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  2. 2. IntroductionThe term “Agriculture” has beenderived from a latin word“Agerculturura” (ager = a field;culture= to cultivate), which literallymeans “Cultivation of land”Agriculture refers to the art ofraising plant life from the soil. It isnot merely tilling of land, but impliesa conscious and determined effort onthe part of man to utilise the soil forhis benefit. It includes all suchhuman efforts as are conducive to thequick and better growth of vegetableand animal products for the benefitof man.
  3. 3. Factors affecting Agriculture• Physical factors• Socio-Economic factors1. Physical factors : (a) Climate (b) Soil (c) Relief There are 3 elements in Relief which affects agriculture 1. Altitude, 2. Aspect & 3. Gradient influence
  4. 4. 2. Socio-Economic factors (a) Land tenure (b) Scale of Operations (c) Marketing (d) Transport (e) Labour (f) Capital (g) Government Influences
  5. 5. Agricultural Crops-Types of CropsCereals (wheat, Rice, Maize, Rye, Oats, Millets and Barley) and pulses are themajor food grains cultivated in different parts of the world. They differ fromeach other in respect of soil and climate requirements, methods of cultivationand type of farming.1.Wheat2.Rice3.Maize4.Rye5.Oats6.Millets7.Barley
  6. 6. 1. WHEATWheat is the most important of all grains since it makes the best flour and bread that is thebest for the growth of man’s body. It is the staple food of all the white people and isconsumed widely in the Soviet Union, the United States of America, Canada, India, China,the United Kingdom, France, Italy and Turkey.• Types of Farming:1. Commercial Grain farming2. Commercial Crop & Livestock farming3. Commercial Crop farming and Horticulture with subsidiary Livestock4. Intensive dry (field) farming5. Intensive Irrigation or Wet farming
  7. 7. Producing Patten of Wheat in the world•Asia = 45%•Europe = 30%•North America = 16%•South America = 3%•Oceania = 4%•Africa =2%
  8. 8. 2. RiceRice is by far the most importantgrain of the tropics. It is the staplefood of the people living in tropicalcountries. In fact rice is a necessityin the densely populated parts ofthe monsoon lands, as it give morecalories of energy per hectare thanwheat. Varieties of Rice • Japonica • Indica
  9. 9. 3. MAIZEMaize is an important food crop in the countrieswhere people have a low standard of living. Itranks as the 3rd most important food grain, afterwheat and rice, it is known as the Corn of America& Europe.In U.S.A, it is used for feeding cattle.Production pattern:North America = 45%Asia = 28%Europe = 12%South America = 8%Africa = 7%International TradeBulk of the maize produced is consumed in thehome market and only about 16 per cent of themaize produced is put in the world market forsale. The chief exporting countries are the U.S.A,Thailand, Argentina, S. Africa, Brazil, Belgium,Korea DPR, France, Singapore and Netherlands.
  10. 10. 4. RYEIt is an important grain of temperature lands and is used in making bread andliquors. It has been cultivated in Asia and Europe from times immemorial andhas been used by people of the low income group. Among the Cereal crops ofthe world, Rye is not extensively cultivated and is considered only as a secondclass bread grain, next to wheat, because of its high Gluten contentProducing Areas:Rye is essentially a European agro-product. Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Germany,Poland & Turkey etc. are the principal producers of Rye in the world. OutsideEurope, Rye is cultivated in the USA & Argentina, But Rye cultivation isdeclined in the USA.
  11. 11. International Trade of RYE:The International Trade in Rye isof very little significance as it isessentially grown for domesticconsumption. Canada, Sweden,Poland, France, Netherlands &U.S.A are the principal exporters..While major Importers includeRussia, Germany, Romania,Bulgaria, United Kingdom, Italy& Switzerland.
  12. 12. 5.BARLEYBarley was among the earliest cultivated cereals.Barley ranks high in food value, but it has failedto gain high favour as a bread making material.It is however, widely used as for making soups,porridge, baby foods etc. High quality barleyused to make malt. Generally principal use ofbarley is as a feed for domestic animals.Condition for GrowthIt grows in a wider range of climates in Hot,Temperate, and Cold regions, on Flat plains, aswell as on elavations upto 4,000Mtrs above thesea level. It requires moderate amount ofrainfall, between 75 & 100cm per year. Itrequires rich fertile soils and cannot be grown insandy, poor or infertile soils
  13. 13. Producing Areas of Barley: Europe produces about a quarter of theworld’s barley. Heavy production occurs in abelt streching from the United Kingdom &France eastward into Russia. Canada, Germanyand Russia are the raking world producers, indescending order. Other areas of productionoutside Europe are: USA, Turkey, China, India& Australia, etc.International TradeBarley is not an important commodity forInternational trade, since a little over 4% of theglobal output enters into the Internationalmarket. The USA & Canada contribute about60% of the world’s Exports. Other notableExporters are Argentina, Denmark & France. The major Importers include Germany,UK, Japan & Netherlands which claim about50% of global import trade of barley.
