L1 - ES & Thermofluids 2023 Master SS.pptx

Keith Vaugh
Keith VaughSTEM Education & Design en MAGVA Design + Letterpress
Energy Systems + Thermofluids 3
Lectures | Tutorials | Practicals
KEITH VAUGH - Lecture 1
The practical and theoretical aspects of the Thermodynamic
Laws with an emphasis on the processes, the environment
and society are explored. Candidates develop their
comprehension of these laws through an integrated and
applied approach and develop their ability to analyse
thermodynamic and thermofluidic systems. The module
contains theoretical, practical and empirical material.
AIM
LEARNING
OUTCOMES
Identify, interpret and apply the unique vocabulary associated with
thermodynamic and thermofluidic systems and demonstrate an
ability to identify, formulate and solve engineering problems
associated with thermodynamic and thermofluidic systems
Specify, select and analyse individual components of a
thermodynamic/thermofluidic system and recognise the role of the
engineer and the impact that these components and/or systems
can have society and the environment.
Demonstrate an ability to conduct comprehensive experimental
studies relevant to both wet and dry fluid flow systems within a
collaborative group setting and to deliver a mini project and
disseminate results to peers in a conference style paper format
and/or presentation
Critique one's own learning through the identification and
subsequent addressing of deficits
LEARNING
OUTCOMES
Final Terminal Exam
Continuous Assessment
Experiments & Pumping
Project
(Labs - due midnight same
day
Project - Week 10/12)
Identify, interpret and apply the unique vocabulary associated with
thermodynamic and thermofluidic systems and demonstrate an
ability to identify, formulate and solve engineering problems
associated with thermodynamic and thermofluidic systems
Specify, select and analyse individual components of a
thermodynamic/thermofluidic system and recognise the role of the
engineer and the impact that these components and/or systems
can have society and the environment.
Demonstrate an ability to conduct comprehensive experimental
studies relevant to both wet and dry fluid flow systems within a
collaborative group setting and to deliver a mini project and
disseminate results to peers in a conference style paper format
and/or presentation
Critique one's own learning through the identification and
subsequent addressing of deficits
Title: Fundamentals of Thermal Fluid Sciences
Author: Yunus A. Cengel, Robert H. Turner, John
M. Cimbala
Publisher: McGraw Hill
ISBN: 978-007-132511-0
ISBN: 978-981-472095-3
Required Text
NOTE: The module has written using the 3rd
edition, 4th/5th edition can also be used
Take Notes
50%
Final terminal
exam
40%
Project & Labs
10%
Continuous
assignments
MODULE MARKING
EXPERIMENTS
SESSIONS | REPORTS
Students work in teams to complete experiments
Lab coats and safety glasses MUST be worn at all times
when working in the laboratory
One report per team is to be submitted by midnight on the
day the experiment was conducted
The team leadership rotates for each experiment
All team members are to be delegated activities required to
complete the experiment by the experiment leader
Each team member must include their own
discussion/conclusions on the experiment
Team reports are limited to 3 pages (not including cover
page or appendices) Projects - 6 page report plus
appendices and a recorded Narrated Presentation
EXPERIMENTS
SESSIONS
|
REPORTS
|
PROJECTS
TIMELIN
E
TIMELIN
E
15 Week Semester
12 Lecture Weeks
Semester I
Week 2
Lecture 1 - 12th of September 2021
Semester I
Week 12
Lecture 11 - 27th of November 2021
Semester I -Week 2
Lecture 1 - Introduction
Aim
Learning outcomes (LO’s)
Course Work
Linking LO’s to Assessment
Problem Solving Techniques
Energy and the Environment
Lecture 2
Basic Concepts
Systems and control volumes
Properties of a system
Density and specific gravity
State and equilibrium
The state postulate
Processes and cycles
The state-flow process
Temperature and the zeroth law
Temperature scales
Pressure
Variation of pressure with depth
Lecture 3
Energy, Energy Transfer and
Energy Analysis
Forms of energy
Energy transfer by heat
Energy transfer by work
Mechanical forms of work
First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy balance
Energy change of a system
Mechanisms of energy transfer
(heat, work, mass flow)
Energy conversion efficiencies
Efficiencies of mechanical and
electrical devices (turbines, pumps,
etc…)
Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7
September 12th - First Lecture October
Lecture 4
Properties of Pure Substances
Phases change of a pure substance
Compressed liquid, saturated liquid,
saturated vapour, superheated
vapour
Saturated temperature & pressure
Property diagrams for phase
change processes
Property diagrams, tables Enthalpy
Saturated liquid - vapour mixture
Lecture 5
