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Parts of Speech - English Module

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A collection of part of speech and rules in the English Language

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Parts of Speech - English Module

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  2. 2. 2 Preface “Module Making” is a work book made for enhancing one’s idea in learning the English language. This is focused and aimed to make the readers more proficient and expert when it comes to the different grammar rules that govern the language. In this book, you are expected to be able to learn what things you need to consider and focus in the language acquisition. Most of the learners would think that this can be a handful but when everything goes all at the same time, it can be overwhelming. This module is designed to be convenient and easy.
  3. 3. 3 Introduction English is regarded chiefly as a skill, as a tool-subject, and as a discipline. In fact, it is the foundation substance of thought and experience upon which the rest of academic knowledge is built. It is with this mind that this module is written. One yard for quality education is the competence by which learners of the English language are trained and honed by their professors and instructors in their alma mater. Part of this competence is the communication. English is considered as a fundamental language of instruction and discourse in almost all college subjects and more importantly, as the language of business and commerce in various industries. This module is designed to cater learners enrolled in Baao Community College specifically the English majors. It contains the intensive study of the different parts of speech, the structure, the meaning. It will also include exercises adjusted to the level of learners and competence. Opportunities to make the language more functional are given through this module. Critical thinking is also enhanced through the different exercises given in this module. I am fully convinced that this module will be of great value to both students and teachers.
  4. 4. 4 Dedication This workbook is dedicated to my family, friends and my teacher who all never stopped believing in me and still continues to do so. To the learners, let’s embrace the language and learn to love it. We are about to become the teachers, let’s become the best of what we can be.
  5. 5. 5 Table of Contents 1.1 HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 1.2 COMMUNICATION: WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT PURPOSE OF COMMUNICATION? 1.3 MACRO SKILLS LISTENING, SPEAKING, READING, AND WRITING Chapter 2 NOUNS 2.1 KINDS OF NOUNS 2.2 PROPERTIES OF NOUNS Chapter 3 PRONOUN 3.1 KINDS 3.2 PROPERTIES CHAPTER 4: VERB 4.1 KINDS 4.2 MOOD OF VERBS 4.3 ASPECT 4.4 PRINCIPLE FORMS OF THE VERB 4.5 KINDS OF VERB ACCORDING TO FORM 4.6 VERB TENSES 4.7 THE VOICE OF THE VERBS CHAPTER 5 ADJECTIVE 5.1 KINDS 5.2 STRUCTURE AND POSITION OF ADJECTIVES 5.3 THE ORDER OF ADJ. IN A SERIES 5.4 COMPARISON OF ADJ. CHAPTER 6: ADVERB 6.1 COMMON ADVERBS 6.2 COMPARISON OF ADVERBS 6.3 KINDS OF ADV. ACCORDING TO FUNCTION 6.4 KINDS OF ADVERBS ACCORDING TO MEANING 6.5 POSITION OF ADVERB IN A SENTENCE
  6. 6. 6 CHAPTER 7: PREPOSITION 7.1 PREPOSITION AND ITS OBJECT 7.2 PREPOSITIONS USED IN ENGLISH 7.3 PREPOSITIONAL ADV. 7.4 STANDARD USES OF PREPOSITIONS 7.5 COMMON ERRORS AND THE USE OF PREPOSITIONS 7.6 PREPOSITION IN IDIOMATIC EXPRESSION CHAPTER 8: CONJUNCTION 8.1 TYPES OF CONJUNCTIONS (3) CHAPTER 9 9.1INTERJECTION AND THEIR MEANINGS 9.2 POSITION IN THE SENTENCE CHAPTER 10 VERBALS 10.1 GERUND 10.2 PARTICIPLE 10.3 INFINITIVES 10.4 COMPARISON OF GERUND, PARTICIPLE AND INFINITIVE Chapter 11: PHRASES AND CLAUSES 11.1 PHRASES AND TYPES OF CLAUSES 11.2 CLAUSES AND TYPES OF CLAUSES (2) Chapter 12 SENTENCES 12.1 PARTS – SUBJECT AND PREDICATE 12.2 KINDS OF SENTENCES ACCORDING TO FUNCTIONS 12.3 KINDS OF SENTENCES ACCORDING TO STRUCTURES Chapter 13: SENTENCE PATTERNS 13.1 COMPONENTS IN THE SENTENCE 13.2 SENTENCE PATTERNS
  7. 7. 7 Chapter 14: SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT 14.1 GENERAL RULES 14.2 SPECIFIC RULES 14.3 SPECIAL RULES Chapter 15 DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH 15.1 ESSENTIAL RULES FOR INDIRECT SPEECH 15.2 INDIRECT SPEECH FOR INTERROGATIVE 15.3 INDIRECT SPEECH FOR MODALS 15.4 INDIRECT SPECH FOR IMPERATIVE 15. 5 INDIRECT SPEECH FOR EXCLAMATORY 15.6 CHANGES IN PRONOUN IN INDIRECT SPEECH Chapter 16: PUNCTUATION MARKS 16.1 PUNCTUATION MARKS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS 16.2 HOW TO USE PUNCTUATION MARKS
  8. 8. 8 Chapter 1 Pre Test Etymologic In this etymology game, you’ll be presented with word definition puzzles to solve. From the given meanings, define the medical term. A score of five is highly impressive. In case you’re wondering, the world etymology comes from the Greek word etymon which means the literal meaning of the word and which, in turn, comes from the Greek Word etymos which means “true”. The –ology ending indicates that it’s the study of, or the science of. Put them together and you get the study or science of the real or true. 1. Combination of four: chol-e-cyst-ectomy chol – root word meaning bile or gall e – combining vowel (provided to make the word readable) cyst – another root word meaning bladder ectomy – suffix which translates to excision or surgical removal Cholecystectomy is ___________________________________________________. 2. Combination of four: stomat-o-myc-osis stomat – root word meaning mouth o – combining vowel myc – root word meaning fungus osis - suffix meaning abnormal condition Stomatomycosis is ___________________________________________________. 3. Combination of four: leuk-o-cyto-penia leuk – prefix meaning white o – combining vowel cyto – prefix meaning cell penia – meaning decrease Leukocytopenia is ___________________________________________________. 4. Combination of three: epi-gastr-ic epi – prefix meaning upon or above gastr – root word meaning stomach ic - suffix meaning related to Epigastric is _________________________________________________________.
  9. 9. 9 Chapter 1 Introduction: History of the English Language English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and eventually became a global lingua franca. It is named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to the area of Great Britain that later took their name, as England. Both names derive from Anglia, a peninsula in the Baltic Sea. The language is closely related to Frisian and Low Saxon, and its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic language), and to a greater extent by Latin and French. English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a group of West Germanic (Ingvaeonic) dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are collectively called Old English. Middle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England; this was a period in which the language was influenced by French. Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London, the printing of King James Bible and the start of the Great Vowel Shift. Through the worldwide influence of the British Empire, and later the United States, Modern English has been spreading around the world since the 17th century. Through all the types of printed and electronic media, and spurred by the emergence of the United States as a global superpower, English has become the leading language of international discourse and the lingua franca in many regions and professional contexts such as science, navigation and law. English is the third most-spoken native language in the world, after Standard Chinese and Spanish. It is the most widely learned second language and is either the official language of the official languages in almost 60 sovereign states. There are more people who have learned it as a second language than there are native speakers. English is the most commonly spoken language in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, Ireland, and New Zealand, and it is widely spoken in some areas of the Carribean, Africa, and South Asia. It is a co-official language of the United Nations, the European Union and many other world and regional international organisations. It is the most widely spoken Germanic language, accounting for at least 70% o speakers of this Indo-European branch. English has a vast vocabulary, though counting how many words any language has is impossible
  10. 10. 10 1.1 History of the English Language OLD ENGLISH The language which you read today and which you have studied since grade school has very interesting history. In fact, it traces its history back to the 5th century CE when the three Germanic tribes ----the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes --- arrived in the British Isles. These seafaring tribes from Denmark and present-day northern Germany and the Netherlands brought with them their own mix of language --- dialects falling within the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. The Angles were named from Engle, their land of origin. Their language was called Englisc from which the word, English is derived. Collectively, the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, became known as the Anglo-Saxons. These two different versions of “The Lord’s Prayer” show you how far English has developed from the Anglo-Saxon era to the English we are more familiar with today. Can you spot the words in the Anglo-Saxon version and their equivalent in Modern English? Anglo- Saxon Version Modern English Version The Anglo-Saxon version above didn’t come into being until 597 CE when St. Augustine arrived and introduced Christianity to Saxon England. This conversation to Christianity brought more Latin words (the language of the Church) into the English language. They were mostly concerned with the naming of the church, Fæder ure þu þe eart on heofonum; Si þin nama gehalgod to becume þin rice gewurþe ðin willa on eorðan swa swa on heofonum. urne gedæghwamlican hlaf syle us todæg and forgyf us ure gyltas swa swa we forgyfað urum gyltendum and ne gelæd þu us on costnunge ac alys us of yfele soþlice Our Father whoart in heaven, Hallowed be thyname. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this dayour dailybread, and forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespassagainst us, and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. [The 1928 BCPadds: For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever and ever Amen.
