2. Criteria for Curriculum Assessment
Criteria are a set standards to be followed in
assessment. Specifically, as they apply to curriculum,
criteria are set of standards upon which the different
elements of the curriculum are being tested.
The criteria will determine the different levels of
competencies or proficiency of acceptable task
3. Criteria for Goals and Objectives
Goals and objectives are statements of curricular
expectations. They are sets of learning outcomes
specifically designed for students.
The items must reflect the takes, skills, content
behavior and thought processes that make up
curricular domains and must also match the students’
Goals and instructional objectives are formulated and
specified for the following purposes:
4. 1.To have focus on curriculum and instruction which
give direction to where students need to go.
2.To meet the requirements specified in the policies
and standards of curriculum and instruction.
3.To provide the students’ the best possible education
and describe the students’ level of performance
4.To monitor the progress of students based on the
5.To motivate students to learn and the teachers to be
able to feel a sense of competence when goals are
5. For goals and objectives to be formulated criteria on
certain elements should be included according to Howell
and Nolet in 2000.
1. Content – From the objectives, what content should
2. Behavior – What will students do to indicate that they
3. Criterion – What level of performance should the
students have to master the behavior?
4. Condition – Under what circumstances should the work
in order to master that behavior?
6. Writing effective goals and objectives should also use
the following general criteria.
1. Are the objectives syntactically correct? – Syntactic
2. Do the objectives comply with the legal requirements
of the course of subjects? – Compliance with legal
3. Do the objectives pass the stranger test? – The
7. 4. Do the objectives address both knowledge and
behavior? – Both knowledge and behavior are
5. Do they pass the “so-what” test? – The “So-What”
6. Are the objectives aligned? – Individualization
7. Do they make common sense? – Common Sense
8. CHECKLIST for GOALS and OBJECTIVES
1. Do the goals and/or objectives represent an important
learning outcome that is a priority for this student?
2. Is there a goals written for each area of need stated in the
present level of performance?
3. Are the goals realistic in the sense that they can be
accomplished in one year?
4. Are the goals and objectives easily measured?
5. Are there multiple objectives representing intermediate
steps to each goal?
6. Are the goals and instructional objectives appropriately
calibrated (sliced neither too broadly nor too narrowly)?
7. Are the goals and instructional objectives useful for
planning and evaluating instructional programs?
9. Criteria for Assessment of Instruction
INSTRUCTION – refers to the implementation of the
objectives. It is concerned with the methodologies of
the strategies of teaching.
The Two Approaches of Instruction
1. Supplantive Approach
2. Generative Approach
10. Supplantive Approach
This is referred to as “direct” instruction (Adams
& Englemann, 1996).
In here, the teacher attempts to promote learning
by providing explicit directions and explanations
regarding how to do a task.
The teacher assumes primary responsibility for
linking new information with the students prior
knowledge and ultimately whatever the students
11. With this approach, information is presented in an
ordered sequence in which component subskills are
taught directly or a foundation for later tasks.
This approach is highly teacher-directed.
12. Generative Approach
This is referred to as “constructivist” or
In here, the teacher functions as a facilitator who
takes a less central role in a learning process that is
student - directed (Ensminger & Dangel, 1992).
The teacher provides opportunities for the students
to make own linkages to prior knowledge and to
devise her own strategies for work.
13. Generative instruction is “constructivist” because
much of its emphasis is on helping students construct
their own educational goals ands experiences as well
as the knowledge that results
With this approach, information is presented on a
schedule determined by students’ interests and goals.
14. A Comparison of Teaching Approaches
Attribute Generative Approach Supplantive Approach
Buzz words used
• Top Down
• Direct instruction
• Mastery learning
• Task analytic
• Competency based
• Effective teaching
call the other
what is taught
• Students construct their
• When learning is
will identify what they’re
ready to learn
• The skills that students
need to learn can be
derived from an analysis
of the social demands
placed on them.
15. Attribute Generative Approach Supplantive Approach
• Learning is “socially
link new information to
prior know when provided
opportunities too observe
• Learning can be induced
through instruction that
builds explicit links
between new information
and prior knowledge
how to teach
• Learning is developmental
and occurs much thee way
early language is acquired
• Teachers take a “hand’s
off” approach and seek to
provide a meaningful
context in which learning
will occur naturally.
