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Coeducation versus Same gender education in schools

Research on perception of parents and teachers for coeducation versus same gender in schools.

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Coeducation versus Same gender education in schools

  1. 1. A GROUP PROJECT ON “PERCEPTION OF PARENTS AND TEACHERS FOR CO-EDUCATION VERSUS SAME GENDER EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS IN AHMEDABAD” SUBMITTED TO: SOM-LALIT INSTITUE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION GUIDED BY: PROF. DEEPAL JOSHI SUBMITTED BY: BBA SEM 6 GROUP NO: 10 DIVISION: B ROLL NO: NAME 154 KHUBIB HIKMAT 155 MOHAMMAD ISHAQ 157 SAYED OBAIDULLAH DATE OF SUBMISSION: 5TH MARCH, 2016
  2. 2. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that a group project report on “Perception of parents and teachers for co-education versus same gender education in schools in Ahmedabad”. It has been prepared by the under named students and submitted to Som-Lalit Institute of Business Administration affiliated to Gujarat University as a partial requirement for completion of academic work in semester 6 under BBA program. Institute Director College Stamp Faculty In charge Shree K.J Patel Prof. Deepal Joshi DATE OF SUBMISSION: 5th MARCH, 2016 ROLL NO: NAME SIGNATURE 154 KHUBIB HIKMAT 155 MOHAMMAD ISHAQ 157 SAYED OBAIDULLAH
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This project “Perception of parents and teachers for co-education versus same gender education in schools in Ahmedabad” is a result of corporation, hard work and good wishes of many people. We would like to thank our project guide Prof. Deepal Joshi for her involvement in the project work and timely assessment that provided us inspiration and valued guidance though out our study. We are highly indebted to Principal Shree K.J Patel of Som-Lalit institute of Business Administration for giving us an opportunity to do a project. We would like to express gratitude towards our library staff, group members, and all the respondents who gave their precious time and cooperation to fill the questionnaire. We would like to thank all the people whose cooperation, encouragement and efforts have helped us in giving the final shape and structure to the project. Our thanks and appreciations also go to our college and to all who have willingly helped us out with their abilities. Date of submission: 5th march, 2016 Members of group No.10
  4. 4. PREFACE In today’s era of cut-throat competition BBA is sure to have edge over their counterpart courses in academics. During graduation in business administration program, students come in direct contact with real corporate world through this type of project reports. A BBA program provides its students with an in-depth study of various managerial activities that are performed in organizations. A detail research data analysis of the project gives the students a conceptual idea of what they are expected to manage, how to manage and how to obtain the maximum output with minimum inputs of resources available. There is lot of gender bias in our society, that’s why we selected this particular topic “Perception of parents and teachers for co-education versus same gender education in schools in Ahmedabad” for our research. The main purpose behind selecting this topic is to know the perception of parents and teachers about coeducation and same gender education in school in the city of Ahmedabad.
  5. 5. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE ......................................................................................................1 INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................1 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN INDIA .................................................................................................2 DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN INDIA .....................................................................................7 COEDUCATION....................................................................................................................................12 SAME GENDER EDUCATION....................................................................................................................19 NUMBER OF CBSE SCHOOLS IN AHMADABAD...........................................................................26 NUMBER OF ICSE SCHOOLS IN AHMADABAD............................................................................28 GUJARAT BOARD ...............................................................................................................................29 CHAPTER TWO ...................................................................................................30 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY.............................................................................30 MEANING OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY..................................................................................31 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY............................................................................................................31 SOURCES OF DATA ............................................................................................................................32 POPULATION...........................................................................................................................................33 SAMPLING METHOD & SAMPLE SIZE............................................................................................33 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY..........................................................................................................34 CHAPTER -3..........................................................................................................35 ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS ................................................................................35 GRAPHS.................................................................................................................................................36 FOR PARENTS..................................................................................................................................36 FOR TEACHERS ...............................................................................................................................48 CHAPTER 4 ...........................................................................................................63 RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION ....................................................63 SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS..................................................................................64 CONCLUSION.......................................................................................................................................65
  6. 6. CHAPTER-5...........................................................................................................66 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES................................................................66 BIBLIOGRAPHY...................................................................................................................................67 CHAPTER -6..........................................................................................................68 ANNEXURE............................................................................................................68 ANNEXURE- 1 ......................................................................................................................................69 A BLANK COPY OF QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PARENTS.............................................................69 A BLANK COPY OF QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS..........................................................71 ANALYSIS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PARENTS .............................................................73 ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS ...................................................................79
  7. 7. 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
  8. 8. 2 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN INDIA The history of education in the South Asia began with teaching of traditional elements such as Indian religions, Indian mathematics, Indian logic at early Hindu and Buddhist centers of learning such as Taxila (in modern-day Pakistan) and Nalanda (in India) before the common era. Islamic education became ingrained with the establishment of the Islamic empires in the Indian subcontinent in the middle Ages while the coming of the Europeans later bought western education to colonial India. A series of measures continuing throughout the early half of the 20th century ultimately laid the foundation of education in the Republic of India, education in Pakistan and much of South Asia. (Jain astronomical work Surya Prajnapti Sutra on paper, Western India, ca. 1500, in Devanagari script) Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Suryaprajnapati_Sutra.jpg
  9. 9. 3 Early History Early education in India commenced under the supervision of a guru. Initially, education was open to all and seen as one of the methods to achieve Moksha in those days, or enlightenment. As time progressed, due to superiority complexes, the education was imparted on the basis of caste and the related duties that one had to perform as a member of a specific caste. The Brahmans learned about scriptures and religion while the Kshatriya was educated in the various aspects of warfare. The Vaishya caste learned commerce and other specific vocational courses while education was largely denied to the Shudras, the lowest caste. The earliest venues of education in India were often secluded from the main population. Students were expected to follow strict monastic guidelines prescribed by the guru and stay away from cities in ashrams. However, as population increased under the Gupta empire centers of urban learning became increasingly common and Cities such as Varanasi and the Buddhist center at Nalanda became increasingly visible. Education in India in its traditional form was closely related to religion. Among the Heterodox schools of belief were the Jain and Buddhist schools. Heterodox Buddhist education was more inclusive and aside of the monastic orders the Buddhist education centers were urban institutes of learning such as Taxila and Nalanda where grammar, medicine, philosophy, logic, metaphysics, arts and crafts etc. were also taught. Early secular Buddhist institutions of higher learning like Taxila and Nalanda continued to function well into the Common Era and were attended by students from China and Central Asia. On the subject of education for the nobility Joseph Prabhu writes: "Outside the religious framework, kings and princes were educated in the arts and sciences related to government: politics (danda-nıti), economics (vartta), philosophy (anvıksiki), and historical traditions (itihasa). Here the authoritative source was Kautilya‘s Arthashastra, often compared to Niccolò Machiavelli‘s The Prince for its worldly outlook and political scheming."
  10. 10. 4 (The Mohra Muradu monastery at Taxila, in modern day Pakistan.) Source:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_education_in_the_Indian_subcontinent#/media/ File:MohraMuraduMainStupa.JPG Early Common Era—High middle Ages Chinese scholars such as Xuanzang and Yi Jing arrived in Indian institutions of learning to survey Buddhist texts. Yi Jing additionally noted the arrival of 56 scholars from India, Japan, and Korea. However, the Buddhist institutions of learning were slowly giving way to a resurgent tradition of Brahmanism during that era. Scholars from India also journeyed to China to translate Buddhist texts. During the 10th century a monk named Dharmadeva from Nalanda journeyed to China and translated a number of texts. Another center at Vikramshila maintained close relations with Tibet. The Buddhist teacher Atisa was the head monk in Vikramshila before his journey to Tibet. Examples of royal patronage include construction of buildings under the Rastrakuta dynasty in 945 BC. The institutions arranged for multiple residences for educators as well as state sponsored education and arrangements for students and scholars. Similar arrangements were made by the Chola dynasty in 1024 BC, which provided state support to selected students in educational establishments. Temple schools from 12–13th centuries included the school at the Nataraja temple situated at Chidambaram which employed 20 librarians, out of whom 8 were copiers of manuscripts and 2 were employed for verification of the copied manuscripts. The
  11. 11. 5 remaining staff conducted other duties, including preservation and maintained of reference material. Another establishment during this period is the Uddandapura institute established during the 8th century under the patronage of the Pala dynasty. The institution developed ties with Tibet and became a center of Tantric Buddhism. During the 10–11th centuries the number of monks reached a thousand, equaling the strength of monks at the sacred Mahabodhi complex. By the time of the arrival of the Islamic scholar Al Biruni India already had an established system of science and technology in place. Also by the 12th century, invasions from India's northern borders disrupted traditional education systems as foreign army raided educational institutes, among other establishments Late Middle Ages—Early Modern Era With the advent of Islam in India the traditional methods of education increasingly came under Islamic influence. Pre-Mughal rulers such as Qutb-ud-din Aybak and other Muslim rulers initiated institutions which imparted religious knowledge. Scholars such as Nizamuddin Auliya and Moinuddin Chishti became prominent educators and established Islamic monasteries. Students from Bukhara and Afghanistan visited India to study humanities and science. Islamic institution of education in India included traditional madrassas and maktabs which taught grammar, philosophy, mathematics, and law influenced by the Greek traditions inherited by Persia and the Middle East before Islam spread from these regions into India. A feature of this traditional Islamic education was its emphasis on the connection between science and humanities. Among the centers of education in India was 18th century Delhi was the Madrasa Rahimiya under the supervision of Shah Waliullah, an educator who favored an approach balancing the Islamic scriptures and science. The course at the Madrasa Rahimiya prescribed 2 books on grammar, 1 book on philosophy, 2 books on logic, 2 books on astronomy and mathematics, and 5 books on mysticism. Another center of prominence arose in Lucknow under Mulla Nizamuddin Sahlawi, who educated at the Firangi Mahal and prescribed a course called the Dars-i-Nizami which combined traditional studies with modern and laid emphasis on logic. The middle Ages also saw the rise of private tuition in India. A tutor, or Riyazi, was an educated professional who could earn a suitable living by performing tasks such as creating calendars or generating revenue estimates for nobility. Another trend in this era is the mobility among professions, exemplified by Qaim Khan, a prince famous for his mastery in crafting leather shoes and forging cannons.