  11. 11. 11 dignitaries, ceremonies, etc. Some words such as church, bishop, baptism, monk, eucharis, and presbyter came indirectly came through Latin from the Greek. The Vikings, also known as Norsemen, invaded England by the 8th century, which in return, gave the English a Norwegian and Danish influence. Some of the English words derived from the Norse include cake, take, egg, leg, window (wind eye), husband, skill, sky, skin, anger, flat, odd, ugly, they, their, and them. MIDDLE ENGLISH Then came the Norman conquest of 1066. When William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy, invaded the England, he became its king. He brought with him his nobles, who spoke French and formed the new government. The Normans imposed their language on the whole country. French became the language of the court, administration, and culture. It was the language used for instruction in schools. The English language became mostly the language of the uneducated classes and was considered a vulgar tongue. Most of the English words rooted in French are words that have something to do with power, such as crown, castle, court, parliament, army, mansion, gown, beauty, banquet, art, poet, romance, duke, servant, peasant, traitor, and governor. Because of the Anglo-Saxons, now considered the English underclass, cooked for the Norman (French) upper class, the words for most domestic animals are English (ox, cow, calf, sheep, swine, deer) while the words for the meats derived from them are French (beef, veal, mutton, pork, bacon, venison). MODERN ENGLISH Modern English developed after Johann Gutenberg invented the printing press in Germany around 1450 and William Caxton established England’s first printing press at Westminster Abbey in 1476. The press made books available to more people; more people learned to read. Printing also brought standardization of English. Between the 18th and 20th centuries, the English language continued to change as the British Empire moved across the world --- to the USA, New Zealand, India, Asia, and Africa. The empire sent people to settle and live in these conquered places and because of interactions with the natives, new words were added to the English vocabulary. For example, kangaroo and boomerang are words of the Australian Aborigines; juggernaut and turban came from India, aardvark and wildebeest came from Africa; alchemy and algebra came from the Arabian Peninsula.
  12. 12. 12 The majority of words in modern English have foreign, not Old English roots. In fact, only about one-sixth of the known Old English words have descendants surviving today. This one-sixth, however, represents the most commonly used words in modern English. Water and strong, for example, have Old English roots. 1.2 Communication: What are the different Purposes of Communication? 1.2.1 Meaning and Nature of Communication: The exchange of information or passing of information, ideas or thought from one person to the other or from one end to the other is communication. According to McFarland communication is, “a process of meaningful interaction among human beings. More specifically, it is the process by which meanings are perceived and understandings are reached among human beings.” Newman and summer defined communication as “an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons.” Communication is the process of passing information from one person to another. The purpose of communication understands of information. Whatever one wants to say to someone should be clearly understood by him else the very purpose of the communication would be defeated. In an organisation communication facilitates the flow of information and understanding between different people and departments through different media using all the channels and networks. This flow of information is vital for managerial effectiveness and decision making in general and for human resource manager in particular as he has to be in contact with the managers of various departments, employees and workers and trade union leaders. Communication thus helps understand people better removing misunderstanding and creating clarity of thoughts and expression. It also educates people. The communication may be written or oral, formal, informal, and upward, downward, horizontal, diagonal, interpersonal, intrapersonal, interdepartmental, in tra- organisational. The communication brings people together, closer to each other. The communication is an important management function closely associated with all other managerial functions. It bridges the gap between individuals and groups through flow of information and understanding between them. Information is the most vital aspect for communication. It is the information which is transmitted, studied, analyzed and interpreted and stored. The manager therefore has to spare
  13. 13. 13 time to collect, analyze and store the information for decision-making and routine day to day business. 1.2.3 Purpose of Communication: Management is getting the things done through others. The people working in the organisation should therefore be informed how to do the work assigned to them in the best possible manner. The communication is essential in any organisation. 1.2.4 The purpose of the communication can be summed up into the following: 1. Flow of Information: The relevant information must flow continuously from top to bottom and vice versa. The staff at all levels must be kept informed about the organisational objectives and other developments taking place in the organisation. A care should be taken that no one should be misinformed. The information should reach the incumbent in the language he or she can understand better. The use of difficult words should be avoided. The right information should reach the right person, at right time through the right person. 2. Coordination: It is through communication the efforts of all the staff working in the organisation can be coordinated for the accomplishment of the organisational goals. The coordination of all personnel’s and their efforts is the essence of management which can be attained through effective communication. 3. Learning Management Skills: The communication facilitates flow of information, ideas, beliefs, perception, advice, opinion, orders and instructions etc. both ways which enable the managers and other supervisory staff to learn managerial skills through experience of others. The experience of the sender of the message gets reflected in it which the person at the receiving end can learn by analyzing and understanding it. 4. Preparing People to Accept Change: The proper and effective communication is an important tool in the hands of management of any organisation to bring about overall change in the organisational policies, procedures and work style and make the staff to accept and respond positively. 5. Developing Good Human Relations: Managers and workers and other staff exchange their ideas, thoughts and perceptions with each other through communication. This helps them to understand
  14. 14. 14 each other better. They realize the difficulties faced by their colleagues at the workplace. This leads to promotion of good human relations in the organisation. 6. Ideas of Subordinates Encouraged: The communication facilitates inviting and encouraging the ideas from subordinates on certain occasions on any task. This will develop creative thinking. Honoring subordinates’ ideas will further motivate them for hard work and a sense of belonging to the organisation will be developed. It will provide them with the encouragement to share information with their superiors without hesitation. The managers must know the ideas, thoughts, comments, reactions and attitudes of their subordinates and subordinates should know the same from the lowest level staff of their respective departments. 1.2.5 Importance of Communication: Effective communication is vital for efficient management and to improve industrial relations. In modern world the growth of telecommunication, information technology and the growing competition and complexity in production have increased importance of communication in organisations large and small irrespective of their type and kind. A corporate executive must be in a position to communicate effectively with his superiors, colleagues in other departments and subordinates. This will make him perform well and enable him to give his hundred percent to the organisation. The following points can illustrate the importance of communication in human resource management: 1. Base for Action: Communication acts as a base for any action. Starting of any activity begins with communication which brings information necessary to begin with. 2. Planning Becomes Easy: Communication facilitates planning. Planning is made easy by communication. Any type of information regarding the human resource requirement of each department of the organisation with their qualifications, the type and kinds of job etc. can be collected through communication which helps in human resource planning. Policies and programmes for their acquisition can be prepared and implemented. In the entire process communication plays a vital role, it also facilitates managerial planning of the organisation. 3. Means of Coordination: Communication is an important tool for coordinating the efforts of various people at work in the organisation.
  15. 15. 15 4. Aids in Decision-Making: The information collected through communication aids in decision-making. Communication facilitates access to the vital information required to take decisions. 5. Provides Effective Leadership: A communication skill bring manager near to his subordinates and exchange ideas and submits appropriate proposals, knows their opinions, seeks advices and make decisions. This enables a manager to win confidence of his subordinates through constantly communicating with them and removing probable misunderstandings. In this way he leads his people to accomplish the organisational goal. 6. Boosts Morale and Motivation: An effective communication system instills confidence among subordinates and workers ensuring change in their attitude and behaviour. The main cause of conflict and dissatisfaction is misunderstanding which can be removed through communication skills. The removal of misunderstanding makes manager and his subordinates understand each other and create good industrial relations. This boosts up the morale of the people and motivates them to work harder. 7. Attention: The message communicated must draw the attention of the receiver staff and ensure action from him in the right perspective. The efficient, sincere and prompt manager succeeds in drawing the attention of his subordinates to what he is conveying. It is the psychology of the people that they watch their superiors closely and then respond to their orders or instructions. Lazy and insincere superiors fail to garner support for themselves and their instructions usually are not taken seriously by their subordinates. Adhering to the above principles shall make communication effective, minimize the human relations problems and increase the overall efficiency.
  16. 16. 16 1.3 Macro Skills Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing Introduction of Macro Skills In learning, there are four macro skills that we must deal with in order to communicate effectively. Macro skills refer to the primary, key, main, and largest skillset relative to a particular context. It is commonly referred to in English language. The four macro skills are reading, listening, writing, and speaking. Each skill has its reasons of why we should be knowledgeable on how to communicate using the four macro skills. These skills are essential for communicating. It is tough to study a balance of the four macro skills which are writing, reading, writing, and listening. Being good at only one of these communicative skills will not help us smooth away the difficulties in communicating. With these four macro skills, it can make a big difference in your workplace in social situations and personal achievements. Learning and consistently seeking to improve these macro skills are important for effective communication and to be successful in many different perspectives. Ideas, emotions, opinions and feelings need to be conveyed in different manners and in a variety of ways. To know when to use which macro skill to acquire, access, encounter, and evaluate information and ideas is a higher order of thinking skill that can be learned over time with much practice and strategies. In each skill, it is equally vital as each is related. These can be divided into receptive; reading and listening, and productive skills which are speaking and writing. Within each skill, there are sub skills, for example, in writing there are specific information, there is reading for the main or essential part of a matter. In listening, one must be attentive and active to follow instructions. People with good communication skills are better to use them creatively and responsibly and to evaluate its worth. Without having communication, we would never be done as far as what we have today. Everyday is learning opportunity. The four macro skills is in our everyday life. Speaking Speaking is the direct and useful form of communicating. This is one of the main macro forms of communication as it is physically interacting with another person through a certain language. To speak helps us to communicate our thoughts, ideas, suggestions, comments, etc in the most natural and reliable way without much distortion of information. It requires resources that are naturally available to every living thing by nature. Communication is very important to have fair and justified decisions and various levels of society, governance, and information sharing growth. Speaking, being the most important, reliable and easy means of communication derives its importance in that manner. In speaking, one needs not only to learn its vocabulary and grammar, but also the context in which words are being used.
