Second Language Acquisition
Structuralism/Behaviorism Rationalism and
Psychology Constructivism Language
Methodology In the Classroom: The
Grammar Translation Method
4. First Language Acquisition
Theories of First Language Acquisition
Competence and Performance
Comprehension and Productions Nature or
Universals Systematicity and Variability
Language and Thought Imitation Practice
Input Discourse In the Classroom: Gouin
and Berlitz The First Reformers Topics and
Questions for Study and Discussion
Suggested Readings Language Learning
Experience: Journal Entry
5. Age and Acquisition
Types of Comparison and Contrast
The Critical Period Hypothesis
Evidence The Significance of Accent
Bilingualism Interference Between First and Second Language
Interference in Adults
Order of Acquisition
Issues in First Language Acquisition Revisited In the Classroom: The Audiolingual Method Topics and
Questions for Study and Discussion
6. Human Learning
Learning and Training
Rogerss Humanistic Psychology
Types of Learning Transfer, Interference, and
Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
Aptitude and Intelligence In the Classroom: The Designer
Methods of the 1970s
7. Styles and Strategies
Process, Style, and Strategy
Left- and Right-Brain
Tolerance Reflectivity and Impulsivity
Visual and Auditory Styles
Strategies Communication S
Strategies-Based Instruction In the Classroom: Styles and
Strategies in Practice
8. Personality Factors
The Affective Domain
Risk-Taking Anxiety Empathy
Instrumental and Integrative Orientations
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
The Neurobiology of Affect
Measuring Affective Factors In the Classroom: Putting
Methods into Perspective Topics and Questions for Study
9. Sociocultural Factors
Culture: establishes for each person a context of cognitive and
effective behavior, a template for personal and social existence.
Stereotype: If people recognize and understand differing world
views, they will usually adopt a positive and open-minded
attitude toward cross-cultural differences.
Attitudes: like all aspects of cognitive development, develop in
early childhood and are a result of parents’ and peers’ attitudes,
of contacts with people from different life styles.
Second Culture Acquisition: Most learners of a second language
learn the language with very little sense of the culture of its
speakers. A foreign language course should present culture as a
list of facts to be cognitively consumed.
Acculturation: Second language learning involves the acquisition
of a second identity. Creation a new identity is in the very heart
of culture learning, Acculturation.
Culture in the Classroom: Stevick learners can feel alienation in
the process of learning a second language, alienation from
people in their home, culture, the target culture, and from
10. Cross-Linguistic Influence and
Deeply rooted in the behavioristic and structuralist approaches, the
CAH claimed that the principal barrier to L2 is the interference of
L1system with the 2nd system.
Categories of hierarchy of difficulty:
Level 0. No difference or contrast is present between the two languages. Level 1 –
coalescence two items in the native language become coalesced into essentially
one item in the target language.
Level 2 Underdifferentiation –an item in the native language is absent in the target
3 Reinterpretation –an item that exists in the native language is given a new shape or
4. Overdifferentiation –a new item entirely, bearing any similarity to the native
language item, must be learned. Level
5. Split –one item in the native language becomes two or more in the target
language requiring the learner to make a new distinction.
11. From the The Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis to Cross-
Predictions of difficulty by means of contrastive procedures had many
shortcomings. The process could not account for all linguistic problems or
situations not even with the 6 categories. Lastly, the predictions of
difficulty level could not be verified with reliability.
Syntactic , lexical, and semantic interference show far more variation
among learners than psycho-motor-based pronunciation interference.
It accounted for degrees of principles of universal grammar. Eckman
showed that marked items in a language will be more difficult to acquire
than unmarked, and that degree of markedness will correspond to
degrees of difficulty
The most obvious approach to analyzing interlanguage is to study the
speech and writing of learners –learner language
The matter of how to correct errors is exceedingly complex.
Research on error correction methods is not at all conclusive
about the most effective method or technique for error
It seems quite clear that students in the classroom want and
expect errors to be corrected.
Flow chart as an example of error treatment in a classroom
Communicative Competence: Is a term in linguistics which refers to a
language user’s grammatical knowledge of syntax, morphology,
phonology and the like, as well as social knowledge about how and
when to use utterances appropriately.
Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency: a language-related term
which refers to formal academic learning.
Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills: A language skills needed to
interact in social situations, primarily to context bound, face-to-face
Subcategories of C. C.: Grammatical competence, Discourse
competence, Strategic competence, Sociolinguistic competence.
Language Functions: Bachman-Illocutionary competence. Canales &
Swain-discourse and sociolinguistic competence.
Michael Halliday’s 7 Functions of Language: Instrumental Function,
Regulatory Function, Representational Function, Interactional Function,
Personal Function, Heuristic Function, Imaginative Function.
13. Topis & Language Functions Syllabus: Topics: Personal identification,
personal opinions, hobbies/free time, environment, places and building,
food and drink, travel and holidays, shopping/clothes, weather.
Nonverbal Communication: Kinesics, Eye contact, Proxemics, Artifacts,
kinesthetic, Olfactory Dimensions
The Communicative Language Teaching: Focuses on helping learners to
communicate meaningfully in a target language. Emphasizes interaction
as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning a language.
Classroom activities: Role play, interviews, information gap, games,
surveys, pair works.
Task-based instruction: is an approach that focuses on the use of
authentic language and on asking students to do meaningful tasks using
the target language.
Types of Task: Target tasks, Pedagogical Tasks
Advantages: Student-centered, allows for more meaningful
communication. The tasks are likely to be familiar to the students.
Students are free to use what grammar constructs and vocabulary they
14. Theories of Second language Acquisition
EXPLAINING SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING:
Different theories have been proposed:
1. The behaviorist perspective
2. The innatist perspective
3. The cognitive/developmental perspective
4. The sociocultural perspective
THE BEHAVIORIST PERSPECTIVE: Learning is explained in terms of
imitation, practice, reinforcement, and habit formation. The
Audiolingual method. Students memorized dialogues and
sentence patterns by heart. Contrastive Analysis hypothesis.
THE INNATIST PERSPECTIVE: Humans are born with innate
knowledge of the principles of Universal Grammar: UG. UG allows
all children to acquire the language of their environment during
a critical period of their development Critical Period Hypothesis.
15. THE COGNITIVE/DEVELOPMENTAL: GENERAL THEORIES OF LEARNING
Information processing: Paying attention and practicing. Declarative
knowledge becomes Procedural knowledge. Language becomes
The interaction hypothesis: Modified input, opportunity to interact.
Connectionism: The competition model: frequency of encountering
certain language features in the input allow learners to make
connections. The competition model.
THE SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
• Vygotsky’s theory proposes:
• Cognitive development, including language development, arises as a
result of social interaction.
• Learning occurs how?
When an individual
- Interacts with an interlocutor
- Focus on input and output in the interaction.
- Cognitive development starts from the social context then