  12. 12. 6 Colonial Era The British made education, in English--a high priority hoping it would speed modernization and reduce the administrative charges. The colonial authorities had a sharp debate over policy. This was divided into two schools - the orientalists, who believed that education should happen in Indian languages (of which they favored classical or court languages like Sanskrit or Persian) or utilitarian‘s (also called anglicists) like Thomas Babington Macaulay, who strongly believed that traditional India had nothing to teach regarding modern skills; the best education for them would happen in English. Macaulay introduced English education in India, especially through his famous minute of February 1835. He called an educational system that would create a class of anglicised Indians who would serve as cultural intermediaries between the British and the Indians. Macaulay succeeded in implementing ideas previously put forward by Lord William Bentinck, the governor general since 1829. Bentinck favored the replacement of Persian by English as the official language, the use of English as the medium of instruction, and the training of English-speaking Indians as teachers. He was inspired by utilitarian ideas and called for "useful learning." However, Bentinck's ideas were rejected by the Court of Directors of the East India Company and he retired as governor general. (A file photo of University of Bombay's Fort Campus taken in the 1870s) Source:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_education_in_the_Indian_subcontinent#/media/ File:Rajabai_under_Const.jpg
  13. 13. 7 Frykenberg examines the 1784 to 1854 period to argue that education helped integrate the diverse elements Indian society, thereby creating a new common bond from among conflicting loyalties. The native elite demanded modern education. The University of Madras, founded in 1857, became the single most important recruiting ground for generations of ever more highly trained officials. This exclusive and select leadership was almost entirely "clean-caste" and mainly Brahman. It held sway in both the imperial administration and within princely governments to the south. The position of this mandarin class was never seriously challenged until well into the twentieth century. Ellis argues that historians of Indian education have generally confined their arguments to very narrow themes linked to colonial dominance and education as a means of control, resistance, and dialogue. Ellis emphasizes the need to evaluate the education actually experienced by most Indian children, which was outside the classroom. Public education expenditures varied dramatically across regions with the western and southern provinces spending three to four times as much as the eastern provinces. The reason involved historical differences in land taxes. However the rates of attendance and literacy were not nearly as skewed. DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN INDIA Development of Education in India has attained new level essentially after the independence of the country. India is a developing nation and it has been expanding is every field. Development of education in India brought about a transformation and the concept of education got modified. Literacy rate has increased from around 3% in 1880 to around 65% in 2001. According to the 2011 Census, the Literacy Rate is recorded to be around 74%. All levels of education in India, from primary to higher education portray a challenge. India got well-known educational institutions such as the IITs, IISc, IIMs, NITs, AIIMS, ISI, JU, BITS, and ISB. The higher education system of India is the third largest in the world, after China and the United States. Development of education in India regards that free and compulsory education should be provided to all children up to the age of 14. Moreover, the 86th Amendment of the Indian constitution makes education a fundamental right for all children aged 6-14 years. In First Five Year Plan 7.9% of total plan outlay was allocated for education. In Second and Third Plan, the allocations were 5.8% and 6.9% of the total plan outlay. In Ninth Plan only 3.5% of the total outlay was allocated for education. To streamline the education, the Govt. implemented the recommendations of Kothari Commission under ‗National Policy on Education‘ in 1968. The main recommendations were universal primary education. Introduction of new pattern of education, three language formula,
  14. 14. 8 introduction of regional language in higher education, development of agricultural and industrial education and adult education. To combat the changing socio-economic needs of the country, Govt. of India announced a new National Policy on Education in 1986. Universalization of primary education, vocationalization of secondary education and specialization of higher education were the main features of this policy. National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) at National level and State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT) at State level were established to maintain the standard of education. University Grants Commission (UGC) was instituted to determine the standard of higher education. The following points explain the development of education in India after independence: 1. Expansion of General Education: During the period of planning there has been expansion of general education. In 1951, the percentage of literacy was 19.3. In 2001 the literacy percentage increased to 65.4%. The enrolment ratio of children in the age group of 6-11 was 43% in 1951 and in it became 100% in 2001. Primary education has been free and compulsory. Midday meal has been started in schools since 1995 to check drop-out rate. The number of primary schools has risen by three times from 2.10 lakh (1950-51) to 6.40 lakhs (2001-02). There were only 27 universities in 1950-51 which increased to 254 in 2000-01. 2. Development of Technical Education: Besides general education, technical education plays important role in human capital formation. The Govt. has established several Industrial Training Institutes, Polytechnics, Engineering colleges and Medical and Dental colleges, Management institutes etc. These are given below: (a) Indian Institutes of Technology: For education and research in engineering and technology of international standard, seven institutes have been established at Mumbai, Delhi, Kanpur, Chennai, Khargpur, Roorkee and Gauhati etc. Technical education is imparted here both for graduation and post-graduation and doctorate level. (b) National Institutes of Technology (NIT): These institutes impart education in engineering and technology. These were called Regional College of Engineering (REC). These are 17 in number throughout the country. There are other institutes in the country to teach engineering and technical education.
  15. 15. 9 (c) Indian Institutes of Management: These institutes impart education in business management and administration. These institutes are located at Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore and Kozhikode etc. (d) Medical education: There were only 28 medical colleges in the country in 1950-51. There were 165 medical and 40 dental colleges in the country in 1998-99. (e) Agricultural education: Agricultural Universities have been started in almost all States to improve production and productivity of agriculture. These universities impart education and research in agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry and veterinary sciences etc. 3. Women education : In India, literary among women was quite low. It was 52% according to 2001 census. While the literacy among men was 75.8%. Women education was given top priority in National Policy on Education. Many State Governments have exempted the tuition fee of girl‘s up to university level. Separate schools and colleges have been established to raise level of literacy among women. 4. Vocational education: National Policy of Education, 1986, aims at vocationalisation of secondary education. Central Govt. has been giving grants to State Governments to implement the program since 1988. Agriculture, Pisciculture, diary, poultry, typing, electronics, mechanical and carpentry etc. had been included in higher secondary curriculum. 5. Growth of higher education: In 1951, there were 27 universities. Their number increased to 254 in 2001. In Orissa state, there was only one university in 1951. Now there are 9 universities. 6. Non-formal education: This scheme was launched on an experimental basis from the Sixth plan and on regular basis from Seventh plan. The aim was to achieve universal elementary education to all children in the age group of 6-14 years. The scheme was meant for those children who cannot attend schools. The Central Govt. is providing assistance to State Govt. and voluntary organization to implement the scheme. Non-formal education centers have been set up in remote rural
  16. 16. 10 areas, hilly and tribal areas and in slums. These impart education to children of 6-14 age groups. Non-formal system of education in India has become part of the international discourse on education policy in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Non formal education refers to the learning process throughout life. In addition to that non-formal education is about acknowledging the importance of education, learning and training which takes place outside recognized educational institutions. There are four characteristics associated with non-formal education system. This system is a proof for the Development of education in India as this system helps to focus on clearly defined purposes. 7. Encouragement to Indian Language and Culture: After the adoption of National Policy of Education 1968, regional language became the medium of instruction in higher education. Syllabus on science and technology, dictionaries, books, and Question Papers are translated into regional languages. Indian history and culture have been included in school and college curriculum. 8. Adult education: Simply speaking adult education refers to the education for the illiterate people belonging to the age group of 15-35 years. The National Board of Adult Education was established in the First Five Year Plan. The village level workers were assigned the job of providing adult education. The progress remained not too good. The National Adult Education Program was started in 1978. The program is considered as a part of primary education. National Literary Mission was also started in 1988 to eradicate adult illiteracy particularly in rural areas. The Centre gives assistance to states, voluntary organizations and some selected universities to implement this program. There were 2.7 lakh adult education centers working in the country in 1990-91. This program helped to raise the literacy rate to 65.38% in 2001. 9. Improvement of Science education: Central Govt. started a scheme for the improvement of science education in schools in 1988. Financial assistance is given to provide science kits, up gradation of science laboratories, development of teaching material, and training of science and mathematics teachers. A Central Institute of Educational Technology (CIET) was set up in NCERT to purchase equipment for State Institutes of Educational Technology. 10. Education for all: According to 93rd Amendment, education for all has been made compulsory. The elementary education is a fundamental right of all children in the age group of 6-14 years. It is also free. To fulfill this obligation Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) has been launched.