  17. 17. 17 It is a vocalization of human communication. Being able to express and iterate an idea, a concept, or an opinion through speech or speaking is essential in the communicative process. Being able to create relativity on what we are thinking in effective and direct manners, which allows us to communicate effectively with others in a variety of situations. With these definitions, it helps us to avoid the element of confusion, which might lead us to conflicts. It also helps us for our self- development and growth in our work place. In this case, speaking can also provide an element of control to any situations given. In our work place, we used to talk to express our ideas, concepts, comments, and suggestions. We are speaking when we disagree or when we agree. Speaking is a complex where we connect to one another. It is a process in which we discuss our knowledge through subjective or objective. Speaking helps you to expand the knowledge using minimal responses and recognizing scripts. In this case, our individual ideas will elevate and improve by connecting to other ideas. To speak is to facilitate. Speaking can be an intimidating experience. When speaking, two things are being delivered. First is the meaning that is taken from it. Second is on how you deliver the words with emotions and right dictions. In speaking, it is very important for the comprehension that occurs through connection to its experiences, feelings and its ideas. It is also the part where we think out loud and share all the ideas that we have for changes, for instructions, and to lead us in creative thinking. Upon practicing and learning, communication is a complex process where you will figure out that it is not easy skill to perfect. Speaking is a state of being connected, one with another. It is also the way of transferring meaning from one individual to another. It is also the expression of oneself in such a way that one is readily and clearly understood. There are skills that can be implemented in speaking; to appropriately accomplish communicative functions according to situations, participants, and goals. To use appropriate styles, registers, redundancies, pragmatic conventions, conversion rules, interrupting, and other sociolinguistic features in face-to-face conversations. In conveying links and connections between events and communicate such as relations as focal and peripheral ideas, events and feeling, new information and given information, generalization and exemplification. Conveying facial features, kinesics, body language, and other nonverbal cues along with verbal language is also implemented in speaking. Developing and using the battery of speaking strategies, such as emphasizing key words, rephrasing, providing a context for interpreting the meaning of words, appealing for help, and accurately assessing how well your interlocutor is to understand you.
  18. 18. 18 Listening Listening is one of the most important skills you can have. Perhaps it is the most critical element in language learning, for it is the key for speaking and the basis for the other two, reading and writing. When learning a new language, the best way to do is to engage in a balance of each of these areas, as they are all interconnected. If these skills are not practiced it will end up being weaker. Clearly, listening is a skill that we can all benefit from improving. By becoming a better listener, it will improve your productivity. You will also avoid conflict and misunderstandings. There are number of ways of listening, Passive Listening, Active Listening and Competitive Listening. Active Listening, considered as the most effective because the listener is not only listening with interest, but with actively acknowledging listening by brief responses. One way to become a better listener is to practice this mode. To hear not only the words that the other person is saying, but also more importantly, you try to understand the complete message what is being said. The listener must pay attention to the person very carefully. Active listeners really concentrate on the content of the lecture and not on the lecturer or any random distinctions in the room of their mind. People who are active listeners do more focus on facts, figures and ideas actively associate the material presented with their own experiences. You cannot allow yourself to become distracted when listening. You must not also speak right away or argue that makes the other person stops in speaking. And do not lose your focus in listening. These are example of lack of listening and understanding. Active listening within the workplace aims to ensure understanding between colleagues, including supervisors or managers, to reduce potential misunderstanding, confusion and conflict. Some people had a hearing difficulties, the task of active listening can be challenging to them. A Passive Listener, can be compared to a rock. You know it is there, you can see it, but it just seem that its not absorbing anything that the speaker is saying. A passive listener is mechanical and effortless. It does not give any feedback from the speaker. These are listeners who are basically interested in what the other person is saying and tend to pay attention. They are attentive but don’t necessarily interact verbally. It is important to use effective listening skills with your family, friends and co- workers. Both active and passive listening are essential to accurately hear a speaker’s words to assure the speaker you are paying attention. When active listening involves verbal confirmation, passive listening is just as important. It allows the speaker to completely divulge what he needs to say. A Competitive Listeners are those people who are only half-listening to what is being said, because they are more focused on how will they respond. Competitive listeners are good listeners but when they had the chance to jump right in, they will now tell their own
  19. 19. 19 argument, opinion or thought. Usually they do more talking than listening. Competitive sometimes called as Combative Listening happens when we are more interested in promoting in our own point of view than in understanding or exploring someone else’s view. Either we listen for opening to take the floor, or for flaws or weak points then they now go to speak and take the floor. Listening effectively is difficult because some people vary in their communication skills and in how clearly they express themselves. They often have different needs, wants and purposes for interacting. To enhance you listening skills, you need to let the person know that you are listening to what he or she is saying. Acknowledgement can be something as simple as a nod of the head. Nodding isn't already agreeing of what the person is saying but it is a sign that you are listening to them. You should also respond to the speaker to encourage them to continue speaking, so that you can get the information you needed. A person is listening when he understands the message of what the speaker's intended to. It is not just hearing the words but listening for the message. We listen effectively, if we understand what the person's is thinking or feeling, as if we are standing in the speaker's shoes. We see what are the speaker's perspectives. We can say that the person is listening effectively if he/she is actively involves in the communication process, and is not just listening passively. Pay attention to the speaker. Make an eye contact with the speaker to indicate that you are listening to what they are saying. Do not look somewhere else around you. It will let you wander other things rather than the message of the speaker. Also use body languages, it is also a sign that you are participating with them. Respond and ask questions if you think you don't understand the message. Allow the speaker to finish. Do not interrupt with counter arguments. And most of all, listen for the main ideas. It is the most important points the speaker wants to get across. When having a meeting with your co-workers, you must listen very well in every person in their every message. You must understand first the message before you respond. Being active listener or effective listener, is the key to success in your work place. You will not have a conflict with other employees and with your given tasks. It will help you finish your workload without having a hard time thinking what your boss wants you to do because you did not understand what he said. Good communication in your team or workplace will lessen your difficulties to finish all of your given tasks. What’s more, you’ll avoid conflict and misunderstandings. All of these are necessary for workplace success. Reading Reading is the 3rd of the four-macro skills. Reading is a complex skill that is taught when you're still young as it's essential for learning and development and vocabulary. It is also an act or activity of rendering aloud written or printed material. Reading is also an ability to understand reading material in a form of a
  20. 20. 20 paragraph or a sentence. We used the skill reading for scanning information and understanding what the writers want to tell and evaluate what we read and incorporate information from multiple sources. When you learned the different macro skill including reading it is very helpful in the workplace. And there are many advantages associated in reading like learning vocabulary in a context, seeing correct structure in English, and to it will improve your personal interest in reading. When you read you usually encounter new word and things. It can help high your vocabulary skill and apply it when you are communicating to other people. Reading comprehension involves decoding symbols with the intention of deriving meaning from the text. This can be used for further processes such as sharing knowledge, self-development or simply relaxation and escapism into the realms of fiction. Reading can also significantly improve other micro skills such as spelling, evaluative processes and the imagination. Reading more will help you a lot to expand your vocabulary. Especially when you are at your workplace like business terms. Read and fully understand workplace documents, including information and details, ideas (both explicit and implied), technical information and writer requirements. Workplace reading includes the ability to understand and interpret various documents including diagrams, directories, correspondence, manuals, records, charts, graphs, tables and specifications. Make sure to surround yourself with English newspapers or read websites online to get yourself used to reading the language. If you do not understand a particular word, keep reading and you can always then come back to the word at the end if you still don't know what it means. Record any new vocabulary in a notebook as you come across it. Most important thing is that reading and listening are inputs whereas speaking and writing are outputs. In other words, if you want to improve your speaking and writing skills you should first master the skills of reading and listening. Writing Writing is defined as the act or the art of forming letters and characters on paper, wood, stone or to other material, for the purpose of recording the ideas and information in which characters and words express of communicating to others by visible signs. Writing is also anything written or printed that expressed in characters and letters. Writing is the last thing you could learn in the four-macro skill but it is the most complex skill in communication. Some people are having a hard time and striving in expressing their ideas and though in textual form it will need time to practice and willingness to learn new things in other to master the skill. It 's one way to express you ideas and feelings in the way you want it. .When writing any kind of business document or paper, you want to include adequate backup for your arguments in the form of facts, studies, or statements from experts. Papers that lack supporting evidence for your central idea can seem vague, meandering, or ineffectual. A strong outline will aid you un seeing what kind of support you need for your central idea and how to organize them effectively into a
  21. 21. 21 cohesive whole. Writers usually run into trouble with paragraph breaks when they do not plan out their writing carefully in advance. With a strong outline it will help you organize your paragraphs in advance according to your topics. Following your outline while you write will help you break your paragraphs in logical ways. Sentences that are overly long or awkward make your arguments difficult to follow and can muddy your great ideas. Other people use their sentence with many extra words for them to show that their sentences or works are long, so that they can say they know more about it. But others just prefer simpler, short and concise explanations. The simpler the word is the better choice, shorter and more concise. Whenever you omit needless words and simplify sentence structure, you can avoid awkwardness and wordiness in your sentences and paragraphs. Needless words are like redundant that can and should be cut to get to the topic at hand. Wordiness complicates sentence structure and requires more work on the part of the reader to tease out the writer’s true meaning. Writers usually run into trouble with paragraph breaks when they do not plan out their writing carefully in advance. It is like that in a formal essay, the audience is the professor, but many of the writing assignments you’ll receive as a student. When you are writing especially if it is about business, you should avoid using “informal language”. Words that you usually use in your everyday life, like, major, total, are not appropriate to the tone you want to set as a business professional. Also, you should always check that you want to make sure that your arguments and statements are as clear as possible by not overusing jargon, even if it may be endemic to the industry. If you assume you know more than the person to whom you’re writing, your arguments and explanations will be as clear as possible. A strong beginning means writing a dynamic introduction that both underscores the reason for writing and leads up to your thesis statement, which will then explain the topic you’ll discuss, what your central argument will be, and how you’ll support that argument. A strong conclusion is the place to underscore the points you’ve made and expound one last time on what you want the reader to remember after having read your paper. Writing is one of the helpful skill in the workplace in doing reports, answering emails and writing memos and taking down some notes coming from you boss in a meeting. But writing in the workplace is differs from the other writing format. There are issues which arises in the business context and it will making a good and effective elements of business writing can lead you to is more on business context, focus more in the audience and one way to remember thins is when you write it. Taking down notes is very helpful in your workplace. so that you wouldn't miss what your boss asks you to do.