Worked examples Part 1
Pure Substance phase change
process
Using the property tables and
property diagrams
Phase Change worked example
problems
Critical Point
Vapour States
The Right Tank
Specific Volume
Piston Cylinder
Forms of Energy
0 = 𝑄
·
𝑐𝑣 − 𝑊
·
𝑐𝑣 + 𝑚
·
ℎ2 − ℎ1 +
𝑉2
2
− 𝑉1
2
2
+ 𝑔 𝑧2 − 𝑧1
Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10 Week 11 Week 12
November
Lecture 6
Energy Analysis of Closed
Systems
Moving boundary work
Boundary work - isothermal,
constant pressure & polytropic
processes
Energy balance for closed systems
Energy balance - constant pressure
expansion/compression process
Specific heats
Constant - Pres. specific heat, cp
Constant - Volume specific heat, cv
Internal energy, enthalpy and
specific heats of ideal gasses
Lecture 7
Mass & Energy Analysis
of Control Systems
Conservation of mass
Mass balance for steady flow
process and incompressible flow
Flow work & energy of flowing fluid
Energy transport by mass
Energy analysis - steady flow
systems
Steady flow engineering devices
Lecture 9
Second Law of
Thermodynamics
Thermal energy reservoirs
Heat engineers and thermal
efficiency
Kelvin-Planck Statement
Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
Co-efficient of Performance (COP)
Class Statement
Perpetual motion machines
Reversible & irreversible processes
Irreversibility’s, internal & externally
reversible
Lecture 10
Introduction to Entropy
Entropy
Clausius inequality
Entropy change of pure substances
Isentropic processes
Property diagrams involving entropy
What is entropy?
Entropy change of liquids and solids
rt 1
ange
and
ample
Internal Energy, Enthalpy and
specific heats of ideal gases
Mass and Volume Flow Rates
Energy Balance applies problems
Flow Work and the energy of a
flowing fluid
Nozzles and diffusers
Heat Exchangers
Turbine and compressors
Throttling valves etc…
Lecture 8
Worked examples Part 2
Semester I - Commencing Week 2
Fluids Topic 1 - Introduction & Main Principles
No Slip Condition
Classification of Fluid Flows
Bulk properties of fluids
Streamlines & stream-tubes
Mass continuity
Bernoulli's development (alternative
method)
Energy of a Moving Fluid
Pitot tubes
Derivation of expression for volumetric
flow rate in terms of P1, P2, A1 and A2
Vapour Pressure and Cavitation
Viscosity
Dynamics of a Viscous Fluid
Viscosity Examples
Drag & Lift
Fluids Topic 2
Fluid Discharge and Momentum
Orifices & Mouthpieces
Torricelli's Theorem
Large Orifices
Notches and Weirs
Power of a Stream of Fluid
Newtons Law
Choosing a Control Volume
Forces acting on a Control Volume
Momentum of Momentum equation
Velocity Vectors
Impellers
Fans
Pumps
Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7
September 12th - First Lecture October
Fluids Topic 3
Internal Flow and Pumping Systems
Laminar and Turbulent Flows
The Entrance Region
Laminar Flow in Pipes
Turbulent Flow in Pipes
Minor Loses
Major Loses
Piping Networks
Pump Selection
Ageing of Pumps
Fluids Experiments
Experimental Analysis - Ongoing through Semester
Orifices
Review Bernoulli’s
apparatus/Experiment
Flow Around the Bend
Wind Tunnel Aerofoil
Pitot Tubes
Losses in Piping Networks
Centrifugal Pumping (V105)
Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10 Week 11 Week 12
November
0.00
2.50
5.00
7.50
10.00
12.50
15.00
17.50
20.00
0 75 150 225 300
Pump
Head
(m)
Volumetric Flow Rate (m^3/hr)
Tackling Exam Questions
Approach to Solving
Problems
Need to learn how to make better decisions
Ability to identify required solutions will eventually let you
down
Hard to step back after starting on detail
Setting up is key so invest time and effort
Create a diagram
representing the problem
Summarises multiple concepts to get the bigger picture
Helps clarify the problem in more detail
Forces questions to be asked
Allows additional information to be added
Provides reference to maintain or regain perspective on the unique
problem being addressed
Assumptions
List all assumptions systematically
Review assumptions at end to ensure still reasonable
Tackling the problem
Data
List all known data
Leave Labelled spaces to enter additional values
Identify those needed for solution
Update data list
Equations
List any equ. you think maybe of use
Note equ’s applying to only one part of problem
Tick items which equ’s enable you to find
Repeat until find all items needed to solve the problem
Tackling the problem
Deriving a solution
Write down full algebraic formula before using values
Write values in same layout as algebraic formula
Write brief description of what you are doing
Add new assumptions to list
Review assumptions to check if still valid
May need to repeat some calculations
Tackling the problem
The conversion of energy from one form to another affects the
environment and the air we breathe in many ways, and as a
consequence the study of energy is not complete without
considering its impact on the environment.