  17. 17. 11 The above discussion makes it clear that a lot of development in education has been made in India after Independence. There is wide growth in general education and higher education. Efforts have been made to spread education among all sections and all regions of the country. Still our education system is ridden with problems. 11. Distance education in India In the modern times, students are provided with extensive scope and courses to choose from and they enjoy the opportunity of selecting the required field. The system of Distant Education in India is becoming increasingly popular. The students choosing distance learning process are benefited with the modern pattern followed. The availability of distance learning courses has assured that a person can pursue education from any state or university accordingly. Development of education in India ensures that all Indian citizens will receive education in spite of financial constrains or unavailability of colleges and schools. 12. Online education in India The development of education has travelled a long way and thus Indian education system introduced certain advantageous system such as online education In India. Online education is a system of education training which is delivered primarily via the Internet to students at remote locations. The Online courses may not be delivered in a synchronous manner. Online education enables the students to opt for many online degrees or courses from various universities. This course has various advantages, as pursuing an online course can be done simultaneously with one's present occupation. Moreover, an online degree assists in increasing the career prospects.
  18. 18. 12 COEDUCATION Meaning of coeducation: Coeducation, also known as mixed-gender education, co-education or coeducation (abbreviated to co-ed or coed), is a system of education where males and females are educated together. Whereas Single-sex education was more common up to the 19th century, mixed-sex has since become standard in many cultures, particularly in Western countries. Single-sex education, however, remains prevalent in many Muslim countries. The relative merits of both systems have been the subject of debate. History: In early civilizations, people were educated informally: primarily save within the household. As time progressed, education became more structured and formal. Women often had very few rights when education started to become a more important aspect of civilization. Efforts of the ancient Greek and Chinese societies focused primarily on the education of males. In ancient Rome, the availability of education was gradually extended to women, but they were taught separately from men. The early Christians and medieval Europeans continued this trend, and single-sex schools for the privileged classes prevailed through the Reformation period. In the late
  19. 19. 13 19th and early 20th centuries, coeducation grew much more widely accepted. In Great Britain, Germany, and the Soviet Union, the education of girls and boys in the same classes became an approved practice. In the 16th century, at the Council of Trent, the Roman Catholic Church reinforced the establishment of free elementary schools for children of all classes. The concept of universal elementary education, regardless of sex, had been created. After the Reformation, coeducation was introduced in Western Europe, when certain Protestant groups urged that boys and girls should be taught to read the Bible. The practice became very popular in northern England, Scotland, and colonial New England, where young children, both male and female, attended dame schools. In the late 18th century, girls gradually were admitted to town schools. The Society of Friends in England, as well as in the United States, pioneered coeducation as they did universal education, and in Quaker settlements in the British colonies, boys and girls commonly attended school together. The new free public elementary, or common schools, which after the American Revolution supplanted church institutions, were almost always coeducational, and by 1900 most public high schools were coeducational as well. The early success and achievement of women at Oberlin College persuaded many early women's rights leaders that coeducation would soon be accepted throughout the country. However, for quite a while, women sometimes suffered uncivil behavior from their male classmates. The prejudice of some male professors proved more unsettling. Many professors had disapproved of the admission of women into their classes, citing studies that stated that women were physically incapable of higher education, and some professors found it difficult to acknowledge women's presence once they were admitted. Even today, there have been books, studies, and other arguments claiming that women and men learn very differently from each other because of their brain differences. One of these books is Boys and Girls Learn Differently! By Michael Gurian. By the end of the 19th century, 70% of American colleges were coeducational, although the state of Florida was a notable exception, moving toward greater separation of education at state schools as mandated by the Buckman Act in 1905 and only returning fully to coeducation in the system redesign prompted by the end of World War II. In the late 20th century, many institutions of higher learning that had been exclusively for people of one sex became coeducational. Effects of coeducation: For years, a question many educators, parents, and researchers have been asking is whether or not it is academically beneficial to teach to boys and girls together or separately at school. Some argue that coeducation allows males and females of all ages to become more prepared for real- world situations, whereas a student that is only familiar with a single-sex setting could be less prepared, nervous, or uneasy. However, at certain ages, students may be more distracted by the opposite sex in a coeducational setting. This distraction may affect how often a student is willing to raise his or her hand in class and urge students to be less focused on the lesson. According to
  20. 20. 14 advocates of coeducation, girls without boy classmates have social issues that may impact adolescent development. Girls may have lower, more traditional aspirations and may choose occupations that tend to be more traditional in nature as opposed to science-related occupations. They argue that the absence of the opposite sex creates an unrealistic environment not duplicated in the real world. In classes that are separated by gender, male and female students work and learn on the same level as their peers, the stereotypical mentality of the teacher is removed, and girls are likely to have more confidence in the classroom than they would in a coeducational class. Advantages of coeducation: The ancient Greek philosopher, Plato, said that Co-education creates a feeling of comradeship. He advocated teaching of both the male and female sexes in the same institution without showing any discrimination in imparting education. 'A strong reason for co-education is that separating children for a number of years means they will not be mixing and learning about each other.' - Professor Simon Baron-Cohen, Professor of Developmental Psychopathology at the University of Cambridge and Fellow at Trinity College, Cambridge. ‗There are no overriding advantages for single-sex schools on educational grounds. Studies all over the world have failed to detect any major differences.' - Professor Alan Smithers, director of education and employment research at the University of Buckingham. ‗Boys' boorishness is tamed by the civilizing influence of the girls; girls' cattiness is tamed by the more relaxed approach of the boys. It's a win-win situation.' - Cathedral School parent It is our experience that friendships develop in a very natural way in co-educational schools. This happens because there are so many activities, societies and clubs in the school in which girls and boys take part in a pleasant, well-supervised environment. Friendships develop naturally and genuinely because the mixing is a by-product of the event. This friendly atmosphere continues into the classroom allowing young people to express their views openly and assertively. For both girls and boys co-education provides a more realistic way of training young people to take their places naturally in the wider community of men and women. It helps to break down the misconceptions of each sex about the other and provides an excellent foundation for the development of realistic, meaningful and lasting relationships in later life. A co-educational school is also very successful in challenging sexist attitudes. Many subjects in secondary school allow for considerable classroom discussion and debate. In a co-educational
  21. 21. 15 school both the female and male perspectives will be explored in such discussions and this is a very important learning experience for all. In so doing they learn that 'equality' does not mean 'sameness' - that men and women often have different perspectives on the same issues and that each approach has a great deal to offer the other. In academic terms it should be noted that both boys and girls at the Cathedral School attain the same distinction in terms of examination results: the percentage of A*/A grades at GCSE here is equally high for both genders, indicating that neither gender is disadvantaged by the other, in fact the reverse is true, both are enhanced by the presence of the other. Advocates of single-sex schooling sometimes make hefty claims about the academic advantages of such schools, pointing to statistically significant disparities in examination results. In truth such differences may be due more to the socio-economic background of the pupils at the school or the selectivity of the intake. In our own situation, the Cathedral School proves that co- education can be extremely successful academically, and with all the social and personal development advantages too. The above mentioned advantages are summarized as follows.  Students will have to cooperate together.  Students become open minded.  Helps to communicate your thoughts with different people and minds.  It shows diversity on one side and equality on the other side.  It increases sense of competition.  If a school takes blossoms per week in coeducation school will take only 40.  Helps in making large friendship though.  It helps girls and boys to learn from each other.  Students grow be confident.  It removes our shyness because in corporate life you have to interact with people and if you are not comfortable with them then definitely you cannot grow in your career.
  22. 22. 16  It increases boldness and confidence of students.  We need gender equality, healthy competition and co-education gives us this opportunity.  Co-educational schools better reflect the diversity of our society  They better prepare students to succeed in post-Secondary education and to eventually enter the workforce.  Students at independent co-educational schools feel comfortable about who they are and have a healthy and positive attitude and self-image.  Most students in co-educational schools indicate, ―it is easy for students at my school to find a group that they fit in with".  Students in co-educational schools are more likely to feel safe in their school environment.  Research shows students in co-educational schools grow to be confident expressing their views in the presence of members of the opposite sex.  Collaboration between the sexes in the classroom helps develop confidence in students and they excel at university and beyond as leaders.  Girls at single-sex schools are no more likely than those at co-educational schools to participate in class discussion.  Girls' perceptions of their abilities in math and science are nearly identical, whether they attend single-sex or co-educational schools.  Working together in the classroom and on homework assignments provides boys and girls the opportunity to learn from each other intellectually, as well as socially.  Teachers in co-educational schools recognize that some gender differences in learning do exist and are skilled in catering for diverse learning needs in the classroom.  In a co-educational learning environment, students are exposed to both male and female role models in staff and senior students.