  22. 22. 22 Chapter 1 Post Test Etymologic In this etymology game, you’ll be presented with word definition puzzles to solve. From the given meanings, define the medical term. A score of five is highly impressive. In case you’re wondering, the world etymology comes from the Greek word etymon which means the literal meaning of the word and which, in turn, comes from the Greek Word etymos which means “true”. The –ology ending indicates that it’s the study of, or the science of. Put them together and you get the study or science of the real or true. 1. Combination of four: chol-e-cyst-ectomy chol – root word meaning bile or gall e – combining vowel (provided to make the word readable) cyst – another root word meaning bladder ectomy – suffix which translates to excision or surgical removal Cholecystectomy is ___________________________________________________. 2. Combination of four: stomat-o-myc-osis stomat – root word meaning mouth o – combining vowel myc – root word meaning fungus osis - suffix meaning abnormal condition Stomatomycosis is ___________________________________________________. 3. Combination of four: leuk-o-cyto-penia leuk – prefix meaning white o – combining vowel cyto – prefix meaning cell penia – meaning decrease Leukocytopenia is ___________________________________________________. 4. Combination of three: epi-gastr-ic epi – prefix meaning upon or above gastr – root word meaning stomach ic - suffix meaning related to Epigastric is _________________________________________________________.
  23. 23. 23 Chapter 2 Pre Test Nouns 1. Please identify what 'Marco and I' is in the following sentence: Marco and I left the field after the game.  predicate  two pronouns joined by a conjunction  compound subject  compound predicate  singular subject 2. Identify the subject in the following sentence: Biology is the exam that I'll study for first.  I  Biology  Biology is the exam  exam  study 3. Which pronoun could correctly fill in the blank in the following sentence?
  24. 24. 24 After class, the principal talked to _____ and me.  she  they  he  her 4. Consider this sentence: Alvin studied for his test after going swimming. Which of the following words from the above sentence is a noun?  Alvin  after  studied  for 5.Which of the following nouns is a proper noun?  cat  mountain 
  25. 25. 25 Central Park  Fireman
  26. 26. 26 Chapter 2 Nouns NOUN Is a word that names a person, a place, a thing, or an idea. PERSONS PLACES THINGS IDEAS Jesus Christ Horizon Lost Horizon Freedom Astronauts the Philippines Cat Knowledge Teachers Mars Supernova Leadership Chapter 2.1 Kinds of Nouns Common and Proper Nouns Nouns are either common and proper. A proper noun is the name and title of a person, place, thing or idea; it always begins with a capital letter. A common noun refers to a general example of a person, place, thing or idea, or to a general category of people, places, things or ideas: it is not capitalized. Concrete and Abstract Noun Nouns are either concrete or abstract. Concrete nouns name material things people and places as well as everything that can be perceived through the senses. Venus is a planet, not a star. Concrete nouns, however, also name many things that cannot be directly perceived but have real material existence. The principal particles of the atom and proton, the neutron, and the electron. Abstract nouns names concepts, qualities, emotions, conditions, and attitudes which have no material existence. Have you experienced the joy of seeing a beautiful sunset? Love, justice, wisdom, and power are God’s major qualities. Compound Nouns PROPER NOUNS COMMON NOUN Lord Byron poet (person) Manila city (place) Little Women novel (thing) Lassie dog (thing)
  27. 27. 27 A compound noun consists of two or more words used together to name one person, place, or thing. one kind of compound noun consists of two or more words joined together. Sky + driver = skydiver sun + glasses = sunglasses Another kind of compound noun consists of words joined by one or more hyphens. Light-year passers-by brother-in-law A third kind of compound noun consists of two or more words that are used together, though not joined, to create a single noun. high school air force jet engine Compound nouns can be proper nouns as well as common nouns. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo lunar excursion module Collective Nouns A collective noun stands for a whole group of people, places, things, or ideas. A pride of lions lived in the zoo. Count and Mass Nouns Count nouns refer to objects that can be counted like books, tables, houses, and countries. Mass nouns refers to things that cannot be counted individually. The words love, money, food, knowledge, medicine, and kindness are mass nouns. They do not have plural forms. To make them plural, we use expressions of quality. Little Little love Much much money A lot of a lot of food Enough enough medicine A great deal of a great deal of knowledge Some Commonly Used Collective Nouns Family committee team herd Group jury club gaggle Brood crew litter platoon Bunch flock pack squad
  28. 28. 28 Chapter 2.2 PROPERTIES OF NOUNS Gender of Nouns MASCULINE- refers to persons or animals of the male kind. Groom lad king rooster FEMININE- refers to persons or animals of the female kind. Bride Lass Queen Hen NEUTER- refers to objects with no sex. House Car Package Handkerchief COMMON- refers to nouns that are either male or female. Citizen Singer Visitor Cat Cases of Nouns Subjective Subjective nouns are sometimes referred to as nominative nouns. These nouns either are the subject of the sentence or they are used as a predicate noun, which follows a ‘be’ verb and renames the main subject of the sentence. These are likely the easiest nouns to spot, as they are typically the subject of the verb in the sentence. Example: Mary drove to the store. Mary is a subjective noun; she is the one that drove. Elvis sang for many years. Elvis was the one doing the singing; Elvis is the subjective noun. Objective Nouns are referred to as objective when they are used as direct objects, indirect objects or objects of a preposition. Locating the objective nouns can be a bit trickier than spotting a subjective or predicate noun, but with a little practice you will have no trouble identifying these cases of nouns in a sentence. Direct Objects:
  29. 29. 29 Direct objects receive action in a sentence. They can typically be found by looking at the verb in the sentence and asking ‘what?’ or sometimes ‘whom?’ As an example: Show her the book now. (Show whom the book? Her. Her is the direct object.) My brother licked a lizard. (Licked what? A lizard. Lizard is the direct object.) Indirect Objects: Indirect objects receive the direct object and can be identified by locating the direct object first and then asking who received that direct object. Sounds confusing? It won’t be after you’ve had a bit of practice locating the indirect object. Let’s look at a few examples: Mark threw his father the football. Here, the verb is thrown. Throw what? The football, which is the direct object. Threw the football to whom? He threw it to his father, which would be the recipient of the direct object (the football) and, therefore, the indirect object. Here’s another example of an indirect object: Barbara gave her sister a dollar. To whom did she give the dollar, which is your direct object? To her sister. So, her sister is the recipient, or the indirect object, based on the rules above. Objects of a Preposition: The object of a preposition is the noun or pronoun that follows a preposition. For example: He eats with me. With is the preposition, so me is the object of the preposition. We used one example above that could have been written by using an object of the preposition. Look at this: Mark threw his father the football. Instead, we could have written: Mark threw the football to his father. In this instance, due to the use of the preposition ‘to’, father becomes the object of a preposition. Possessive Nouns are considered possessive when they are used to show ownership of something. They will sometimes use an apostrophe, but this is not always the case. Pronouns can also be used in the possessive case, as in ‘his backpack’ or ‘her purse’. Examples of possessive nouns include: Mary’s backpack was red. Mary’s is the possessive noun showing ownership of the backpack. Gerald’s shirt was blue with white stripes. Gerald’s is the possessive noun. The course Elementary English Course EFL teaches students about possessive pronouns. Number of Nouns Singular number -is used when the noun refers to one item. Plural number -is used when the noun refers to more than one item.
  30. 30. 30 Countable nouns have both singular and plural forms. Uncountable nouns and mass nouns do not normally have a plural form. The regular plural ending of an English noun is -s. cat cats These are the exceptions to the normal pattern: singular noun ending plural noun ending -s, -ss, -ch, -x, -zz -es focus focuses princess princesses church churches box boxes buzz buzzes -o -s or -es hero heroes piano pianos potato potatoes consonant + y -ies baby babies hobby hobbies vowel + y -s key keys ray rays -f -s or -ves hoof hoofs or hooves
  31. 31. 31 dwarf dwarfs or dwarves thief thieves roof roofs -fe -ves Irregular plurals Some nouns have two plural forms. fish fish or fishes Some of them have the same form in the singular and plural. a sheep ten sheep a deer seven deer A few change a vowel to form the plural. man men woman women foot feet mouse mice Some nouns form the plural with -en. child children ox oxen Since it is not possible to give more than a selection of the irregular forms, you should check in a dictionary if you are in doubt. If the dictionary does not show the plural form, then you can assume that it is regular. Compound nouns normally form the plural by adding -s to the last word of the compound. a games console three games consoles a bookcase two bookcases an Indian take-away two Indian take-aways There are a few exceptions: A compound noun formed from a noun and an adverb makes the first word plural.
