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EDUP3033 Learning and The Learner - Learning Theories (Behaviourism) - Connectionism

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Bachelor of Teaching Programme (PISMP)
Teaching of English as a Second Language (TESL)
EDUP3033 Learning and The Learner
Learning Theories (Behaviourism) - Connectionism

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EDUP3033 Learning and The Learner - Learning Theories (Behaviourism) - Connectionism

  1. 1. CONNECTIONISM Edward L. Thorndike (1874-1949) Teo Woon Chun 2 PISMP TESL/PM (SJKC) 2016 EDUP3033 LEARNING AND THE LEARNER
  2. 2. WHO IS HE? • Edward L. Thorndike • A prominent U.S. psychologist • He received Thorndike Award which is the highest honour given by the Division of Educational Psychology of the APA.
  3. 3. HE BELIEVED THAT THE MOST FUNDAMENTAL TYPE OF LEARNING INVOLVES … (Schunk, 2012) The forming of associations (connections) Sensory experiences (perceptions of stimuli or events) Neural impulses (responses)
  4. 4. SO, FROM THE VIDEO WHICH YOU HAVE WATCHED A MOMENT AGO… 1. Which item stands for the stimulus? 2. How does the stimulus affect the individual’s response?
  5. 5. TRIAL-AND-ERROR LEARNING Selecting and Connecting
  6. 6. SUMMARY A cat is placed in a cage. The cat can open an escape cape hatch. The cat eventually escapes by one of the random responses that opens the hatch. The cat is put back into the cage again. Over trials, the cat reaches the goal quicker and makes fewer errors. A typical plot of results is plotted.
  8. 8. Law of Exercise The Law of Use The Law of Disuse A response to a stimulus strengthens their connections. When a response is not made to a stimulus, the connection’s strength is weakened (forgotten).
  9. 9. STIMULUS RESPONSE The Stimulus-Response (S-R) bond will be strengthened if an individual practises a skill for many times. On the other hand, S-R bond will become weakened if s/he does not practise it.
  10. 10. CONNECTIONISM LAW OF EFFECT DEFINITION When a modifiable connection between a situation and a response is made and is accompanied or followed by a satisfying state of affairs, that connection’s strength is increased. When made and accompanied or followed by an annoying state of affairs, its strength is decreased. (Thorndike, 1913b, p.4)
  11. 11. CONNECTIONISM LAW OF EFFECT UNDERSTANDING CONCEPT • Emphasise the consequences of behaviour • Responses resulting in satisfying (rewarding) consequences are learned; responses producing annoying (punishing) consequences are not learned.
  12. 12. FOR EXAMPLE…
  13. 13. IF I … The S-R bond between the studying and good grades is strengthened.
  14. 14. IF I … The S-R bond between not studying and good grades is weakened.
  16. 16. LAW OF READINESS • When one is prepared (ready) to act, to do so is rewarding and not to do so is punishing. • When students are ready to learn a particular action (in terms of developmental level or prior skill acquisition), then behaviours that foster this learning will be rewarding. When students are not ready to learn or do not possess prerequisite skills, then attempting to learn is punishing and a waste of time.
  17. 17. EXAMPLES Situation Outcome A Ready to act, with help and guidance Good B Ready to act, but s/he is asked to stop Bad C Not ready to act yet, but s/he is forced to do that so Bad
  18. 18. ASSOCIATIVE SHIFTING • Refers to a situation in which responses made to a particular stimulus eventually are made to an entirely different stimulus of, on repeated trials, there are small changes in the nature of the stimulus. • E.g. To teach students to divide two-digit number into a four-digit number, we first teach them to divide a one-digit number into another and then gradually add more digits to the divisor and dividend.
  19. 19. TRANSFER (GENERALISATION) • Strengthening or weakening of one connection produces a similar change in another connection. • Transfer occurs when situations have identical elements and call for similar responses.
  20. 20. TRANSFER (GENERALISATION) • Practice or training in a skill in a specific context did not improve one’s ability to execute that skill generally. • E.g. Training on estimating the area of rectangles does not advance learners’ ability to estimate the areas of triangles, circles, and irregular figures.
  22. 22. LAW OF READINESS Teacher should prepare the facilities required for students before starting a topic or teaching and learning activity.
  23. 23. LAW OF EXERCISE In order to ensure the lesson goes smoothly, a variety of evaluation to apply the knowledge learnt should be done more frequent to enhance learning.
  24. 24. LAW OF EFFECT Teacher should prepare a learning environment which the opportunities of experiencing success for students exist. Praise… Gifts… Rewards… On the other hand, advice should be given for students who are mischievous.
  25. 25. Thorndike’s Revision to His Theory
  26. 26. LAW OF EXERCISE • Throndike discarded the Law of Exercise when he found that simple repetition of a situation does not necessarily “stamp in” responses. • Repetition of a situation may not increase the future likelihood of the same response occurring.
  27. 27. LAW OF EFFECT • Research showed that rewards strengthened connections, but punishment did not necessarily weaken them. Instead, connections are weakened when alternative connections are strengthened. • Reward improved learning, but punishment did not diminish the probability of that response occurring to that stimulus word.
  28. 28. LAW OF EFFECT (cont.) • Punishment suppresses responses, but they are not forgotten. • Punishment is not an effective means of alternating behaviour because it does not teach students correct behaviours but rather inform them what not to do.
  29. 29. REFERENCE Campbell, M. (2014, November 4). Thorndike’s law of effect [Video file]. Retrieved from Jenningh. (2007, November 11). Thorndike-puzzle box [Video file]. Retrieved from Managa, K. (2015, July 19). Connectionism law of effect [Video file]. Retrieved from MrCookiedMilk’s channel (2011, December 2). Thorndike puzzle box- Psychology experiment [Video file]. Retrieved from Noriati A. Rashid, Boon, P. Y., Sharifah Fakhriah Syed Ahmad (2009). Murid dan alam belajar. Shah Alam: Oxford Fajar Sdn Bhd. Schunk, D. H. (2012). Learning theories: An educational perspective (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.