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Study on frequency of genetic trait for earlobes

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Study on frequency of genetic trait for earlobes

  3. 3. 1. INTRODUCTION Earlobe also known as lobules auricular is the soft fleshy lower part found at the base of the external ear. It is the only part of the auricle not supported by cartilage (Richard et al. 2005). It is composed of the tough areolar and adipose (fatty) connective tissues lacking the firmness and elasticity of the rest of the pinna (Chummy 1999, Keith and Arthur 2006). Earlobes average about 2cm long and elongate slightly with age (Sharma et al. 2007, Anadi et al. 2007). It is either directly attached to the lateral side of head or free hanging freely away from the lateral side of head. The free type is slightly bigger than the attached earlobe (Azaria et al. 2003). This variation in attachment of earlobe is a trait that is inherited from parents and its inheritance follows a pattern. It is one of the genetic trait may be dominant or recessive on the different people according to the races or ethnic group.
  4. 4. 2. OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency of the human genetic trait for earlobes among Brahmin community of Madi Rambeni-4, Sankhuwa Sava.
  5. 5. 3. LIMITATION  Difficult to collect data from whole community.
  6. 6. 4. MATERIALS AND METHODS Direct Observation: I had visited to the home and observed the trait of each member of the family. Study Area: My hometown was selected for this survey which is located at Sankhuwa Sava district Madi Rambeni V.D.C. ward no 4. Fig. 1: Showing the location of study area. Madi Rambeni
  7. 7. S.No. Name Gender Earlobe 01. Noya Prasad Dahal M Free 02. Bhu Laxmi Dahal F Free 03. Ram Prasad Dahal M Free 04. Radha Dahal F Free 05. Pujya Raj Dahal M Free 06. Anita Dahal F Attached 07. Uma Nath Dahal M Free 08. Sakuntala Dahal F Free 09. Nura Raj Dahal M Free 10. Sita Dahal F Free 5. RESULTS Table 1. : Observation of attached and free earlobes among Brahmin community of Madi Rambeni. .
  8. 8. 11. Krishna Dahal M Free 12. Sujata Dahal F Free 13. Tara Nidhi Dahal M Free 14. Sarita Dahal F Free 15. Binod Dahal M Free 16. Anju Dahal F Free 17. Rupak Dahal M Free 18. Samjhana Dahal F Attached 19. Ganesh Dahal M Free 20. Sushmita Dahal F Free
  9. 9. 21. Kishor Dahal M Free 22. Sagun Dahal F Free 23. Sushil Dahal M Attached 24. Sushma Dahal F Free 25. Gunan Dahal M Free 26. Pratima Dahal F Free 27. Suman Dahal M Attached 28. Anu Dahal F Free 29. Junil Dahal M Attached 30. Manisha Dahal F Free
  10. 10. 31. Roshan Kumar Dahal M Free 32. Anjana Dahal F Free 33. Arjun Babu Dahal M Free 34. Gitanjali Dahal F Attached 35. Tanka Nath Dahal M Free 36. Binita Dahal F Free 37. Dinesh Dahal M Free 38. Shobha Dahal F Attached 39. Dipak Dahal M Free 40. Indira Dahal F Free
  11. 11. 41. Anil Dahal M Free 42. Rachana Dahal F Attached 43. Dipesh Dahal M Free 44. Kabita Dahal F Free 45. Suresh Dahal M Free 46. Amrita Dahal F Free 47. Amin Dahal M Attached 48. Urmila Dahal F Free 49. Pawan Dahal M Free 50. Sajana Dahal F Free
  12. 12. 51. Ayush Dahal M Free 52. Ayusha Dahal F Free 53. Anup Dahal M Free 54. Sajana Dahal F Free 55. Jiba Prasad Dahal M Free 56. Sita Dahal F Free 57. Bhaba Prasad Dahal M Attached 58. Radhika Dahal F Attached 59. Ram Chandra Dahal M Free 60. Bhagawati Dahal F Free
  13. 13. 61. Ritu Barna Dahal M Free 62. Gita Dahal F Free 63. Keshabraj Dahal M Free 64. Tara Dahal F Free 65. Kritak Dahal M Free 66. Kritika Dahal F Free 67. Mahesh Dahal M Free 68. Manjala Dahal F Free 69. Ballab Mani Dahal M Free 70. Manju Dahal F Free
  14. 14. Total population = 70 Having free earlobes = 59 Male with free earlobes = 30 Female with free earlobes = 29 Having attached earlobes = 11 Frequency for Free Earlobes = × 100 % = × 100 % = 84.29 % Frequency for Attached Earlobes = ×100% = × 100 % = 15.71 %
  15. 15. 84% 16% Free earlobes Attached earlobes Fig. 2: Diagram showing the Percentage of people having attached and free earlobes.
  16. 16. 6. DISCUSSION There were the majority of people having free earlobes comprising 84.29 % in Brahmin community which shows that free earlobe is dominant character over attached earlobes which supports the view of Ordu et al. (2014) who also concluded the free earlobes is dominant with 74.14% but Carriere (1922), in contrast, was with opposite view showing high proportion of people with attached earlobes. Similarly, (Sharma et al. 2007) observed 64.9% for free earlobes among Indian people which is almost similar to this study. Furthermore, similar proportions of free earlobes among male and female shows male and female offspring inherited the trait from both mothers and fathers irrespective of the sex.
  17. 17. 7. CONCLUSION According to the survey, It is observed that maximum number of Brahmin in community have free earlobes and very less have attached earlobes in Madi Rambeni-4, Sankhuwa Sava. Hence, the dominant character of Brahmin ethnic group is the presence of free earlobes which is inheritable character.
  18. 18. 8. REFERENCES Azaria, R.M.D., Adler, N.M.D., Silfen, R.M.D., Regev, D.M.D. and Hauben, D.J.M.D. 2003. Morphometry of the Adult Human Earlobe. A study of 547 subjects and Clinical application. Plastic reconstruction surgery. 111(7): 2398 -2402. Carriere, R. 1922. Anthropometric Measurement of the External Ear in a group of Turkish Primary School Students. Journal of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 28: 288-242. Chummy, S. 1999. Last’s Anatomy Regional and Applied. 10th edition. New York, Churchill Livingstone. 101-102. Ordu, K.S., Didia, B.C. and Egbunefu, N. 2014. Inheritance Pattern of Earlobe Attachment amongst Nigerians. Greener Journal of Human Physiology and Anatomy. 2 (1): 001-007. Richard D.L., Wayne V., and Adam M.W.M. 2005. Gray’s Anatomy for student’s. Main edition, Elsevier. Inc 109-111. Sharma, A., Sidhu, N.K., Sharma, M.K., Kapoor, K. and Singh, B. 2007. Morphometric Study of Earlobe in Northwest India. Anatomical Science International. 82: 98-104.