  32. 32. 32 a passer-by several passers-by Compound nouns with woman as the first word make both words plural. a woman doctor several women doctors a woman driver most women drivers A compound word which ends in -ful normally adds -s after -ful, but there is an alternative form with the -s following the base noun. a cupful three cupfuls/cupsful a spoonful two spoonfuls/spoonsful Plural nouns with singular reference Some nouns referring to clothes and tools where two equal parts are joined together, e.g. trousers, binoculars, and tongs, are treated as being plural and are followed by a verb in the plural. My shorts are dirty. The scissors are on the table. To talk about one of these items we can use the expression a pair of… John bought a pair of jeans. To talk about more than one we talk about however many pairs of… Martina bought five pairs of tights. When they are used as ordinary numbers, words such as dozen and million have no plural form. nine million stars two dozen glasses When they are used to mean a large number, they do have a plural form, which can be used as a partitive. There are millions of pebbles on the beach. I saw dozens of children in the playground. Foreign plurals Nouns that have come into English from foreign languages can: keep the plural form of the language they come from. an axis two axes a crisis two crises have plurals formed according to the rules for plural in English. a thesaurus several thesauruses (instead of thesauri)
  33. 33. 33 have two plurals: one from the foreign language and the other formed according to the rules for plural formation in English. The foreign plural is usually kept for scientific or specialized use. an index some indexes/indices a formula some formulas/formulae
  34. 34. 34 Chapter 2 Post Test Nouns Please identify what 'Marco and I' is in the following sentence: 1. Marco and I left the field after the game.  predicate  two pronouns joined by a conjunction  compound subject  compound predicate  singular subject 2. Identify the subject in the following sentence: Biology is the exam that I'll study for first.  I  Biology  Biology is the exam  exam  study 3. Which pronoun could correctly fill in the blank in the following sentence? After class, the principal talked to _____ and me.
  35. 35. 35  she  they  he  her 4. Consider this sentence: Alvin studied for his test after going swimming. Which of the following words from the above sentence is a noun?  Alvin  after  studied  for 5.Which of the following nouns is a proper noun?  cat  mountain  Central Park
  36. 36. 36  Fireman
  37. 37. 37 Chapter 3 Pre Test Pronoun Pick the pronoun in each sentence. 1) Gary's mom asked _______ to clean the garage. a. he b. him 2) A student at an all boys high school should be on ______ best behavior. a. their b. his 3) Neither Mary nor _____ knew why the store was closed. a. I b. me 4) After school you and ____ must discuss a few things. a. I b. me 5) Everyone at the table has eaten _______ lunch earlier. a. his or her b. their 6) My nephew was crying and needed ______ diaper changed. a. his b. their Find the pronoun(s) in each sentence. 1) My son dropped his bottle on the ground. a. son b. his c. my 2) The girls standing under the tree are eating their lunch. a. girls b. tree c. their 3) When I looked over eat him, I noticed that he was reading a book. a. I b. he c. him 4) The guys ate all of their pizzas. a. guys b. their c. pizzas
  38. 38. 38 5) Grandma is waiting for her shawl. a. grandma b. her c. waiting 6) Neither him nor I knew the right answer. a. him b. I c. answer 7) Why don't you go outside? a. you b. outside c. go 8) Take me with you. a. me b. take c. you 9) I like running fast. a. I b. run c. run 10) What are you eating now? a. you b. eating c. what Fill in the blank with the right pronoun. 1) Did he see ___? a. us b. we 2) I took the bag from ____. a. him b. they 3) My brother and ___ went to the park? a. I b. us 4) What did ____ do about the car? a. them b. they 5) What did ____ say about the work? a. she b. me 6) Where will ___ go from here? a. you b. us 7) Can ____ talk for a minute? a. we b. us
  39. 39. 39 Chapter 3 Pronoun Pronouns make up a small subcategory of nouns. The distinguishing characteristic of pronouns is that they can be substituted for other nouns. For instance, if you’re telling a story about your sister Sarah, the story will begin to sound repetitive if you keep repeating “Sarah” over and over again. Chapter 3.1 Kinds of Pronouns Personal Pronouns Personal pronouns are used as a substitute for a person's name. There are two kinds: subjective and objective pronouns. That is, they either act as the subject of the sentence or the object of the sentence. As the subject of a sentence, they are:  I  you  he  she  it  we  they For example:  They went to the store.  I don't want to leave.  He runs a great shop in town.  You can't leave, either. As the object of the sentence, they are:  me  you  her
  40. 40. 40  him  it  us  them For example:  Please don't sit beside me.  Go talk to her.  Mary put the gift under it.  Don't look at them. For more, check out Subject Versus Object Pronouns. Possessive Pronouns Possessive pronouns show ownership or possession ofa noun. They are:  my  our  your  his  her  its (note there is no apostrophe)  their For example:  Is that my book?  No, that's his book.  That's its shelf.  I'd like to see their bookshelves. However, there are also independent possessive pronouns. These pronouns refer to a previously named or understood noun. They stand alone and aren't followed by any other noun. They are:  mine  ours  yours
  41. 41. 41  his  hers  its  theirs For example:  That's mine.  Wrong. It's ours.  So, I suppose those clothes are yours?  No, it's theirs. Indefinite Pronouns Indefinite pronouns don't point to particular nouns. We use them when an object doesn't need to be specifically identified. As such, it can remain indefinite. They include:  few  everyone  all  some  anything  nobody For example:  Most wealth is held by a select few.  Everyone is here already.  I don't have any paper napkins. Can you bring some?  He's nobody. Relative Pronouns Relative pronouns are used to connect a clause or phrase to a noun or pronoun. We often see them when we need to add more information. They are:  who  whom  which
  42. 42. 42  whoever  whomever  whichever  that For example:  The driver who ran the stop sign was careless.  I don't know which pair of shoes you want.  Take whichever ones you want.  No, not that one. Intensive Pronouns Intensive pronouns emphasize, or intensify, nouns and pronouns. Typically, we find them right after the noun they're intensifying. These pronouns typically end in -self or -selves. They are:  myself  himself  herself  themselves  itself  yourself  yourselves  ourselves For example:  I myself like to travel.  He himself is his worst critic.  She approved the marriage herself.  We went to hear W.B. Yeats himself speak. Demonstrative Pronouns Demonstrative pronouns take the place of a noun that's already been mentioned. They can be singular or plural. There are five of them. They include:  these
  43. 43. 43  those  this  that  such For example:  These are ugly.  Those are lovely.  Don't drink this.  Such was his understanding. Interrogative Pronouns Interrogative pronouns do just what they say. They work in sentences that are posing a question. They are:  who  whom  which  what  whoever  whomever  whichever  whatever For example:  Who is going to arrive first?  What are you bringing to the party?  Which of these do you like better?  Whatever do you mean? Reflexive Pronouns Reflexive pronouns are similar to intensive pronouns. The difference between the two is that intensive pronouns aren't essential to a sentence's meaning. Meanwhile, reflexive pronouns are. Also, they're used when the subject and the object of a sentence refer to the same person or thing. These pronouns end in -self or -selves. They are:
  44. 44. 44  myself  yourself  himself  herself  itself  ourselves  yourselves  themselves For example:  I told myself not to spend all my money on new shoes.  You're going to have to drive yourself to the restaurant today.  We gave ourselves plenty of extra time.  They bought themselves a new car. Chapter 3.2 Properties of Pronouns To make a complete sentence, there must be a subject and a verb. A verb is a physical, mental or abstract action, and a subject is a noun, a person, place or thing, and any words that describe it. When it serves as the subject of a passage, the same noun is often used repeatedly. To eliminate this repetitiveness, a pronoun can be inserted to replace that noun, while still making sense grammatically. This allows for more variation in word choice. However, writers must be careful to use the correct pronoun. Case Case refers to the way that a pronoun functions in a sentence, whether nominative, objective or possessive. Nouns can be both subjects and objects, so a pronoun must be able to take the form of either. In the phrase "she is a singer," "she" serves as the subject functioning in the nominative case. In the phrase "the superhero carried her," the pronoun "her" is an object in the objective case. Pronouns can also be in the possessive case, such as "your" in the phrase "that is your house."
  45. 45. 45 Gender The pronoun antecedent is the noun that the pronoun is replacing. The antecedent can be a masculine, feminine or neutral word, and it determines which pronoun should be used. For example, if the sentence states that "Jenny went to the store," knowing that Jenny is a female, you could also write that "she went to the store." If the subject was Jerry instead, you could replace his name with "he." Finally, if the noun is of neutral gender, meaning that it is not clear whether the subject is male or female, substitute a word like "it" or "its." Instead of saying that "the dog went to the store," you could say that "it went to the store." Number Just like gender, the number property of a pronoun depends on the antecedent. Number refers to how many there are, so if there is only one, a singular pronoun should be used. In the same example as gender, you might say that "he," "she" or "it" went to the store. If there is more than one, a plural pronoun will replace the noun. "They" went to the store. Person The property of person depends upon the point of view, or relationship between the speaker and the pronoun antecedent. First person personal pronouns, such as "I," "me," "mine," "us" and "ours," refer to the person, place or thing that is speaking. "I" went to the store. Second person pronouns, like "you," "your" and "yours," refer to the person who is being spoken to. Did "you" go to the store? Finally, third person, such as "he," "she," "it," "they" and "them," refers to who or what is being spoken about. "They" went to the store. "She" went to the store, too.