  23. 23. 17  The ancient Greek philosopher, Plato, said that co-education creates a feeling of comradeship - he advocated the teaching of both the male and female sexes in the same institution without showing any discrimination in imparting education.  "There are no overriding advantages for single-sex schools on educational grounds. Studies all over the world have failed to detect any major differences." - Professor Alan Smithers, director of education and employment research at the University of Buckingham.  For both girls and boys, co-education provides a more realistic way of training young people to take their places naturally in the wider community of men and women: it helps to break down the misconceptions of each sex about the other and provides an excellent foundation for the development of realistic, meaningful and lasting relationships in later life. Disadvantages of coeducation: ―All international research points to the conclusion that co-ed and mixing is often a problem for both girls and boys,‖ education lecturer Mary Darmanin said. According to Prof. Darmanin, in such mixed-gender classrooms boys tended to shun reading, considered ‗feminine‘, while girls shied away from science subjects, something also highlighted by science academic Deborah Chetcuti. ―Some authors suggest that in a co-ed class, boys... tend to dominate the science activities and take the lead in practical work while girls were likely to be more passive,‖ said Prof. Chetcuti, who used to head the University‘s department of math, science and technical education. Some common disadvantages of coeducation are listed below. Low concentration In the early stages of adulthood amateur school students concentration diverted from their studies and they usually involve themselves in other activities which actually results due to the attraction of the opposite sex. This potential risk might affect the education career of the males and females students at very initial level which can make the foundation very weak.
  24. 24. 18 Unethical Activities Students usually get involved in unethical activities and sometimes even involve in to crimes. These unethical activities at very young age of students may include the first‘s affairs, physical relationships and other serious crimes might include the sexual harassment and rape which might destroy the lives of the involved students. Special Attention In mixed schools, girls are teased and harassed by boys from an early age, and this continues as they grow older. Participation While we would agree that in a society which did not make gender the basis for social categorization and differentiation, and in which gender was not the primary basis for identifying an individual, it would be natural for children to be educated together, we do not thing it follows, as many people assume, that coeducation in today‘s society, in and of itself, conduces to less sex role stereotyping. On the contrary, in a mixed school, the division of roles automatically tends to take place on the basis of gender. This may be more or less overt, but is inevitably present. Even in supposedly progressive schools, where, as a policy, girls are encouraged to assume leadership roles, if the number of boys and girls are equal, boys tend to outnumber girls in such roles. This happens not so much because of teachers‘ biases as because the children act out the parts of assertiveness and passivity that they have learnt to play—because the primary school for this learning is the family. Friendships In primary and middle school, it was common practice for teachers to make a boy and a girl share a desk. This was done to minimize talking in class, as it was observed that two boys or two girls sharing a desk would chatter much more. We remember girls being subjected to considerable bullying due to this seating arrangement. Most girls would go to great lengths to manoeuvre to sit next to a girlfriend. By the high school and college stage, however, in a mixed environment, some girls and boys pair off and others begin to feel they must be undesirable and unattractive if they do not manage to pair off. The pressure of the peer group results in a great deal of energy going into dressing and behaving in ways that are supposed to attract attention from members of the other sex. This happens with both boys and girls but my impression is that girls allow their academic and other pursuits only a secondary importance because the entire environment encourages them to believe that a woman‘s success lies primarily in her ability to please a man. On the other hand, for a man, the ability to attract women (preferably several) is socially defined as only one component of achievement.
  25. 25. 19 Concluding comments: Beside coeducation advantages and disadvantages, administration of the institutes specially schools and colleges should have a tight check and balance systems. This proper check and balance will result in better grooming of students and it will prevent the misuse of coeducational system. Then we can say that coeducation is a better system of education. SAME GENDER EDUCATION Meaning Single-sex education, also known as single-gender education, is the practice of conducting education where male and female students attend separate classes or in separate buildings or schools. The practice was common before the nineteenth century, particularly in secondary education and higher education. Single-sex education in many cultures is advocated on the basis of tradition as well as religion, and is practiced in many parts of the world. Recently, there has been a surge of interest and establishment of single-sex schools due to educational research.
  26. 26. 20 History: Before the 19th century, single-sex schooling was common. During the 19th century, more and more coeducational schools were set up. Together with mass education, the practice of coeducation was universalized in many parts. In 1917 coeducation was mandated in the Soviet Union. According to Cornelius Riordan, "By the end of the nineteenth century, coeducation was all but universal in American elementary and secondary public schools. And by the end of the 20th century, this was largely true across the world. Wiseman (2008) shows that by 2003, only a few countries across the globe have greater than one or two percent single sex schools. But there are exceptions where the percent of single sex schools exceeds 10 percent: Belgium, Chile, Singapore, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Israel, New Zealand, Australia, South Korea, and most Muslim nations. Recently, however, there has been a resurgence of interest in single sex schools in modern societies across the globe, both in the public and private sector (Riordan, 2002)." Single sex education in India In India, boys are said to do better in single-sex classrooms because of the varying educational needs of boys when compared to girls. However, the number of single-sex state schools has dropped substantially over the past 40 years, from 2,500 to 400. Figures indicate that, as of 2002, 53% of girls in the Indian population actually attend schools. Some conservative parents may decide to withdraw their daughters at the age of puberty onset because of fear of distraction. It is also believed that by having single-sex classrooms the students will be able to focus more on their education, as they will not have the distraction of the other sex. The study argues that co- education schools provide opportunities for students to interact with their peers which de-stresses students and creates a friendlier, more relaxed environment. Advantages and disadvantages of single sex education: Given the status of the legal and research matters, decisions about same-sex education tend to be based on the values and beliefs of decision makers and often are shaped by politics and economics. Different cost-benefit analyses of advantages and disadvantages arise from evaluations focused on the impact on (a) individuals (e.g., academic achievement, personal growth, health, social development), (b) subgroups (e.g., outcome differences in socioeconomic opportunities and status), and (c) the society (e.g., enhancing equity of opportunity, facilitating socialization/teaching/parenting, economic development).
  27. 27. 21 Advantages: 1. Makes boys less competitive and more cooperative and collaborative. 2. Makes girls feel less pressure as they mature and develop. 3. Increases staff sensitivity and awareness of gender differences. 4. Improves peer interaction. 5. Provides positive same-gender role models. 6. Provides more opportunities to pursue academic and extracurricular endeavors without racial and gender stereotypes. 7. Is less distracting than co-ed environments. 8. Girls mature faster, so potentially boys won't hold them back. 9. Teachers can employ instruction techniques geared toward specific genders. 10. Single-sex schools break down stereotypes. Disadvantages: 1. Promotes gender stereotyping. 2. Undermines gender equality. 3. Doesn‘t prepare students for work or family life. 4. Makes exclusion acceptable. 5. Doesn‘t value diversity. 6. Deprives access to mainstream programs. 7. Doesn‘t socialize students to be less sexist. 8. Expensive to run two parallel programs. 9. Studies are inconclusive about how helpful separating genders are. 10. Studies are inconclusive about how helpful separating genders are. 11. Many teachers may not have the training to employ gender-specific teaching techniques.
  28. 28. 22 12. Boys mature slower, so potentially girls won't positively influence them. Common Positive Claims of same gender education: Proponents argue that, compared to co-educational classes, single-sex education improve learning and performance by allowing a better match for teaching and learning. That is, as with other forms of homogenous grouping, separate classes for girls and boys are seen as enabling teaching and learning and reducing achievement gaps. For girls, for example, single-sex education is viewed as a way to enable them to do better in math and science, opening up careers where females are under presented. Examples of problems in co- educational settings that are emphasized include:  Boys and girls develop at different rates which produces differences in their respective academic learning readiness in the early schooling years.  Teachers often respond differently to males and females (e.g., favoring males, overprotecting females).  Peer attitudes toward the opposite sex also differ in the early years of schooling and change with biological development (e.g., male domination of females, distractions due to the presence of the opposite sex).  Sexual activity that leads to pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Proponents also assert that single-sex education counters male-females stereotypes by ensuring that both sexes can.  Take initiative in meeting challenges.  Assume leadership roles.  Pursue activities that in co-educational settings often are seen as too ―masculine‖ for females or too ―feminine‖ for males. Common Claims Against same gender education: Opponents argue that public funds should not be used to support single-sex education because the approach  Has not generated methodologically sound empirical evidence showing societal benefits (e.g., findings related to improved achievement for males and females is equivocal, achievement gaps are more associated with socio-economic factors than gender and CNS differences)