ENERGY and the
ENVIRONMENT
KEITH VAUGH - Lecture 1
Pollutants emitted during the combustion of fossil
fuels are responsible for smog, acid rain, and
global warming.
Environmental pollution has reached such high
levels that it has become a serious threat to
vegetation, wild life, and human health.
Video source: https://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/101-videos/0000015d-3cb1-d1cb-a7fd-fcfd49980000
What is global warming, explained
The planet is heating up—and fast.
National Geographic, who created this video has a very good article available online. To find out more
follow this link to the “What is global warming explained” article.
Source:
Source: https://www.911metallurgist.com/fossil-fuel-production-by-country-mapped/
Research conducted by 911 Metallurgist
Fossil fuel production by country mapped (2016)
These charts and the source data is discussed further on the 911 Metallurgist website. The direct link to the article is located here
Source: https://www.911metallurgist.com/fossil-fuel-production-by-country-mapped/
Research conducted by 911 Metallurgist
Fossil fuel production by country mapped (2016)
These charts and the source data is discussed further on the 911 Metallurgist website. The direct link to the article is located here
Source: https://www.911metallurgist.com/fossil-fuel-production-by-country-mapped/
Research conducted by 911 Metallurgist
Fossil fuel production by country mapped (2016)
These charts and the source data is discussed further on the 911 Metallurgist website. The direct link to the article is located here
Source: https://www.911metallurgist.com/fossil-fuel-production-by-country-mapped/
Research conducted by 911 Metallurgist
Fossil fuel production by country mapped (2016)
These charts and the source data is discussed further on the 911 Metallurgist website. The direct link to the article is located here
Source: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/896/earths-city-lights-1994
Discussion
ENERGY: An engineers ethical responsibility
1 de 32

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L1 - ES & Thermofluids 2023 Master SS.pptx

  • 1. Energy Systems + Thermofluids 3 Lectures | Tutorials | Practicals KEITH VAUGH - Lecture 1
  • 2. The practical and theoretical aspects of the Thermodynamic Laws with an emphasis on the processes, the environment and society are explored. Candidates develop their comprehension of these laws through an integrated and applied approach and develop their ability to analyse thermodynamic and thermofluidic systems. The module contains theoretical, practical and empirical material. AIM
  • 4. Identify, interpret and apply the unique vocabulary associated with thermodynamic and thermofluidic systems and demonstrate an ability to identify, formulate and solve engineering problems associated with thermodynamic and thermofluidic systems Specify, select and analyse individual components of a thermodynamic/thermofluidic system and recognise the role of the engineer and the impact that these components and/or systems can have society and the environment. Demonstrate an ability to conduct comprehensive experimental studies relevant to both wet and dry fluid flow systems within a collaborative group setting and to deliver a mini project and disseminate results to peers in a conference style paper format and/or presentation Critique one's own learning through the identification and subsequent addressing of deficits LEARNING OUTCOMES
  • 5. Final Terminal Exam Continuous Assessment Experiments & Pumping Project (Labs - due midnight same day Project - Week 10/12) Identify, interpret and apply the unique vocabulary associated with thermodynamic and thermofluidic systems and demonstrate an ability to identify, formulate and solve engineering problems associated with thermodynamic and thermofluidic systems Specify, select and analyse individual components of a thermodynamic/thermofluidic system and recognise the role of the engineer and the impact that these components and/or systems can have society and the environment. Demonstrate an ability to conduct comprehensive experimental studies relevant to both wet and dry fluid flow systems within a collaborative group setting and to deliver a mini project and disseminate results to peers in a conference style paper format and/or presentation Critique one's own learning through the identification and subsequent addressing of deficits