  46. 46. 46 Chapter 3 Post Test Pronoun Pick the pronoun in each sentence. 1) Gary's mom asked _______ to clean the garage. a. he b. him 2) A student at an all boys high school should be on ______ best behavior. a. their b. his 3) Neither Mary nor _____ knew why the store was closed. a. I b. me 4) After school you and ____ must discuss a few things. a. I b. me 5) Everyone at the table has eaten _______ lunch earlier. a. his or her b. their 6) My nephew was crying and needed ______ diaper changed. a. his b. their Find the pronoun(s) in each sentence. 1) My son dropped his bottle on the ground. a. son b. his c. my 2) The girls standing under the tree are eating their lunch. a. girls b. tree c. their 3) When I looked over eat him, I noticed that he was reading a book. a. I b. he c. him 4) The guys ate all of their pizzas. a. guys b. their c. pizzas
  47. 47. 47 5) Grandma is waiting for her shawl. a. grandma b. her c. waiting 6) Neither him nor I knew the right answer. a. him b. I c. answer 7) Why don't you go outside? a. you b. outside c. go 8) Take me with you. a. me b. take c. you 9) I like running fast. a. I b. run c. run 10) What are you eating now? a. you b. eating c. what Fill in the blank with the right pronoun. 1) Did he see ___? a. us b. we 2) I took the bag from ____. a. him b. they 3) My brother and ___ went to the park? a. I b. us 4) What did ____ do about the car? a. them b. they 5) What did ____ say about the work? a. she b. me 6) Where will ___ go from here? a. you b. us 7) Can ____ talk for a minute? a. we b. us Chapter 4
  48. 48. 48 Pre Test Verb Take a look at these 10 sentences and choose the correct verb.  1- I ___ watching TV when Paul and Simon arrived. is am was were  2 - Do you think he ___ what I said? understanding understood understand  3 - She ___ to learn English in Malta next summer. hopes hope hoping  4 - I don't think I've ever ___ on that sofa. sat sit sitting  5 - Tom ___ tired.
  49. 49. 49 looks looking look  6 - When I was young I wanted to ___ a vet. be am is was  7 - Did you used to ___ with dolls? play playing played  8 - I've never ___ sushi before. eaten eat ate  9 - The window was already ___ when I got here. break broken broke
  50. 50. 50 Chapter 4 Verb Verbs are the action words in a sentence that describe what the subject is doing. Along with nouns, verbs are the main part of a sentence or phrase, telling a story about what is taking place. In fact, without a verb, full thoughts can’t be properly conveyed, and even the simplest sentences, such as Maria sings, have one. Actually, a verb can be a sentence by itself, with the subject, in most case you, implied, such as, Sing! and Drive! When learning the rules of grammar, schoolchildren are often taught that verbs are ‘doing’ words, meaning they signify the part of the sentence which explains the action taking place: He ran away, she eats chocolate cake on Sundays, the horses gallop across the fields. Ran, eats and gallop are the ‘action’ parts of those sentences, thus they are the verbs. However, it can be confusing because not all verbs are easily identifiable as action: I know your name, Jack thought about it, we considered several applications. These are non-action verbs, i.e. those that describe a state of being, emotion, possession, sense or opinion. Other non-action verbs include include love, agree, feel, am, and have. Chapter 4.1 Kinds of Verbs There are many kinds of verbs. In addition to the main categories of physical verbs, mental verbs, and state of being verbs, there are several other types of verbs. In fact, there are more than ten different types of verbs that are grouped together by function. 4.1.1 Action Verbs Action verbs express specific actions and are used any time you want to show action or discuss someone doing something. It’s important to remember that the action does not have to be physical. Action Verb examples: 1. Run 2. Dance 3. Slide 4. Jump 5. Think 6. Do 7. Go 8. Stand
  51. 51. 51 The action verb examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy indentification. I run faster than David. He does it well. She thinks about poetry all day long. 4.1.2 Transitive Verbs Transitive verbs are action verbs that always express doable activities that relate or affect someone or something else. These other things are generally direct objects, nouns, or pronouns that are affected by the verb, though some verbs van also take indirect object, such as show, take, and make. In a sentence with a transitive verb, someone or something receives the action of the verb. Transitive verb examples: 1. Love 2. Respect 3. Tolerate 4. Believe 5. Maintain The transitive verb examples in the following sentences in bold for easy identification. Gary ate the cookies. The transitive verb is ate, Gary is the subject because it is Gary who is doing the eating, and the cookies are the direct object, because it is the cookies that are being eaten. 4.1.3 Intransitive Verbs Intransitive verbs are action verbs that always express doable activities. They are different from transitive verbs because there is no direct object following an intransitive verb. The intransitive verb examples in the following sentences for in bold for easy identification.
  52. 52. 52 We travelled to London. The intransitive verb is travelled, the subject is we, because we are doing the travelling but London is not a direct object because London is not receiving action of the verb. Other examples: I sneeze in the morning. He arrived with moments to spare. Kathryn sat away from the others. John eats before leaving for school. The last example shows that the verb eats can be both transitive and intransitive depending on whether there is a direct object or not. If the sentence read: John eats the cookies before leaving for school, eats would be transitive as there is a direct object --- the cookies. By the way, some verbs can be both transitive and intransitive. These verbs include: start, leave, change, live, stop. 4.1.4 Auxiliary Verbs Auxiliary verbs are also known as helping verbs and are used together with a main verb to show the verb’s tense or to form a question or negative. Common examples of auxiliary verbs include have, might, will. These auxiliary verbs give some context to the main verb, for example, letting the reader know when the action took place. Auxiliary verb examples: Would Should Do Can Did Could May
  53. 53. 53 The auxiliary verb examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification. I will go home after football practice. The auxiliary verb will is telling us that the action of the main verb go is going to take place in the future – after football practice has ended. If the auxiliary verb willwas removed, we get the sentence: I go home after football practice. In this case, there is no definite time frame for the action. The sentence suggests that going home after football practice is just something the subject I generally does. Other examples: I may dance with you later. We did consider Bryan’s feelings. Jenny has spoken her final words. In addition, we can sometimes use the auxiliary very before the pronoun to make a question: Might you dance with me later? Did we consider Bryan’s feelings? Has Jenny spoken her final words? Also, auxiliary verbs are used to help form negative statements, with the use of words like not and never. These will usually split the auxiliary and main verbs: I may never dance with you again. We did not consider Bryan’s feelings.
  54. 54. 54 Jenny has not spoken her final words. 4.1.5 Stative Verbs Stative verbs can be recognized because they express a state rather than an action. They typically relate to thoughts, emotions, relationships, senses, states of being, and measurements. The best way to think about stative verbs is that they are verbs that describe things that are not actions. The stative verbs are all expressing a state: A state of doubting, a state of believing, a state of wanting. These states of being are often temporary. The stative verb examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification. The doctor disagrees with your analysis. Disagree is a stative verb here, as it describes the doctor’s state of being – disagreement. John doubts the doctor’s opinion. I believe the doctor is right. She wanted another opinion. 4.1.6 Modal Verbs Modal verbs are auxiliary verbs that are used to express abilities, possibilities, permissions, and obligations. Modal verb examples: 1. Can 2. Must 3. May
  55. 55. 55 4. Should 5. Would The modal verb examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification. He can shoot a three-point shot easily. The auxiliary verb can is expressing an ability, suggesting that shooting a three- point shot is a skill the subject possesses. Please note that in the case of should and must in the examples below, the modal verbs are expressing obligations, whereas would and may are expressing possibilities. I should go home. You must not delay. Sally would not recommend the sushi. David may be late. 41.7 Phrasal Verbs Phrasal verbs aren’t single words; instead, they are combinations of words that are used together to take on a different meaning to that of the original verb. There are many examples of phrasal verbs, some of which have colloquial meanings, such as make up, hand in, bring up, point out, look forward to. Each time the verb takes the extra word(s) it takes on a new meaning. For example, make without the upexpresses that something is being created, whereas with make up, the suggestion is that there are some lies or a fantastical element to the story and make out can mean either to grasp or see something difficult, or to kiss passionately. Phrasal verb examples: 1. Run out 2. Go all out
  56. 56. 56 3. Make out 4. Hand out 5. Bring out 6. Face up 7. Think through The phrasal verb examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification. Mary looked forward to her high school reunion. The verb looked has taken on forward to to become a phrasal verb meaning to be excited about or eagerly await something. He brought up the same points again and again. Leroy handed in the wallet to the police. I make up stories all the time. She pointed out Donald’s mistake. 4.1.8 Irregular Verbs Irregular verbs are those that don’t take on the regular spelling patterns of past simple and past participle verbs. Unfortunately, there are hundreds of irregular verbs in the English language. But don’t worry, while many are used often, the majority are not in common usage – or if they are, you will use them so often you will learn them quickly. Some of the most common irregular verbs include: say, make, go, take, come, know and see. Irregular verb examples: 1. Eat 2. Think
  57. 57. 57 3. Bring 4. Hold 5. Bear 6. Buy 7. Lay 8. Catch 9. Drive 10.Paid 11.Feel 12.Redo The irregular verb examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification. I take my time when I go to the shops (present tense) I took my time when I went to the shops (past tense) Julie makes cake for the classroom (present tense) Julie made a cake for the classroom (past tense) She sees a silhouette shaped like a man in the window (present tense) She saw a silhouette shaped like a man in the window (past tense) We come to Aunt Jane’s for Thanksgiving each year (present tense) We came to Aunt Jane’s for Thanksgiving each year (past tense).
  58. 58. 58 You should also remember that auxiliary verbs ‘do’ and ‘have’ are also irregular verbs: I do agree. He does it often. We have done our homework early. They do their homework on Fridays. I have a suspicion about Fran Fran has a devious look. We have no money left. They have had a cough twice this winter. Chapter 4.2 Mood of Verbs In grammar, mood is used to refer to a verb category or form which indicates whether the verb expresses a fact (the indicative mood), a command (the imperative mood), a question (the interrogative mood), a condition (the conditional mood), or a wish or possibility (the subjunctive mood). 4.2.1 The Indicative Mood The form of a verb that is used to express statements of fact: Whales are mammals, not fish. We will visit Peru and Chile next year. She liked Jack as soon as she met him. They’re meeting us tomorrow morning.