  29. 29. 23  Maintains and even exacerbates sexist attitudes and gender stereotypes (e.g., gender oriented facilities and teaching content and methods create a gender-stereotypical environment, limit exposure to the opposite sex and cross sex social-emotional learning)  Can make transition to co-educational situations difficult. In addition, it is suggested that single-sex schools tend to overemphasize academics at the expense of ―whole child‖ development (e.g., they tend to minimize activities that promote creative expression, intrinsic motivation, and positive attitudes toward schooling). And, from a teaching perspective, opponents underscore that behavior often is harder to manage in all male classes. Effects of single sex education: The topic of single-sex education is controversial. Advocates argue that it aids student outcomes such as test scores, graduation rates, and solutions to behavioral difficulties. Opponents, however, argue that evidence for such effects is inflated or non-existent, and instead argue that such segregation can lead to increased prejudice and cost students social skills. Advocates of single-sex education believe that there are persistent gender differences in how boys and girls learn and behave in educational settings, and that such differences merit educating them separately. One version of this argument holds that brains of males and females develop differently. Proponents reference these developmental differences to argue that by separating students according to sex, the educator is able to meet the needs according to the developmental trajectory of the different genders. In addition, supporters of single-sex education argue that by segregating the genders, students do not become distracted by the other gender's actions in the classrooms, therefore making them pay attention more to class than their peers. A systematic review published in 2005 covering 2221 studies was commissioned by the US Department of Education entitled Single-sex versus coeducational schooling: A systematic review. The review, which had statistical controls for socio-economic status of the students and resources of the schools, etc., found that the results of studies on the effects of single-sex schooling "are equivocal. There is some support for the premise that single-sex schooling can be helpful, especially for certain outcomes related to academic achievement and more positive academic aspirations. For many outcomes, there is no evidence of either benefit or harm. There is limited support for the view that single-sex schooling may be harmful or that coeducational schooling is more beneficial for the student." It also said that "In general, most studies reported positive effects for SS schools on all-subject achievement tests," and "The preponderance of studies in areas such as academic accomplishment (both concurrent and
  30. 30. 24 long term) and adaptation or socio emotional development (both concurrent and long term) yields results lending support to SS schooling." The quantitative data itself "finds positive results are three to four times more likely to be found for single sex schools than for coeducational schools in the same study for both academic achievement and socio-emotional development," said Cornelius Riordan, one of the directors of the research. In 2008, the US government sponsored another study, Early Implementation of Public Single-Sex Schools: Perceptions and Characteristics, which listed the benefits of single-sex schools: (1) Decreases distractions in learning. (2) Reduces student behavior problems. (3) Provides more leadership opportunities. (4) Promotes a sense of community among students and staff. (5) Improves student self-esteem. (6) Addresses unique learning styles and interests of boys or girls. (7) Decreases sex bias in teacher-student interactions. (8) Improves student achievement. (9) Decreases the academic problems of low achieving students. (10) Reduces sexual harassment among students. (11) Provides more positive student role models. (12) Allows for more opportunities to provide social and moral guidance. (13) Provides choice in public education. The Teachers College Record published a study in 2009 that showed that in majority of cases, the effect of the interaction between boys and girls has resulted in less homework done, less enjoyment of school, lower reading and math scores. A UCLA research of 2009 reported that "Female graduates of single-sex high schools demonstrate stronger academic orientations than their coeducational counterparts across a number of different categories, including higher levels of academic engagement, SAT scores, and confidence in mathematical ability and computer skills...The report's findings, drawn from multiple categories, including self-confidence, political and social activism, life goals, and career orientation, reveal that female graduates of single-sex schools demonstrate greater
  31. 31. 25 academic engagement: Nearly two-thirds (62 percent) of single-sex independent school alumnae report spending 11 or more hours per week studying or doing homework in high school, compared with less than half (42 percent) of female graduates of coeducational independent schools." In September 2011, the journal Science published a study deeply critical of the evidence behind positive effects of gender segregation in schooling, arguing that the movement towards single-sex education "is deeply misguided, and often justified by weak, cherry- picked, or misconstrued scientific claims rather than by valid scientific evidence." The study goes on to conclude that "there is no well-designed research showing that single-sex (SS) education improves students' academic performance, but there is evidence that sex segregation increases gender stereotyping and legitimizes institutional sexism." Opponents of single-sex education, including the authors of the Science article referenced above, argue that it is not single-sex education that is producing positive results with students but rather it is the motivation of the teacher and the resources that are available. There is a lack of quality research in the field to attribute success to single-sex schooling rather than extraneous factors. They believe that by having a single-sex school the children are not prepared for the real world, where they would need to communicate with members of the opposite sex. They argue that coeducational schools break down sexist attitudes through interaction with the opposite sex. Other opponents of single-sex education also argue that it is coeducational schools create a feeling of safety and a sense of mutual respect. Leonard Sax, the President of National Association for Single-sex Public Education or NASSPE countered the Science article by saying that "ALL the studies cited in the SCIENCE article regarding 'negative impacts' were in fact studies involving a small number of PRE-SCHOOL students attending a COED pre-kindergarten" (capitalized letters in the original). He further said that "these authors provide no evidence for their substantive claim that 'gender divisions are made even more salient in SS settings.' In fact, this conjecture has been tested, and proven false, in multiple studies." Sax cited a study which said that "girls in the all-girls classroom were less aware of 'being a girl' and less aware of gender stereotypes regarding science, compared to girls who were randomly assigned to the coed classroom." In January 2012, a study of the University of Pennsylvania was published, involving a randomized experiment, considered the experiment with the highest level of scientific evidence. The data comes from schools in South Korea, where a law was passed randomly assigning students to schools in their district. The study by Park, Berhman and Choi titled Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools concluded that "Attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools rather than attending coeducational schools is significantly associated with higher average scores."
  32. 32. 26 Concluding Comments: So, where do you stand on same-sex education? Does it enhance overall equity of opportunity to succeed at school and beyond? What role does it play with respect to various stereotypes and biases? How does it enhance teacher efforts to match individual differences and personalize instruction? At this time, the answers to basic questions about same-sex education cannot be satisfactorily answered by formal research findings. Prevailing pro and con arguments reflect a host of considerations (e.g., philosophical, economic, political, psychological, personal). Proponents on either side of the debate regularly provide counter arguments. Others caution that arguments about single-sex education tend to pay too little attention to school and staff variables that have the greatest impact on students. In the end, policy makers are caught making decisions about single-sex education that balance political and economic costs and benefits, and when there is a choice, parent are left to make decisions they believe are in their child‘s best interests. NUMBER OF CBSE SCHOOLS IN AHMADABAD There are approximately 47 schools affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) in Ahmedabad. Find below a list of at most 50 schools in an unordered manner. Divine Child School Amipura Pb Number 11 Gidc Mehsana Ahmedabad Gujarat Shree Narayana Central School Opp: Isro, Sac, Near : Ramdevnagar, Ahmedabad -15 Sri Sri Ravi Shankar Vidya Mandir Near Godhavi Lake, Opp: Jain Temple, At Bopal Manipur Road St.Ann'S School Block No.185,Sterling City,Bopal Cosmos Castle International School Survey No. 598/1, Right Turn To Makarba Cross Roads, Next To Vrindavan Farms, Opp. Ymca Club, S G Highway The New Tulip International School Sterling City, Bopal, Ahmedabad (Gujarat) Global Mission School Sanshakardham Po Godhavi, Ta-Sanad Distt. Ahmedabad.
