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Physical and Mechanical Control

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A report about Physical and Mechanical Control

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Physical and Mechanical Control

  1. 1. Physical and Mechanical Control
  2. 2. Physical Control Definition: Modification of physical factors in the environment to minimize or prevent pest problems is called physical control Impact of physical control Insect require definite ranges of physical conditions and any departure from such ranges are lethal to the survival and other life activities of insects
  3. 3. Physical Methods in Pest Management
  4. 4. Temperature manipulation Insect activity and metabolic rate are influenced by environmental temperature. Optimum range of temperature is vital for normal insect activity.
  5. 5. High lethal temperature Sun drying of grains- rice weevil Hot water treatment of rice seeds at 52-54C for 15 min- White tip nematode Flaming (Flame thrower)- locusts and moringa hairy catterpillar
  6. 6. Low lethal Temeperature Cold Storage of Potatoes- Potato tuber moth
  7. 7. Sun drying of grains
  8. 8. Hot water treatment of seeds
  9. 9. Flaming (Flame thrower)
  10. 10. Cold storage
  11. 11. Moisture Manipulation In well-dried grains (moisture content <10%), the survival of stored grain pests becomes impossible e.g. rice weevil, pulse beetle. Alternate wetting and drying in rice fields reduces the brown plant hopper damage.
  12. 12. Light Manipulation Behavioral orientation is influenced by light. Provision of light causes: 1. Mating frequency reduction –Red Hairy Caterpillar 2. Reduced fertility -Indian meal moth 3. Diapause distruption –All diapausing insects
  13. 13. Light trapping: it serves many purposes like monitoring initial infestation, seasonal incidence, pest-weather relationship, pest intensity, pest survey, trapping and killing.
  14. 14. Light Traps
  15. 15. Light Traps
  16. 16. Electromagnetic Energy Use of radio frequency (RF) (wavelength range 102–1010 µ) affects thoracic ganglion and causes synaptic blocking, alteration of amino compounds and dissolution of nerve cells e.g. rice weevils.
  17. 17. Use of infrared radiation (wavelength range 0.78-102 µ) - rice weevil Use of visible (0.38-0.78µ) and UV radiation (2x10-2-0.38µ). Yellow colour attracts aphids and black colour attracts angumois grain moth. Ionizing radiation- X-rays (10-5-10-2µ), gamma rays (10-8-10-4 µ) kill, sterilize insects at lethal dose.
  18. 18. Radio frequency instrument
  19. 19. Infrared radiation instrument
  20. 20. UV radiation instrument
  21. 21. Ionizing radiation instrument
  22. 22. Sound energy Acoustic device (Bird scarer/acetylene exploders) produces sudden loud sound which frighten birds. Fire crackers also used to make loud sound to scatter away squirrel, foxes, rats, mice, deer, etc. Disadvantage: Habituation to the sound
  23. 23. Bird scarer
  24. 24. Acetylene exploder
  25. 25. Firecracker
  26. 26. Mechanical Control
  27. 27. “ Definition: Use of mechanical force or manual labour either for destruction or exclusion of pests
  28. 28. Mechanical Methods in Pest Management Life stages of pests are killed by mechanical force or manual labor.
  29. 29. Mechanical Destruction
  30. 30. Manual Labour Hand picking- Red hair caterpillar, American boll worm, egg masses of Spodoptera and RHC Hooking- Rhinoceros beetle Brushing- Woolen fabrics for cloth moth Combing- Delousing of head louse Crushing- Bed bugs and lice
  31. 31. Manual Labour Swatting- Hit by severe blow against mosquitoes Sifting- Sieving for red flour beetle Shaking plants- White grubs adults, case worm of rice
  32. 32. Hand picking
  33. 33. Hooking
  34. 34. Brushing
  35. 35. Combing
  36. 36. Crushing
  37. 37. Swatting
  38. 38. Sifting
  39. 39. Shaking plants
  40. 40. Mechanical force Entoleter- Centrifugal force is applied to kill insect stages of stored grain pests Hopped dozer- Kill nymphs of locusts by herding into trenches and filling with soil Tillage implements- Soil borne insects, pupae of many insects
  41. 41. Entoleter
  42. 42. Hopped dozer
  43. 43. Mechanical Exclusion
  44. 44. Mechanical barriers prevent access of pests to hosts. Banding- Banding with grease or polythene sheets to control mango mealy bugs Wrapping- Covering the fruit with perforated polybags to control pomegrante fruit borer and cloth bag to control fruit pests of grapevine Covering material- Red earth coating on red gram grains to control pulse beetle
  45. 45. Netting- Mosquito control in house, vector control in greenhouse Trenching- Trapping marching larvae of RHC Water barrier- Ant pans for ant control Tim barrier- Metallic sheet fixed around tree trunks in coconut for rat control
  46. 46. Trapping- Box trap, back break trap, wonder trap for rats Electric fencing- Electrocution checks rat and wild animals Insect proof packing- Stored pests
  47. 47. Banding
  48. 48. Wrapping
  49. 49. Netting
  50. 50. Trenching
  51. 51. Water barrier
  52. 52. Tim barrier
  53. 53. Trapping
  54. 54. Electric fencing
  55. 55. Insect proof packing
  56. 56. Merits and Demerits of Pest Control
  57. 57. Merits Home labour utilization Low equipment cost Ecologically safe Good component of IPM Demerits Limited application Require continuous use Rarely highly effective Labour intensive
  58. 58. THE END Prepared by: Karl Louisse D. Obispo