  14. 14. 6. OATSOats is also an important foodgrain of the world and is usedboth for human consumption andas feed for farm animals. It is alsogrown as a rotation crop and isrotated with maize and wheat.Oats are now most extensivelygrown in Asia. The cultivation ofOats is almost entirely confinedto the Northern hemisphere.Producing Areas:The U.S.A. produces about 17%of the world’s output. Canada,Germany, Poland, France,Sweden & China are theimportant producers
  15. 15. International Trade of Oats:The International Trade of oats is not significant because of the relative poorvalue of the grain. A very negligible amount of only 2-3% of the total outputenters the International market. In 1975, only about 217 million metric tons out ofa total production of 49 million metric tons of oats were exported.The principal exporters are USA, Russia, Australia & poland etc.The importing countries include United Kingdom, Germany, France, Spain,Switzerland, Hungary, Etc.
  16. 16. Beverages Tea, Coffee, Cacao and tobacco are non-alcoholic beverages;whereas tea, coffee & cacao are popular drinks but tobacco is anintoxicant mainly used in smoking & Chewing in various forms. 1.Tea 2.Coffee 3. Cacao 4. Tobacco
  17. 17. TeaTea is a popular drink all over the world. Tea is the general name given tothe dried leaves of broad-leaved evergreen bushes known as “Thea Sinesis”.The Tea is a native plant of highlands of China and Assam (India). It wascultivated in China in 2700years ago. Initially it was used in China as amedical drink. From the far east, it spread to Europe and other parts of theworld.Conditions of GrowthIt requires a warm climate with a temperature of about 27degree Celsiusthroughout the growing period. However it can be grown in lowertemperature of about 16 degree Celsius as well. It requires an averagerainfall of about 200 cm coming in a frequent showers. Heavy fog andmorning dew favour the growth of young leaves. Long dry spell is harmfulfor the crop.Production patternNearly ¾ of the world’s tea is produced in eastern and south eastern Asia.Kenya, Malawi, Uganda, Tanzania, Turkey & Iran etc. produce the rest.Among Asian countries India, China, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Bangladesh,Vietnam are the major tea producers.
  18. 18. Coffee Coffee is a mild stimulating popular drink in the modern world.It is a non-alcoholic beverage crops and ranks first in commercialimportance, followed by tea and cacao. It was first seen in district ofKaffa, Ethiopia from where it derives its name.Types of Coffee1.Coffee Arabica, 2. Coffee Robusta & 3. Coffee LibericaConditions of growthIt grows best at altitudes of 300 to 1800 mtrs where the days may bewarm, temperatures ranging from between 21d celsius and 27d celsius insummer and not less than 10d celcius in the coldest month. Frost ishigh;y injurios to coffee plant. It requires much moisture-an annualrainfall to 125 to 100cm, but a relatively dry period during the pickingseason.. Fertile well drained soils, rich in iron and potash are mostsuitable for the coffee plantation.
  19. 19. Cacao (Cocoa)Theobroma Cacao or simply cacao is a native plant (trees) of the westernhemisphere, more precisely of tropical South America where it was grownmost abundantly in the Central American lowlands and also in thee valleys ofthe Amazon and the Orinoco.Conditions of GrowthThe Cacao tree is restricted to tropical lowland areas, for its requires anaverage temperature of 24d Celsius, with a minimum of 16d Celsius. It alsorequires high humidity (80-90%) and a rainfall of 125cm or more per year. Along dry season is likely to hit the commercial success of its production. Thecacao tree must be protected against the direct sun rays and from the winds.International tradeImporters of Cocoa are: Europe, North america, Uk, Germany, Netherlands,,France, Belgium, Italy & Switzerland etc.Exporters includes Ghana, Ivory Coast, Brazil, Nigeria, Indonesia, Malaysia& Ecuador, etc.
  20. 20. TobaccoTobacco is a truly cosmopolitan crop in regard to its consumption as well asproduction. In some from or other, it is used by all people of the world.Tobacco is widely used for smoking, chewing, to a small extent in medicine,and also a sheep wash for destroying insects which inject the fleece.Condition of GrowthTobacco requires fairly high temperature between 21d Celsius and 27dCelsius & a moderate amount of rainfall. It can also be cultivated in regionsof cool summers and in warm deserts with the help of irrigation. Frosts areharmful. It grows well in light, deep and well drained soils that are rich intime, potash & humus. Tobacco being an exhausting crop, requires constantuse of fertilizers for maintaining fertility of soil.International tradeLeading exporters are USA, Brazil,Bulgaria, Turkey, Greece, Italy, Korea,Canada & ChinaLeading Importers includes UK, Germany, Japan, France, Russia & Spainetc.