  33. 33. 27 Central English School Ram Rajya Nagar Odhar Ahmedabad Gujarat Vedant International School 25,B/vasntnagar Society, Bhairavnath- Maninagar I.D.P. School Opp. Motera Village Tal. Daskoi, Ahmedabad Euro School, Via Thaltej Hebatpur Village, Ahmedabad Kendriya Vidyalaya No 2 Aerodrame Road Ahmedabad Cantt Gujarat Sattva Vikas School On New 100 Feet Road, 2km Off S-G Highway From Pakwan Intersection, Thaltej, Ahmedabad Airport School Aai Residential Quarters, Sardarnagar Prakash Sr Sec School Near Sandesh Press Bodakdev Ahmedabad Gujarat Zydus School For Excellence - Godhavi Survey No. 766 & 767 , Near Village Godhavi, Ahmedabad 382115 Podar International School, Ahmedabad Near Trishala Complex Cross Road, New Cg Road, Chandkheda Msm International Residential School Village Naj Taluka Dashkroi Distt Ahmedabad Gujarat Sheth C N English Medium School Ambawadi Ellisbridge, St. Kabir School, Drive In , Ahmedabad Opp Aditya Complex, Nr Goyal Intercity, Surdhara Circle, Drive- In Road Nirman High School Nirman High School, Opp. Shabri Appt. Nr. Indraprastha Bungalows Kendriya Vidyalaya No 1 M R Campus Shahi Bagh Ahmedabad Gujarat Maharaja Agrasan Vidyalaya Mem Nagar Opp. Gurukul Ahmedabad Gujarat Amrita Vidyalayam Plot No.83 Near Revamani Hall Janata Nagar Road Ghatlodia Calorx Public School B/h. Shivanand Flats, K.K Nagar Road. Ghatlodia
  34. 34. 28 NUMBER OF ICSE SCHOOLS IN AHMADABAD The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) established in the year 1929, enjoys today the distinction of being one of the oldest and largest Board of Secondary Education in India. It has More than 16,000 affiliated schools in India and across 24 other countries of the world. There are 22 ICSE schools in Ahmadabad some of them are as follow S.D.A. Higher Secondary School, 132 Ft. Ring Road Haripura Maninagar East Ahmedabad-380 008 Metas Mcd School Of Seventh-Day Adventists, Post Box No. 24 Athwa Lines Surat-395 001 S.N. Kansagra School, University Road Rajkot-360 005 Queen Of Angels' Convent Higher Secondary School, At & P.O. Vadadla Bharuch-392 015 Atul Vidyalaya, At & P.O. Atul Atul Valsad-396 020 Seventh-Day Adventist Higher Secondary School, Shyamnagar 3 Vijalpur Navsari-396 450 Firdaus Amrut Centre School 15 - Cantonment, Shahibaug, Ahmedabad - 3 Utthan Sewa Santhan-Anand Niketan Maninagar Anand Niketan, Opp. Bhaktidham Temple, Jashodanagar Highway, Ahmedabad. Indian Heritage Public School Dhariwal Vill. Ahmedabad, Near Gurdwara Burj Sahib, Dhariwal Shanti Asiatic School Shanti Asiatic School, Opp, Vraj Gardens, Off 200 Ft Ring Road, Shela, Bopal, Ahmedabad- 380058 Kendriya Vidyalaya Ioc Colony Viramgam Ahmedabad Gujarat Adani Vidya Mandir B/h Adani Cng Pump, Off. S. G. Highway, Makarba Kendriya Vidyalaya (S A C) Vastrapur D O S Colony Iim Road Polytechnic P.O. Ahmedabad Gujarat
  35. 35. 29 Eklavya School, Village Sanathal P.O. Sarkhej Ahmedabad-382 210 Anand Niketan, Thaltej - Shilaj Road Nr. Ambli Rly. Crossing Shilaj Ahmedabad-380 058 GUJARAT BOARD Gujarat Council of Educational Research and Training (GCERT) is a pivotal institution at the state level for the enhancement of qualitative education at primary and secondary schools. It was "State Institute of Education" before 1988. It was later upgraded as a SCERT in 1988, under the resolution of State Education Department. The upgraded SCERT, now named as Gujarat Council of Educational Research and Training (GCERT) is a fully structured State level academic institution and is controlled and guided by a Governing body as well as an Executive Committee. The following are some of the co-educated schools affiliated with the Gujarat board. 1. H.B Kapadiya 2. Divan Ballubhai 3. St. Xaviers 4. St. Kabir 5. Navakar 6. Som lalit school 7. Swami Narayan school 8. Jundal 9. Info city 10. Amrut modi 11. Noble school of science and commerce The following are some of the same gender schools affiliated with the Gujarat board. 1. Sankara aacharya high school 2. Gayarti vidhyalaya 3. Fellowship high school 4. LBS school of science 5. Swami Narayan higher school 6. Mount karmel
  36. 36. 30 CHAPTER TWO RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
  37. 37. 31 MEANING OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology is a methodology for collecting all sorts of information & data pertaining to the subject in question. The objective is to examine all the issues involved & conduct situational analysis. The methodology includes the overall research design, sampling procedure & fieldwork done & finally the analysis procedure. The methodology used in the study consistent of sample survey using both primary & secondary data. The primary data has been collected with the help of questionnaire as well as personal observation book, magazine; journals have been referred for secondary data. The questionnaire has been drafted & presented by the researcher himself. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY  The basic and foremost objective is to find out whether people prefer same gender education or mixed gender education.  To find out whether parents are in favor or against of girls sitting next to boys in classrooms.  To find out the quality of feedback provided by teachers in mixed classes.  To know whether coeducation helps in removing of shyness towards opposite gender.  To know how many schools are in same gender and mixed gender in the city of Ahmedabad, Gujarat.  To find out how many schools in same gender and mixed gender are affiliated to Gujarat board, ICSE and CBSE.  To find out the top schools in same gender and mixed gender in the city of Ahmedabad.  To find out whether coeducation affect the behavior of children at home.  To know whether parents experience have effects on selection of school for their children.  To know the perception of the teachers about girls studying with boys.  To know the teachers experience whether discussion between boys and girls increase their confidence.  To find out whether coeducation helps to work in mixed environment.  To know whether coeducation makes students more comfortable towards opposite gender.  To know whether mixed classes affects teachers performance.  To know whether students will have better relations with teachers in mixed class.  To find out whether mixed gender classes or single gender classes will be more disturbing.  To know how coeducation affects the learning of students.
  38. 38. 32  To know whether students who attended single sex schools, are now attending mixed gender colleges will have difficulty or not.  To find out whether mixed gender schools caters all the needs of students.  To make the people aware about both same gender and mixed gender education.  To figure out unnecessary activities at same gender and mixed gender schools.  To find out the alternative choices of education system.  To judge the perception of the people about same gender and mixed gender schools.  To figure out weaknesses of same gender and mixed gender education system.  To analysis personal details of the parents and teacher that consists of annual income, education, occupation and age of respondents. SOURCES OF DATA INTRODUCTION:- Generally we can collect data from two sources, primary and secondary source. Data collected fo rm primary source are known as primary data and data collected from secondary source ar e called secondary data. Primary data are also known as raw data. Data are collected f rom the original source in a controlled or an uncontrolled environment. Example of contro lled environment experimental research was certain variable are being controlled by the research er. On the other hand, data collected thought observation questionnaire survey in a natural s etting an example data obtain in an uncontrolled environment. Secondary data obtained fro m secondary sources such as report, books, journal, document, magazines, the web and mor e. 1) Secondary data Source of secondary data of our project is  Internet (A detailed of source is given in chapter 5, page number 67) 2) Primary data A. Research Instrument A structured undisguised questionnaire: Structure undisguised questionnaires are the most commonly used in research today every responded is posed the same question same sequence, with the same opportunity of response. In most case the purpose of the research is clearly stated in an introductory
  39. 39. 33 statement or is an obvious from the question asked. This type of instrument has advantages of simplicity in administration, tabulation and analysis; standardize data collection, objectivity; and reliability. The disadvantage include lack of flexibility in changing question ―on the fly‖ The Questionnaire of our project is attached in Chapter: 6 Annexure I, page no. 69-72. POPULATION DEFINITION OF THE POPULATION A Population can be defined as including all people or items with the characteristics one wishes to understand. Because there is rarely enough time or money to gather information from everyone or everything in population. The goal becomes finding a representative sample (or subset) of that population. Note also that the population from which the sample is drawn may not be same as the population about which we actually want information often there is large but not complete overlap between these two groups due to frame issues etc. Sometimes they may be entirely separate for instance, we might study rats in order to get a better understanding of human health or we might study records from people born in 2008 in order to make predictions about people born in 2009. Population of study is Ahmedabad city. SAMPLING METHOD & SAMPLE SIZE SAMPLING A sample is ―a smaller collection of units from a population used to determine truths about that p opulation‖. SAMPLING PROCESS Sampling process comprises several stages: ‐ 1. Defining the population of concern. 2. Specifying a sampling frame, a set of items or events possible to measure. 3. Specifying a sampling method for selecting items or events from the frame. 4. Determining the sample size. 5. Implementing the sampling size. 6. Sampling and data collecting. 7. Reviewing the sampling process.
  40. 40. 34 Our project is based on Convenience sampling. Convenience sampling: ‐  Sometimes known as grab or opportunity sampling or accidental or haphazard sampling .  A type of nonprobability sampling which involves the sample being drawn from that pa rt of the population which is close to hand. That is readily available and convenient.  The researcher using such a sample cannot scientifically make generalized generalizatio n about the total population from this sample because it would not be representative eno ugh  In social science research, snowball sampling is a similar technique, where existing stu dy subject are used to recruit more subjects into the sample.  Use results that are easy to get. SAMPLING SIZE Sample size of our project is 209. That includes 59 for teachers and 150 parents. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 1) We are students not trained researchers. Therefore, the quality of work may suffer. 2) A sample size of 209 is not adequate for the population of Ahmedabad city. However, du e to time and financial constraint this sample size was used. 3) Secondary data collected from internet has not been verified. 4) Non co‐operation from respondents was an issue in primary data collection. 5) Advanced statistical technologies have not been used for analysis. 6) There was lack of reliable data.