• When learning does not
occur, it can be
facilitated by building it
from the “bottom up”
through teaching of
• Teachers take a “hands-
on” approach by
structuring lessons and
16. Attribute Generative Approach Supplantive Approach
• Creating interesting
classroom activities but
failure to link these
activities to learning
• By focusing on specific
learning outcomes, they
may fail attend to other
interests and topics
• Too much emphasis on
larger ideas, not enough
emphasis on the
• Too much emphasis on the
components, not enough
emphasis on the larger
17. Guidelines for Selecting an Instructional Approach
Select the Generative Approach
Select the Suppllantive Approach
The Student • Has considerable prior knowledge
• Has adaptive motivational patterns
• Experiences consistent successes on
• Has little prior knowledge of the task
• Has non-adaptive motivational
• Experiences repeated failure on the
The Task • Is simple for the student
• Is well defined
• Can be completed using a general
• Is to understand but not necessarily
apply, what is learned
• Is complex
• Is ill defined
• Has missing information
• Requires the use of a task-specific
• Is pivotal to the learning of
• Must be used with a high level of
The setting • Allows plenty of time to accomplish
• Places priority to experiences on
• Time allowed to accomplish
outcomes is limited
• Places priority on task mastery
18. What are Curriculum Criteria
Curriculum are guidelines on standards for curriculum
The objectives of a curriculum or teaching plan are
the most important curriculum criteria, since they
should be used in selection learning experiences and
in evaluating learning achievement.
19. 1. Have the goals of the curriculum or teaching plan
been clearly stated; and are they used by teachers
and students in choosing content, materials and
activities for learning?
2. Have the teacher and students engaged in student-
teacher planning in defining the goals and inn
determining how they will be implemented?
3. Do some of the planned goals relate to the society or
the community in which the curriculum will be
implemented or the teaching will be done?
The criteria are stated in the form of questions as
20. 4. Do some of the planned goals relate to the individual
learner and his or her needs, purposes, interest and
5. Are the planned goals used as criteria in selecting and
developing learning materials for instruction?
6. Are the planned goals used as criteria in evaluating
learning achievement and in the further planning of
learning sub goals and activities?
21. Does the curriculum or teaching plan include
alternative approaches and alternative activities for
Have the different learning theories been considered in
planning alternative learning approaches and activities?
Has the significance of rewarded responses, transfer,
generalization, advance organizers, self-concept,
meaningfulness of the whole, personal meaning,
imitation, identification and socialization been
considered in the planning?
According to Hass and Parkay (1993), individual differences,
flexibility and systematic planning are criteria that depend in
part on knowledge of the different approaches to learning. The
criterion question are as follows:
22. What are the Characteristics of a Good
1. The curriculum is continuously evolving.
2. The curriculum is based on the needs of the people.
3. The curriculum is democratically conceived.
4. The curriculum is the result of a long-term effort.
5. The curriculum is a complex of details.
6. The curriculum provides for the logical sequence of subject matter.
7. The curriculum complements and cooperates with the other
programs of the community.
8. The curriculum has educational quality.
9. The curriculum has administrative flexibility.
23. What are Marks of a Good Curriculum?
Here are some marks of a good curriculum which may be used
as criteria for evaluation purposes given by J. Galen Saylor.
1. A good curriculum is systematically planned and evaluated.
2. A good curriculum reflects adequately the aims of the school.
3. A good curriculum maintains balance among all aims of the
4. A good curriculum promotes continuity of experience.
5. A good curriculum arranges learning opportunities flexibly for
adaptation to particular situations and individuals.
6. A good curriculum utilizes the most effective learning
experiences and resources available.
7. A good curriculum makes maximum provision for the
development of each learner.
24. What is Evaluation?
Evaluation is the process of determining the value of
something or the extent to which goals are being
It is a process of making a decision or reading a
It involves decision making about student
performance based on information obtained from an
Assessment is the process of collecting
information by reviewing the products of student
work, interviewing, observing, or testing.
25. Evaluation is the process of using information that is
collected through assessment.
It entails a reasoning process that is based on
Inference is the process of arriving at a logical
conclusion from a body of evidence.
Evaluation is thoughtful process.
It is the judgment we make about the assessments of
student learning based on established criteria.
26. Evaluation provides information-
a. Directly to the learner for guidance
b. Directly to the teacher for orientation of the next
c. Directly to external agencies for their assessment of
schools functioning in the light of national purposes.
27. What is Curriculum Evaluation?
Curriculum evaluation is the process obtaining
information for judging the worth of an educational
program, program, procedure, educational objectives or
the potential utility of alternative approaches designed
to attain specified objectives (Glass and Worthem,
28. Curriculum evaluation focuses on determining
whether the curriculum as recorded in the master plan
has been carried out in the classroom. In evaluating a
curriculum, the following key questions are usually
1. Are the objectives being addressed?
2. Are the contents presented in the recommended
3. Are students being involved in the suggested
4. Are students reacting to the contents?
29. Formative and Summative Evaluation
Takes place during the lesson or project and tells
the evaluator what is happening.
Is ongoing and yields information that can be used
to modify the program prior to termination. (Howell
& Nolet, 2000)
Takes place at the end of a lesson or project and
tells the evaluator what has happened.
“Sums up” the learning.