  59. 59. 59 4.2.2 The Imperative Mood The imperative is used in commands and instructions. Imperatives in the affirmative are formed with the infinitive of the verb (without to), while negative imperatives are made with the infinitive together with do + not. The imperative doesn't typically have a subject. It’s used to order or ask someone to do something, to offer advice or encouragement, to give instructions, or to make suggestions: Take the first turn on the left. Just keep calm and relax. Be quiet! Don’t forget your keys. Have a great holiday. 4.2.3 The Interrogative Mood This mood is used to ask questions. Interrogatives are formed by adding an auxiliary verb to another verb, with the auxiliary verb typically being placed before the subject: Are you coming out tonight? When is she leaving? Where have they gone? Did you make a profit? 4.2.4 The Conditional Mood The conditional mood is made from the auxiliary verb would (also shouldwith I and we) and the infinitive of the other verb without to. It’s used to make requests and to refer to situations which are uncertain or which depend on something else happening or being the case: I would like some coffee please. If he’d arrived earlier, we would have had time for dinner. We would live in Spain if we had the money.
  60. 60. 60 4.2.5 The Subjunctive Mood The subjunctive mood is used to express a wish or possibility. This mood has a limited role in English compared to other languages such as French or Italian, but it's important to use it properly in formal writing. The subjunctive form of a verb (apart from to be) is made from the 3rdperson present singular, without the -s (or -es) ending. With these verbs, the same forms are used whether or not the context is the present or the past. The subjunctive of to be is simply be in most cases, but were is used in certain constructions with if and to express a wish (see below). The subjunctive is typically found in rather formal English constructions with that and with verbs such as suggest, demand, insist, ask, recommend, etc.: It was suggested that he wait till the next morning. They demanded that the prime minister explain who authorized the action. The ordinary, indicative forms of the verbs in these examples would be waits and explains but it would be grammatically incorrect to use them in these cases: ✗ It was suggested that he waits till the next morning. ✗ They demanded that the prime minister explains who authorized the action. Here are the other main uses of the subjunctive: after if, as if, as though, and unless, in sentences that state a hypothetical condition, or with the verb to wish: If I were taller, I would have been a model. I wish I were more confident.
  61. 61. 61 be and were are used at the beginning of sentences or clauses when the subject follows: Were I to make a list of my favourite films, this would be in second place. All books, be they fiction or non-fiction, should provide entertainment. in certain fixed expressions, for example ‘be that as it may’, ‘comewhat may’, and ‘so be it’. Chapter 4.3 Verbal Aspect “Verbal aspect” refers to the timing of the verb. More specifically, it addresses whether the action occurs in a single block of time, continuously, or repetitively. All verbs have both tense and aspect. Verbal aspect consists of simple, progressive, perfect, or perfect progressive, where each refers to a different fabric of time. 4.3.1 Simple The simple aspect is used to express a single action, a repeated action, or a permanent state.  Permanent state: David lives in Raleigh, North Carolina.  Repeated or habitual action: He runs every morning.  Single action: He graduated from the University of North Carolina. 4.3.2 Progressive The progressive aspect is used to talk about continuous events.  Dr. Jones was lecturing about grammar.  Jane is reading a novel. 4.3.3 Perfect The perfect aspect is used to discuss completed actions. It is often formed by the verb have combined with a past tense verb.  My family had left before the flooding reached our home.  She has visited their mountain home.
  62. 62. 62 4.3.4 Perfect Progressive The perfect progressive combines the perfect and the progressive to refer to the completed portion of a continuous action.  The news crew had been working for more than twelve hours to provide full coverage of the event.  I will have been sleeping for many hours by then. Chapter 4.4 Principle Forms of the Verb Every verb has four basic forms, or principal parts. In order to form all the tenses of each verb, we need to learn these four principal parts of verbs: the present tense, the present participle, the past tense, and the past participle. 4.4.1 Present Tense The first of the four principal parts of verbs is the singular verb in its present tense form, which is used to express present time, something that is true at all times, and future time: talk move adapt earn jump elude wish learn wave 4.4.2 Present Participle The second principal part of verbs, the present participle, is used to form the progressive tenses (continuing action). The present participle is formed by adding ing to the singular verb. It is preceded by a form of the to be helping verb: (is) talking (am) moving (is) adapting (am) earning (is) jumping (are) eluding (are) wishing (is) learning (was) waving
  63. 63. 63 4.4.3 Past Tense The third principal part of verbs, used to express past time, is the past tense, which we form by adding ed to regular verbs. (Irregular verbs have different endings.) talked moved adapted earned jumped eluded wished learned waved 4.4.4 Past Participle The fourth principal part of verbs, used to form the perfect tenses, is the past participle. It is preceded by a form of the have helping verb. For regular verbs, the past and the past participle are the same. PAST talked earned wished moved jumped learned adapted PAST PARTICIPLE (have) talked (has) earned (have) wished (has) moved (has) jumped (has) learned (have) adapted Chapter 4.5 Kinds of Verb According to Form As to form verbs, we only have four forms. We can say that the verb has three inflectional suffixes (-d, -s, -ing) 4.5.1 Vbase or V This is the base form of the verb, the dictionary form which is used to indicate:  The Imperative Live now, pay later.
  64. 64. 64  The simple present tense of the indicative (except the 3rd person singular) They live in London.  The infinitive because it is accompanying a modal verb. They must live happily now. 4.5.2 Vs Form This is used to represent the third person singular. He lives in a small apartment. 4.5.3 Ved Form This indicates:  The regular or irregular simple past tense of all the verbs.  He lived here last year.  The regular or irregular past participle of all verbs.  He has lived here for a while. 4.5.4 Ving Form This represents:  The present participle He is living here with us.  The gerund Living here is good for the health. Another classification of the verb according to form is the division of: Single Word Verbs Call, sleep, eat, dream. Phrasal Verbs Call on, eat up, make up The phrasal verbs are classified by most grammarians as separable and non-separable. Another sub-classification of the phrasal verbs is that the prepositional verbs, which are those composed of the verb and a preposition.
  65. 65. 65 Prepositional Verbs Sleep in, look at Regular and Irregular Verbs The regular verbs are those that form their past participle (Ved) by adding the morpheme d. jump – jumped look – looked have – had The irregular verbs are those that do not form their past or past participle with the d morpheme sing – sang be – was/were write – wrote Dynamic and Stative Verbs Dynamic verbs are those that readily accept, because of their meaning, the use of Ving.  These verbs denote the actual action or expression or process by the subject. They mean an action which can be seen or physically felt. Stative verbs are those that cannot be normally used in the continuous form.They are called non-continuous verbs.  These verbs refer to the state of the subject or the situation of the subject. They tell us about the state of mind of the subject, or the relation between the subject and the object. Mixed Verbs. These verbs have more than one meaning. Some meanings behave like non-continuous verbs (stative verbs), while other meanings behave like continuous verbs (dynamic verbs).
  66. 66. 66 Chapter 4.6 Verb Tenses Tense indicates when the action expressed by a verb takes place. The three simple tenses are past, present, and future. Different tenses take different verb forms, either by changing the word itself or by adding helping verbs. There is no single formula for how to change verb tenses. Here are a few examples: 4.6.1 Present Tense Present tense expresses unchanging actions and states of being. It is also used with recurring actions and with universal or widespread truths.  I walk  She runs 4.6.2 Past Tense Past tense is used for actions that started and finished in the past.  I walked  She ran 4.6.3 Future Tense Future tense expresses an action or event that will take place in the future.  I will walk  She will run Chapter 4.7 The Voice of the Verbs The voice of a verb tells whether the subject of the sentence performs or receives the action. In English there are two voices: active and passive. 4.7.1 Active Voice In active voice, the subject performs the action expressed by the verb:
  67. 67. 67  The student wrote a song. 4.7.2 Passive Voice In passive voice, the subject receives the action expressed by the verb:  A song was written by the student. Forming Tenses of Passive Verbs The passive voice always consists of two parts: a form of the verb "to be" + past participle: Tense Passive voice form Present it is cleaned Past it was cleaned Future it will be cleaned Present perfect it has been cleaned Past perfect it had been cleaned Future perfect it will have been cleaned Uses of Passive Voice Use the passive voice to:  Call attention to receiver of the action rather than the performer:  The professor was hit by three snowballs.  Point out the receiver of the action when performer is unknown or unimportant:  A love letter was slipped under the door.  The signs will be posted.  Avoid calling attention to the performer of the action (known as the "institutional passive"):  The fines will be collected on Monday. Active and Passive Voice in Writing
  68. 68. 68 The choice between using the active or passive voice in writing is a matter of style, not correctness. However, most handbooks recommend using active voice, which they describe as more natural, direct, lively, and succinct. The passive voice is considered wordy and weak (except when used in cases above). Examine the following examples.  weak, passive: The skater was slammed into the wall by Maria.  strong, active: Maria slammed the skater into the wall.  weak, passive: The book was enjoyed by me because the events of her childhood were described so well by the author.  strong, active: I enjoyed the book because the author described the events of her childhood so well. Hints for Identifying the Passive Voice  An active verb may or may not have a direct object, but the passive verb almost never does.  "It is...That" construction (It is clear that... It is noted...)  Use of the verbs To Be, Make, or Have  Passive: Your exits should be made quickly.  Active: Leave quickly.  Endings that turn verbs into abstract nouns: -ion,-ing,-ment:  Passive: When application of force is used, the lid will open.  Active: Apply force to open the lid.
  69. 69. 69 Chapter 4 Post Test Verb Take a look at these 10 sentences and choose the correct verb. Let me know if you get 10/10. Which ones did you get wrong? Good luck, Chris M.  1- I ___ watching TV when Paul and Simon arrived. is am was were  2 - Do you think he ___ what I said? understanding understood understand  3 - She ___ to learn English in Malta next summer. hopes hope hoping  4 - I don't think I've ever ___ on that sofa.