  41. 41. 35 CHAPTER -3 ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
  42. 42. 36 GRAPHS FOR PARENTS Section -1 1) In which type of school your child is studying? {See page No 73, Table No 1} Interpretation: It has been observed that approximately 86% of the parents send their children to mixed gender schools and 14% parents send their children to same gender schools. Same gender 22 Mixed gender 128 14.6% 85.6% Same gender Mixed gender
  43. 43. 37 2) Are you in favor or against girls sit next to boys in classrooms? {See page No 73, Table No 2} Interpretation: From the above chart, it can be illustrated that around 57% parents are in favor of coeducation and 25% are against coeducation, While 19% of parents have no idea. Favor 85 Against 37 Can’t say 28 56.6%24.6% 18.6% Favor Against CAN'T SAY
  44. 44. 38 3) How would you rate the quality of feedback provided by teachers in mixed classes? {See page No 74, Table No 3} Interpretation: The above chart shows that 33% of the parents thinks, that quality of feedback of teachers in mixed classes is excellent, and 47% parents say that its good, and 11% of parents says it‘s fair. While 9% parents thinks that quality of feedback of teachers is poor. Excellent 50 Good 71 Fair 16 Poor 13 33.3% 47.3% 10.6% 8.6% Excellent Good Fair Poor
  45. 45. 39 4) Does coeducation help to remove the shyness towards opposite gender? {See page No 74, Table No 4} Interpretation: The above chart shows, 57% of parents says that coeducation helps to remove shyness toward opposite gender and 23% parents think that coeducation cannot remove shyness towards opposite gender, While 20%of parents have no idea. Yes 86 No 34 Can’t say 30 57.3% 22.6% 20% Yes No Can't say
  46. 46. 40 5) Does coeducation affect child behavior at home? {See page No 75, Table No 5} Interpretation: The above chart indicates, 20% parents think that coeducation does not affect child behavior at home and 51% of parents have opposite thinking, While 29% parents have no idea. Yes 30 No 77 Can’t say 43 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Yes No Can't say 20% 51.3% 28.6% Yes No Can't say
  47. 47. 41 6) Do parents’ experiences have effects on choice of school for their children? {See page No 8675, Table No 6} Interpretation: 60% of the parents think that parent experience has effects on the selection of school for his/her child and 21% parents say, that parents experience do not have such effects, While 19% of parents have no idea. Yes 90 No 32 Can’t say 18 60%21.3% 18.6% Yes No Can't say
  48. 48. 42 7) Do parents prefer same gender schools or mixed gender schools? {See page No 76, Table No 7} Interpretation: 86% of the parents prefer mixed gender schools and 14% prefer same gender schools. Same gender 21 Mixed gender 129 14% 86% Same gender Mixed gender
  49. 49. 43 Section -2 a) Gender {See page No 76, Table No a} Interpretation: The pie chart indicates that 70% of data is collected from male gender and 30% is that of female gender. Male 105 Female 45 70% 30% MALE FEMALE
  50. 50. 44 b) Education {See page No 77, Table No b} Interpretation: The above chart indicates that parents from education point of view are divided into school, graduation, post-graduation and other specification. 31% are school graduated, 50% are graduated, 17% are post graduated and 3% are of other specifications. Schooling 46 Graduation 74 Post-graduation 25 Others 5 0 20 40 60 80 100 30.6% 49.3% 16.6% 3.3% School Graduation Post Graduation Others
  51. 51. 45 c) Age {See page No 77, Table No c} Interpretation: The bar chart given above shows that parents are from different age classes. About 29% are below 30, 31% are between ages 30-35, 22% are between ages 36-40 and 18% parents are above the age of 40 years. Below 30- 44 31-35- 46 36-40- 33 Above 40- 27 Below 30 30-35 36-40 above 40 29.3% 30.6% 22% 18% Below 30 30-35 36-40 above 40
  52. 52. 46 d) Occupation {See page No 78, Table No d} Interpretation: The chart given above shows that occupation of parents which 27% is covered by professional, 4% are involved in service sector, 34% are doing business, 1.3% are housewife, 12% are retired and 21.3% are from other sections. Business 41 Profession 6 Service 51 Retired 2 House wife 18 Others 32 27.3% 4% 34% 1.3% 12% 21.3% Profession Service Business Housewife Retired Others
  53. 53. 47 e) Annual income {See page No 78, Table No e} Interpretation: The chart indicates that 81% of parents have below 500000 annual income, 13% have annual income between 500000 to 1000000, 5% have annual income between 1100000 to 2000000 and 1.3% of parents have income above 2000000. Below 5 lakhs 121 5-10 lakhs 20 11-20 lakhs 7 Above 20 lakhs 2 80.6% 13.3% 4.6% 1.3% Below 500000 500000-1000000 1100000-2000000 Above 2000000
  54. 54. 48 FOR TEACHERS 1) In which type of school you are teaching? {See page No 79, Table No 1} Interpretation: It has been observed that approximately 93% OF The teachers are teaching in coeducation schools, while 7% of teachers teach in same gender school. Same gender 4 Mixed gender 55 7% 93% same gender Mixed gender
  55. 55. 49 2) Are you in favor or against girls study with boys? {See page No 79, Table No 2} Interpretation: From the above chart, it can be illustrated that 76.2% of teachers are In favor of girls studying with boys, 16.9% of teachers are against of studying together, While 6.7% of teachers do not want to comment on. Favor 45 Against 10 Can’t say 4 0 10 20 30 40 50 16.9% 76.2% 6.7% Favor Against Can't say
  56. 56. 50 3) Do you think that discussion between boys and girls increase their confidence? {See page No 79, Table No 3} Interpretation: The above chart shows that 76.2% of teachers think that discussion between boys and girls increase their confidence, and 18 of teacher thinks that discussion between boys and girls don‘t increase their confidence, while 5.1% of teachers have no idea. Yes 45 No 11 Can’t say 3 76.2% 18.6% 5.1% Yes No Can't say
  57. 57. 51 4) Is one of the positive feature of coeducation, is to work in a mixed environment? {See page No 80, Table No 4} Interpretation: 85% of teachers think that work in a mixed environment is positive feature of coeducation, and 15% of teachers think that work in mixed environment is not positive feature of coeducation. Yes 50 No 9 85% 15% YES NO
  58. 58. 52 5) Do you think coeducation makes students more comfortable toward the opposite gender? {See page No 80, Table No 5} Interpretation: The above chart show that 64.4% of teachers think that coeducation makes students comfortable towards opposite gender , and 22% of teachers think that coeducation does not make students comfortable toward opposite gender, while 13.5% do not have idea about it. Yes 38 No 13 Can’t say 8 64.4% 22% 13.5% Yes No Can't say
  59. 59. 53 6) Do you think that all the students will have better relationship with teachers in the mixed gender class? {See page No 80, Table No 6} Interpretation: The above chart shows that 70% of teachers think that students in coeducation schools have better relationship with teachers, and the 15 % of teachers think that they do not have better relationship, and 15% don‘t have idea about it. Yes 41 No 9 Can’t say 9 70% 15% 15% Yes NO Can't say
  60. 60. 54 7) In which class there will be more disturbances (noise etc.) for teachers? {See page No 81, Table No 7} Interpretation: 80% of teachers think that in mixed class there will be more disturbances, and 20% think that in same gender classes there will be more disturbances. Same gender 12 Mixed gender 47 20% 80% same gender
  61. 61. 55 8) How coeducation effect the learning of students? {See page No 81, Table No 8} Interpretation: The above chart shows that 76% of teachers think that coeducation affect learning positively, and 13.5% of teachers think that coeducation affect learning negatively, while 10.1% have no idea. Positively 45 Negatively 8 Can’t say 6 76.2% 13.5% 10.1% Positively Negativily can't say
  62. 62. 56 9) Those students who attended single sex schools, are now attending mixed gender colleges will have difficulty? {See page No 81, Table No 9} Interpretation: 41% teachers think that those students who attended single sex schools will have difficulty in studying in mixed colleges and 54% teachers have opposite view, While 5% teachers have no idea. Yes 24 No 32 No idea 3 0 20 40 60 80 100 40.6% 54.2% 5.1% Yes No N0 idea
  63. 63. 57 10) Do you think mixed gender class affects the teachers’ performance? {See page No 82, Table No 10} Interpretation: The above chart shows that 64% teachers thinks that mixed gender classes affect teachers performance and 29% thinks that it will not affect teachers performance, While 7% of teachers have no idea. Yes 38 No 17 Can’t say 4 64.4%28.8% 6.7% Yes No Can't say
  64. 64. 58 a) Gender {See page No 82, Table No a} Interpretation: The pie chart indicates that 61% of data is collected from male gender and 39% is that of female gender. Male 36 Female 23 61% 39% Male female
  65. 65. 59 b) Education {See page No 83, Table No b} Interpretation: The above chart indicates that parents from education point of view are divided into school, graduation, post-graduation and other specification. 12% are school graduated, 61% are graduated, 24% are post graduated and 3% are of other specifications. Schooling 7 Graduation 36 Post-graduation 14 Others 2 11.8% 61% 23.7% 3.4% schooling Graduation Post graduation others
  66. 66. 60 c) Age {See page No 83, Table No c} Interpretation: The bar chart given above shows that teachers are from different age classes. About 39% are below 30, 51% are between ages 30-35, 10% are between 36-40 and 0% teachers are above the age of 40 years. Below 23 31-45 30 46-60 6 Above 0 Below30 31-45 46-60 Above60 39% 50.8% 10.1% 0% Below30 31-45 46-60 Above60
  67. 67. 61 d) Occupation {See page No 83, Table No d} Interpretation: The chart given above shows that occupation of teachers which 10% is covered by professional, 49% are involved in service sector, 35% are doing business, 2% are housewife, 0% are retired and 3.4% are from other sections. Business 6 Profession 29 Service 21 Retired 1 House wife 0 Others 2 10.1% 49.1% 35.6% 1.7% 0% 3.4% business pofession service retired house wife others
  68. 68. 62 e) Annual income {See page No 84, Table No e} Interpretation: The chart indicates that 74% of teachers have below 500000 annual income, 24% have annual income between 500000 to 1000000, 2% have annual income between 1100000 to 2000000 and 0% of parents have income above 2000000. Below 5 lakhs 44 5-10 lakhs 14 11-20 lakhs 1 Above 20 lakhs 0 74.5% 23.7% 1.7% 0% Below500000 500000-1000000 1100000-2000000 above 2000000
  69. 69. 63 CHAPTER 4 RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
  70. 70. 64 SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 1) Some of the people are against the coeducation, but coeducation schools should give awareness about the importance of coeducation to people. 2) Coeducation schools should focus on important subjects to attract people. 3) Coeducation schools should provide all necessary facilities to the students. 4) Coeducation schools should focus on those activities that increase the confidence of students. 5) Coeducation schools should provide conversation opportunities to students, to remove shyness towards opposite gender. 6) Same gender schools should enroll qualified teachers, to improve the performance. 7) The teacher should have better relationship with the students in the schools. Because it increases the confidence of the students. 8) Coeducation schools should not look only at the marks of students, but also take care of their social skills. 9) Coeducation schools should train the teachers to deal with socio-cultural differences. 10) Coeducation schools should reduce the class size. 11) The teachers should improve learning skills of the students.
  71. 71. 65 CONCLUSION Policy makers should make decisions about education system that balance political and economic costs and benefits, and when there is a choice, parents are left to make decisions they believe are in their child‘s best interests. About 85% of the parents favor mixed gender education compare to that of same gender education. 47% of the parents think that teachers feedback is good in mixed gender schools. 58% parents think that coeducation removes shyness towards opposite gender. 64% of teachers think that coeducation makes students more comfortable toward opposite gender. 70% teachers think that students will have better relationship in the mixed classes. Beside coeducation advantages and disadvantages, administration of the institutes specially schools and colleges should have a tight check and balance systems. This proper check and balance will result in better grooming of students and it will prevent the misuse of coeducational system. Then we can say that coeducation is a better system of education.