  • 6. Title: Fundamentals of Thermal Fluid Sciences Author: Yunus A. Cengel, Robert H. Turner, John M. Cimbala Publisher: McGraw Hill ISBN: 978-007-132511-0 ISBN: 978-981-472095-3 Required Text NOTE: The module has written using the 3rd edition, 4th/5th edition can also be used
  • 8. 50% Final terminal exam 40% Project & Labs 10% Continuous assignments MODULE MARKING
  • 10. Students work in teams to complete experiments Lab coats and safety glasses MUST be worn at all times when working in the laboratory One report per team is to be submitted by midnight on the day the experiment was conducted The team leadership rotates for each experiment All team members are to be delegated activities required to complete the experiment by the experiment leader Each team member must include their own discussion/conclusions on the experiment Team reports are limited to 3 pages (not including cover page or appendices) Projects - 6 page report plus appendices and a recorded Narrated Presentation EXPERIMENTS SESSIONS | REPORTS | PROJECTS
  • 12. TIMELIN E 15 Week Semester 12 Lecture Weeks Semester I Week 2 Lecture 1 - 12th of September 2021 Semester I Week 12 Lecture 11 - 27th of November 2021
  • 13. Semester I -Week 2 Lecture 1 - Introduction Aim Learning outcomes (LO’s) Course Work Linking LO’s to Assessment Problem Solving Techniques Energy and the Environment Lecture 2 Basic Concepts Systems and control volumes Properties of a system Density and specific gravity State and equilibrium The state postulate Processes and cycles The state-flow process Temperature and the zeroth law Temperature scales Pressure Variation of pressure with depth Lecture 3 Energy, Energy Transfer and Energy Analysis Forms of energy Energy transfer by heat Energy transfer by work Mechanical forms of work First Law of Thermodynamics Energy balance Energy change of a system Mechanisms of energy transfer (heat, work, mass flow) Energy conversion efficiencies Efficiencies of mechanical and electrical devices (turbines, pumps, etc…) Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 September 12th - First Lecture October Lecture 4 Properties of Pure Substances Phases change of a pure substance Compressed liquid, saturated liquid, saturated vapour, superheated vapour Saturated temperature & pressure Property diagrams for phase change processes Property diagrams, tables Enthalpy Saturated liquid - vapour mixture Lecture 5 Worked examples Part 1 Pure Substance phase change process Using the property tables and property diagrams Phase Change worked example problems Critical Point Vapour States The Right Tank Specific Volume Piston Cylinder Forms of Energy
  • 14. 0 = 𝑄 · 𝑐𝑣 − 𝑊 · 𝑐𝑣 + 𝑚 · ℎ2 − ℎ1 + 𝑉2 2 − 𝑉1 2 2 + 𝑔 𝑧2 − 𝑧1 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10 Week 11 Week 12 November Lecture 6 Energy Analysis of Closed Systems Moving boundary work Boundary work - isothermal, constant pressure & polytropic processes Energy balance for closed systems Energy balance - constant pressure expansion/compression process Specific heats Constant - Pres. specific heat, cp Constant - Volume specific heat, cv Internal energy, enthalpy and specific heats of ideal gasses Lecture 7 Mass & Energy Analysis of Control Systems Conservation of mass Mass balance for steady flow process and incompressible flow Flow work & energy of flowing fluid Energy transport by mass Energy analysis - steady flow systems Steady flow engineering devices Lecture 9 Second Law of Thermodynamics Thermal energy reservoirs Heat engineers and thermal efficiency Kelvin-Planck Statement Refrigerators and Heat Pumps Co-efficient of Performance (COP) Class Statement Perpetual motion machines Reversible & irreversible processes Irreversibility’s, internal & externally reversible Lecture 10 Introduction to Entropy Entropy Clausius inequality Entropy change of pure substances Isentropic processes Property diagrams involving entropy What is entropy? Entropy change of liquids and solids rt 1 ange and ample Internal Energy, Enthalpy and specific heats of ideal gases Mass and Volume Flow Rates Energy Balance applies problems Flow Work and the energy of a flowing fluid Nozzles and diffusers Heat Exchangers Turbine and compressors Throttling valves etc… Lecture 8 Worked examples Part 2
  • 15. Semester I - Commencing Week 2 Fluids Topic 1 - Introduction & Main Principles No Slip Condition Classification of Fluid Flows Bulk properties of fluids Streamlines & stream-tubes Mass continuity Bernoulli's development (alternative method) Energy of a Moving Fluid Pitot tubes Derivation of expression for volumetric flow rate in terms of P1, P2, A1 and A2 Vapour Pressure and Cavitation Viscosity Dynamics of a Viscous Fluid Viscosity Examples Drag & Lift Fluids Topic 2 Fluid Discharge and Momentum Orifices & Mouthpieces Torricelli's Theorem Large Orifices Notches and Weirs Power of a Stream of Fluid Newtons Law Choosing a Control Volume Forces acting on a Control Volume Momentum of Momentum equation Velocity Vectors Impellers Fans Pumps Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 September 12th - First Lecture October
  • 16. Fluids Topic 3 Internal Flow and Pumping Systems Laminar and Turbulent Flows The Entrance Region Laminar Flow in Pipes Turbulent Flow in Pipes Minor Loses Major Loses Piping Networks Pump Selection Ageing of Pumps Fluids Experiments Experimental Analysis - Ongoing through Semester Orifices Review Bernoulli’s apparatus/Experiment Flow Around the Bend Wind Tunnel Aerofoil Pitot Tubes Losses in Piping Networks Centrifugal Pumping (V105) Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10 Week 11 Week 12 November 0.00 2.50 5.00 7.50 10.00 12.50 15.00 17.50 20.00 0 75 150 225 300 Pump Head (m) Volumetric Flow Rate (m^3/hr)
  • 18. Approach to Solving Problems Need to learn how to make better decisions Ability to identify required solutions will eventually let you down Hard to step back after starting on detail Setting up is key so invest time and effort
  • 19. Create a diagram representing the problem Summarises multiple concepts to get the bigger picture Helps clarify the problem in more detail Forces questions to be asked Allows additional information to be added Provides reference to maintain or regain perspective on the unique problem being addressed
  • 20. Assumptions List all assumptions systematically Review assumptions at end to ensure still reasonable Tackling the problem Data List all known data Leave Labelled spaces to enter additional values Identify those needed for solution Update data list
  • 21. Equations List any equ. you think maybe of use Note equ’s applying to only one part of problem Tick items which equ’s enable you to find Repeat until find all items needed to solve the problem Tackling the problem
  • 22. Deriving a solution Write down full algebraic formula before using values Write values in same layout as algebraic formula Write brief description of what you are doing Add new assumptions to list Review assumptions to check if still valid May need to repeat some calculations Tackling the problem
  • 23. The conversion of energy from one form to another affects the environment and the air we breathe in many ways, and as a consequence the study of energy is not complete without considering its impact on the environment. ENERGY and the ENVIRONMENT KEITH VAUGH - Lecture 1
  • 24. Pollutants emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels are responsible for smog, acid rain, and global warming. Environmental pollution has reached such high levels that it has become a serious threat to vegetation, wild life, and human health.
  • 25. Video source: https://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/101-videos/0000015d-3cb1-d1cb-a7fd-fcfd49980000 What is global warming, explained The planet is heating up—and fast. National Geographic, who created this video has a very good article available online. To find out more follow this link to the “What is global warming explained” article.