  72. 72. 66 CHAPTER-5 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES
  73. 73. 67 BIBLIOGRAPHY Following are some of the information sources of our project:-  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/  http://www.apa.org/  http://www.academia.edu/  http://www.singlesexschools.org/  http://www.genderandeducation.com/
  74. 74. 68 CHAPTER -6 ANNEXURE
  75. 75. 69 ANNEXURE- 1 A BLANK COPY OF QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PARENTS Coeducation versus Same gender education We are students from Som-Lalit institute of business administration. We are conducting a research on coeducation versus same gender education. We'd like to hear from you about your experience. This will help us complete our research. Your responses are completely anonymous and will be used only for study purpose. Please answer the following questions If you have any questions about the survey, please email us at: hikmat.khubaib@gmail.com We really appreciate your input! 1) In which type of school your child is studying / studied? 2) Are you in favor or against girls sit next to boys in classrooms? 3) How would you rate the quality of feedback provided by teachers in mixed classes? 4) Does coeducation help to remove the shyness towards opposite gender? 5) Does coeducation affect the child behavior at home? If yes how: ……………………………………………………………………. 6) Do parents experiences have effects on choice of school for their children?
  76. 76. 70 7) Do parents prefer 8) Share your positive or negative experience about the school where your child studies in terms of gender? ………………………………………………………………………………… Personal data of the respondent 9) Name: …………………………………………………… 10) Contact No. / e-mail ID: ………………………………… 11) Gender 12) Education 13) Age 14) Occupation 15) Income( per annum )
  77. 77. 71 A BLANK COPY OF QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS Coeducation versus Same gender education We are students from Som-Lalit institute of business administration. We are conducting research on coeducation versus same gender education. We'd like to hear from you about your experience. This will help us complete our research. Your responses are completely anonymous and will be used only for study purpose. Please answer the following questions. If you have any questions about the survey, please email us at: hikmat.khubaib@gmail.com We really appreciate your input! 1) In which type of school you are teaching? 2) Are you in favor or against girls study with boys? 3) Do you think that discussion between boys and girls increase their confidence? 4) Is one of the positive feature of coeducation, is to work in mixed environment? 5) Do you think coeducation makes students more comfortable towards the opposite gender? 6) Do you think that all the students will have better relationship with teachers in the mixed gender classes? 7) Win which classes there will be more disturbances (noise etc.) for teachers? 8) How coeducation affect the learning of students?
  78. 78. 72 9) Those students who attended single sex schools, are now attending mixed gender colleges will have difficulty? 10) Do you think mixed gender classes affect the teachers performance? 11) Share your positive or negative experience about teaching in your school in terms of gender: ……………………………………………………………………………… Personal data of the respondent 16) Name: …………………………………………………… 17) Contact No. / e-mail ID: ………………………………… 18) Gender 19) Education 20) Age 21) Occupation 22) Income( per annum )
  79. 79. 73 ANNEXURE- 2 ANALYSIS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PARENTS Q 1- In which type of school your child is studying / studied? Options Tally Marks Total Percentage Same gender 22 14.6 Mixed gender 128 85.4 Total 150 150 100 Q 2- Are you in favor or against girls sit next to boys in classrooms? Options Tally Marks Total Percentage Favor 85 56.6 Against 37 24.6 Can’t say 28 18.6 Total 150 150 100
  80. 80. 74 Q 3- How would you rate the quality of feedback provided by teachers in mixed classes? Options Tally Marks Total Percentage Excellent 50 33.3 Good 71 47.3 Fair 16 10.6 Poor 13 8.6 Total 150 150 100 Q 4- Does coeducation help to remove the shyness towards opposite gender? Options Tally Marks Total Percentage Yes 86 57.3 No 34 22.6 Can’t say 30 20 Total 150 150 100
  81. 81. 75 Q 5- Does coeducation affect the child behavior at home? Options Tally Marks Total Percentage Yes 30 20 No 77 51.3 No idea 43 28.6 Total 150 150 100 If yes how? ................................................................................................................ Children talk about their classmates at home Children become mature at home Children share their feelings freely and with open mind with other children Q 6- Do parents experience have effects on choice of school for their children? Options Tally Marks Total Percentage Yes 90 60 No 32 21.3 Can’t say 28 18.6 Total 150 150 100
  82. 82. 76 Q 7- Do parents prefer Options Tally Marks Total Percentage Same gender 21 14 Mixed gender 129 86 Total 150 150 100 Q 8- Share your positive or negative experience about the school where your child studies in terms of gender? 1- The mixed gender schools are the best for education to the children. 2- The mixed gender schools focus on more important education? 3- The mixed gender schools help the children to work in diverse environment. 4- The children remove their shyness towards opposite gender. 5- The mixed gender improves the career of the students. Q 9- Personal data of respondents: a) Gender Options Tally Marks Total Percentage Male 105 70 Female 45 30 Total 150 150 100
  83. 83. 77 b) Education Options Tally Marks Total Percentage Schooling 46 30.6 Graduation 74 49.3 Post-graduation 25 16.6 Others (young students, consultants) 5 3.3 Total 150 150 100 C) Age Options Tally Marks Total Percentage Below 30 44 29.3 31-35 46 30.6 36-40 33 22 Above 40 27 18 Total 150 150 100
  84. 84. 78 d) Occupation Options Tally Marks Total Percentage business 41 27.3 Profession 6 4 Service 51 34 Retired 2 1.3 House wife ||| 18 12 Others (………) 32 21.3 Total 150 150 100 e) Income Options Tally Marks Total Percentage Below 5,00,000 121 80.6 5,00,000-10,00,000 20 13.3 11,00,000-20,00,000 7 4.6 Above 20,00,000 2 1.3 Total 150 150 100
  85. 85. 79 ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS Q 1- In which type of school you are teaching? Options Tally Marks Total Percentage Same gender 4 6.7 Mixed gender 55 93.3 Total 59 59 100 Q2- Are you in favor or against girls study with boys? Options Tally Marks Total Percentage Favor 45 76.2 Against 10 16.9 Can’t say 4 6.7 Total 59 59 100 Q 3- Do you think that discussion between boys and girls increase their confidence? Options Tally Marks Total Percentage Yes 45 76.2 No 11 18.6 Can’t say 3 5.1 Total 59 59 100
  86. 86. 80 Q 4- Is one of the positive feature of coeducation, is to work in a mixed environment? Options Tally Marks Total Percentage Yes 50 84.7 No 9 15.2 Total 59 59 100 Q 5- Do you think coeducation makes students more comfortable toward the opposite gender? Options Tally Marks Total Percentage Yes 38 64.4 No 13 22 Can’t say 8 13.5 Total 59 59 100 Q 6- Do you think that all the students will have better relationship with teachers in the mixed gender class? Options Tally Marks Total Percentage Yes 41 70 No 9 15.2 Can’t say 9 15.2 Total 59 59 100
  87. 87. 81 Q 7- In which class there will be more disturbances (noise etc.) for teachers? Options Tally Marks Total Percentage Same gender 12 20.3 Mixed gender 47 79.6 Total 59 59 100 Q 8-How coeducation effect the learning of students? Options Tally Marks Total Percentage Positively 45 76.2 Negatively 8 13.5 Can’t say 6 10.1 Total 59 59 100 Q 9- Those students who attended single sex schools, are now attending mixed gender colleges will have difficulty? Options Tally Marks Total Percentage Yes 24 40.6 No 32 54.2 No idea 3 5.1 Total 59 59 100
  88. 88. 82 Q 10- Do you think mixed gender class affects the teachers performance? Options Tally Marks Total Percentage Yes 38 64.4 No 17 28.8 Can’t say 4 6.7 Total 59 59 100 Q 11- Share your positive or negative experience about teaching in your school in term of gender? 1- Students make noise and disturbance for teachers. 2- Boys and girls can ask each other. 3- There is no proper attention in mixed gender classes. 4- In mixed gender schools, students do not concentrate on their studies. Rather they concentrate on their looks and relations. 5- In mixed gender classes teachers feel more comfortable. 6- Teaching in mixed gender classes, increase students as well as teachers confidence. 7- The feeling of equality is developed among boys and girls in mixed classes. Q 12- Personal data of respondents:- a) Gender Options Tally Marks Total Percentage Male 36 61 Female 23 39 Total 59 59 100
  89. 89. 83 b) education Options Tally Marks Total Percentage Schooling 7 11.8 Graduation 36 61 Post-graduation 14 23.7 Others (young students, consultants) 2 3.4 Total 59 59 100 c) Age Options Tally Marks Total Percentage Below 30 23 39 31-45 30 50.8 46-60 6 10.1 Above60 0 0 Total 59 59 100 d) Occupation Options Tally Marks Total Percentage business 6 10.1 Profession 29 49.1 Service 21 35.6 Retired 1 1.7 House wife 0 0 Others 2 3.4 Total 59 59 100
  90. 90. 84 e) Income (per annum) Options Tally Marks Total Percentage Below 5,00,000 44 74.5 5,00,000-10,00,000 14 23.7 11,00,000-20,00,000 1 1.7 Above 20,00,000 0 0 Total 59 59 100

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