  • 27. Source: https://www.911metallurgist.com/fossil-fuel-production-by-country-mapped/ Research conducted by 911 Metallurgist Fossil fuel production by country mapped (2016) These charts and the source data is discussed further on the 911 Metallurgist website. The direct link to the article is located here
  • 28. Source: https://www.911metallurgist.com/fossil-fuel-production-by-country-mapped/ Research conducted by 911 Metallurgist Fossil fuel production by country mapped (2016) These charts and the source data is discussed further on the 911 Metallurgist website. The direct link to the article is located here
  • 29. Source: https://www.911metallurgist.com/fossil-fuel-production-by-country-mapped/ Research conducted by 911 Metallurgist Fossil fuel production by country mapped (2016) These charts and the source data is discussed further on the 911 Metallurgist website. The direct link to the article is located here
  • 30. Source: https://www.911metallurgist.com/fossil-fuel-production-by-country-mapped/ Research conducted by 911 Metallurgist Fossil fuel production by country mapped (2016) These charts and the source data is discussed further on the 911 Metallurgist website. The direct link to the article is located here
  • 32. Discussion ENERGY: An engineers ethical responsibility

Notas del editor

  1. Fossil energy fueled the Industrial Revolution, resulting in enormous technological, social and economic changes across the world. These fuels (Coal, oil, and gas) continue to play a major role in global energy systems, but which country produces the most? These maps take a closer look at fossil fuel production, country by country. Countries contribution to total fossil fuel production Approximately 360 to 286 million years ago, before dinosaurs, many plants and organisms filled the swamps and oceans of the Carboniferous Period. When the organisms and plants died, they sank and eventually formed different types of fossil fuels. Nowadays, fossil fuels are the world’s dominant energy source, accounting for around 82% of the global energy supply. The USA is the biggest overall producer, producing just under 20% of all global fossil fuels, followed by Russia and Iran. Next on the list is Canada, which produces just under 5% of all fossil fuel. 01_fossil-fuel-production-total Countries contribution to total oil production Oil formed when small organisms like zooplankton and algae died and fell to the bottom of the sea. Over time, they got trapped under multiple layers of sand and mud. Intense amounts of pressure caused this complex organic matter to decompose and it eventually formed into oil. It is extracted and sold mainly as fuel.AlthoughVenezuela has the largest proven oil reserves in the world, it is only 12th in terms of oil production. The USA is the world’s biggest producer, producing 18% of the world‘s oil, followed by Saudi Arabia and Russia. Next on the list? Canada, which produces just under 6% of the world‘s oil. 02_fossil-fuel-production-oil Countries contribution to total natural gas production Natural Gas underwent the same process as oil, but for a much longer period and with greater heat and pressure, which caused even more decomposition. Today, natural gas is mainly used for electricity generation, heating, and cooking. It is also used to make chemical products such as fertilizers and dyes. USA are once again top of the production list, producing nearly 20% of all natural gas. Followed in second place by Russia and then in third, Iran. Canada again comes in fourth place, producing almost 5% of the world‘s natural gas. 03_fossil-fuel-production-gas Countries contribution to total coal production The first reported use of coal dates as far back as 4000BC in China. Coal is formed from ferns, plants and trees which over time have hardened due to the immense pressure and heat found underground. Coal is mostly used to generate electricity, create steel & cement and is also sometimes used as a liquid fuel. Today, China is the world’s biggest producer, producing over 45% of the world‘s coal, followed by India and then the USA. This time Canada is only the 13th biggest producer of coal, producing just under 1%. 04_fossil-fuel-production-coal Methodology To create the interactive maps, we first researched what data was available on each fossil fuel. The goal was to find the most up to date and reliable data available. We selected our sources based on reliability. Countries release their data at different intervals, so to ensure accuracy we selected confirmed figures from reliable sources such as the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), among others. The majority of our figures come from 2018 and 2017 and were the most up to date figures available from trusted sources. Oil Our figures were sourced from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), which has worldwide figures from 2017 and in some cases 2018. The figures are measured in thousand barrels per day. Natural Gas Our figures were sourced from The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi (ENI) and British Petroleum (BP). The figures are measured in billion cubic metres. Coal Our figures were sourced from The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi (ENI) and British Petroleum (BP). The figures are measured in thousand metric tonnes. Total Contribution To measure total fossil fuel contribution, we needed a standard unit of measurement. We selected metric tonnes. We then converted our original figures for oil (barrels) and natural gas (cubic meters) to metric tonnes. This enabled us to compare like for like. Sources EIA. (2019). Total Petroleum and Other Liquids Production.. eia.gov CIA. (2019). The World Factbook.. cia.gov ENI. (2018). Gas and Renewables Review 2018 Volume 2.. eni.com B.P (2018). BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018.. bp.com Commonwealth of Nations. (2019). Find Oil and Gas expertise in Antigua and Barbuda.. commonwealthofnations.org GENI. (2019). An Energy Overview of the Republic of Armenia.. geni.org EIA. (2019). Primary Coal Production.. eia.gov Richie, M. Roser, M. (2019). Fossil Fuels.. ourworldindata.org OPEC. (2019). Conversion Factors.. opec.org Qatar Petroleum. (2019). Conversion Factors.. qp.com Kanniah, G. (2019). Fossil Fuels.. studentenergy.org Golas, P. J, Needham, J. (1999). Science and Civilisation in China. China: Cambridge University Press International Energy Agency. (2014). Key World Energy Statistics.. fossilfuelsreview.ed.ac.uk