  70. 70. 70 sat sit sitting  5 - Tom ___ tired. looks looking look  6 - When I was young I wanted to ___ a vet. be am is was  7 - Did you used to ___ with dolls? play playing played  8 - I've never ___ sushi before. eaten eat ate  9 - The window was already ___ when I got here.
  71. 71. 71 break broken broke  10 - Last night I ___ on the carpet and fell asleep. lie lied lay
  72. 72. 72 Chapter 5 Pre Test Adjectives In the following exercise, you can test your knowledge. Fill in the gap with the correct comparison form. 1. I was already ill yesterday, but today I feel even ________. (bad) 2. I am always excited on my birthday, but on Christmas Eve I am even ________. (excited) 3. I thought it would help to drink a cup of coffee but now I am even tired _________. (tired) 4. The weather is good today. This is the _________(good) day of the week. 5. Will you hold this bag for me? It is much ______ (light) than it seems. 6. On the radio they said it would be sunny today, but actually it was __________ (sunny) yesterday. 7. Do you want to watch soccer game together with me? I think it is _____________ (entertaining) if you watch it with other people. 8. Tim feels _________ (confident) when he is with his friends. 9. I like this bird. I think it is _________ (pretty) than the others. 10. If you warm up before singing, your voice sounds ___________ (loud).
  73. 73. 73 Chapter 5 Adjectives Introduction to Adjectives Adjectives are words that modify (change) nouns, pronouns and other adjectives. In the sentence “he was fast,” the word “fast” is an adjective that describes the pronoun “he.” Here’s a special sentence that uses all the letters of the English language: “The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.” In this sentence, the words “quick,” “brown” and “lazy” are adjectives (and so is the word “the,” but we’ll explain this later!). All these words are describing or somehow modifying a noun. So, you might already know about adjectives like these, like “quick,” “beautiful” and “ugly,” which are used to describe people, places and things. Chapter 5.1 Kinds of Adjectives 5.1.1. Descriptive A descriptive adjective is probably what you think of when you hear the word “adjective.” Descriptive adjectives are used to describe nouns and pronouns. Words like beautiful, cute, silly, tall, annoying, loud and nice are all descriptive adjectives. These adjectives add information and qualities to the words they’re modifying. You can find a list of the 25 most commonly used adjectives at the English Club. Examples: “The flowers have a smell” is just stating a fact, and it has no adjectives to describe what the flowers or their smell are like. “The beautiful flowers have a nice smell” gives us a lot more information, with two descriptive adjectives. You can say “The cat is hungry,” or “The hungry cat.” In both cases, the word hungry is an adjective describing the cat. 5.1.2. Quantitative Quantitative adjectives describe the quantity of something.
  74. 74. 74 In other words, they answer the question “how much?” or “how many?” Numbers like one and thirty are this type of adjective. So are more general words like many, half and a lot. Examples: “How many children do you have?” “I only have one daughter.” “Do you plan on having more kids?” “Oh yes, I want many children!” “I can’t believe I ate that whole cake!” 5.1.3. Demonstrative A demonstrative adjective describes “which” noun or pronoun you’re referring to. These adjectives include the words: This — Used to refer to a singular noun close to you. That — Used to refer to a singular noun far from you. These — Used to refer to a plural noun close to you. Those — Used to refer to a plural noun far from you. Demonstrative adjectives always come before the word they’re modifying. Sometimes, like when you’re responding to a question, you can leave off the noun being described and only use the adjective. For example, if someone asks you how many cakes you want to buy you can respond: “I want to buy two cakes,” or you can just say: “I want to buy two.” Examples: “Which bicycle is yours?” “This bicycle is mine, and that one used to be mine until I sold it.” 5.1.4. Possessive Possessive adjectives show possession. They describe to whom a thing belongs. Some of the most common possessive adjectives include: My — Belonging to me His — Belonging to him Her — Belonging to her Their — Belonging to them Your — Belonging to you Our — Belonging to us
  75. 75. 75 All these adjectives, except the word his, can only be used before a noun. You can’t just say “That’s my,” you have to say “That’s my pen.” When you want to leave off the noun or pronoun being modified, use these possessive adjectives instead: Mine His Hers Theirs Yours Ours For example, even though saying “That’s my” is incorrect, saying “That’s mine” is perfectly fine. Examples: “Whose dog is that?” “He’s mine. That’s my dog.” 5.1.5. Interrogative Interrogative adjectives interrogate, meaning that they ask a question. These adjectives are always followed by a noun or a pronoun, and are used to form questions. The interrogative adjectives are: Which — Asks to make a choice between options. What — Asks to make a choice (in general). Whose — Asks who something belongs to. Other question words, like “who” or “how,” aren’t adjectives since they don’t modify nouns. For example, you can say “whose coat is this?” but you can’t say “who coat?” Which, what and whose are only considered adjectives if they’re immediately followed by a noun. The word which is an adjective in this sentence: “Which color is your favorite?” But not in this one: “Which is your favorite color?” Examples: “Which song will you play on your wedding day?” “What pet do you want to get?” “Whose child is this?” 5.1.6. Distributive Distributive adjectives describe specific members out of a group. These adjectives are used to single out one or more individual items or people. Some of the most common distributive adjectives include: Each — Every single one of a group (used to speak about group members individually). Every — Every single one of a group (used to make generalizations). Either — One between a choice of two. Neither — Not one or the other between a choice of two.
  76. 76. 76 Any — One or some things out of any number of choices. This is also used when the choice is irrelevant, like: “it doesn’t matter, I’ll take any of them.” These adjectives are always followed by the noun or pronoun they’re modifying. Examples: “Every rose has its thorn.” “Which of these two songs do you like?” “I don’t like either song.” 5.1.7. Articles There are only three articles in the English language: a, an and the. Articles can be difficult for English learners to use correctly because many languages don’t have them (or don’t use them in the same way). Although articles are their own part of speech, they’re technically also adjectives! Articles are used to describe which noun you’re referring to. Maybe thinking of them as adjectives will help you learn which one to use: A — A singular, general item. An — A singular, general item. Use this before words that start with a vowel. The — A singular or plural, specific item. Simply put, when you’re talking about something general, use a and an. When you’re speaking about something specific, use the. “A cat” can be used to refer to any cat in the world. “The cat” is used to refer to the cat that just walked by. Here’s a quick tip that can sometimes help you decide which article to use: Try using a demonstrative adjective before the noun. If it makes sense, use the word the. If it changes the meaning of what you’re trying to say, use an oran. For example, if it makes sense to say “I don’t understand this question,” you can also say “I don’t understand the question.” On the other hand, it sounds strange to say “I need this tissue” because you don’t need that specific tissue. You just need “a tissue.” Examples: “The elephants left huge footprints in the sand.” “An elephant can weigh over 6,000 pounds!” Chapter 5.2 Structure and Positions of Adjectives Adjectives are used to describe the quality of things: green, tall, nice, pretty, dark, cold, hot. They can stand in front of nouns or after the verb “to be”. Look at the first example. Here, the adjective is placed in front of the noun:
  77. 77. 77 I liked the green shirt. Look at the second example. A form of “to be” is followed by the adjective. The shirt is green. There are a few very important exceptions to that rule. Certain adjectives never stand in front of nouns: afraid, alive, alone, asleep, glad, pleased, sorry, upset, ill, well/fine. Chapter5.3 The Order of Adjective in a Series In many languages, adjectives denoting attributes usually occur in specific order. Generally, the adjective order in English is: 1. Quantity or number 2. Quality or opinion 3. Size 4. Age 5. Shape 6. Color 7. Proper adjective (often nationality, other place of origin, or material) 8. Purpose or qualifier For example: 1. I love that really big old green antique car that always parked at the end of the street. 2. My sister adopted a beautiful big white bulldog. When there are two or more adjectives that are from the same group, the word and is placed between the two adjectives: 1. We live in the big green, white and red house at the end of the street. 2. My friend lost a red, black, and white watch. A comma is not placed between an adjective and the noun.
  78. 78. 78 More examples: 1. I love that beautiful old big green antique car that always parked at the end of the street. [quality – age – size – color – proper adjective] 2. My sister has a big beautiful tan and white bulldog. [size – quality – color – color] 3. A wonderful old Italian clock. [opinion – age – origin] 4. A big square blue box. [dimension – shape – color] 5. A disgusting pink plastic ornament. [opinion – color – material] 6. Some slim new French trousers. [dimension – age – origin] 7. An amazing new American movie. [opinion – age – origin] 8. I bought a pair of black leather shoes. [color – material] Chapter 5.4 Comparison of Adjectives As well as serving as modifying words like beautiful and big, adjectives are also used for indicating the position on a scale of comparison. The lowest point on the scale is known as the positive form, the middle point is known as the comparative form, and the highest point is known as the superlative form. Here are some examples: The Comparative Form When two objects or persons are being compared, the comparative form of the adjective is used. The comparative adjective can be formed in two ways: Adding –er to the positive form of the adjective. Adding the word more before the adjective. For example: My essay is longer than yours. She is more beautiful than her sister. Here are the rules for choosing and forming the right form:
  79. 79. 79 When comparing two things, the word than is positioned between the adjective and the thing being compared. For example: Apples are tastier than oranges. This painting is more interesting than that painting. Superlatives The superlative is used to say what thing or person has the most of a particular quality within a group or of its kind. The superlative can be formed in two ways: Adding –est to the Positive form of the adjective. Adding the word most before the adjective. For example: This is the most beautiful dress I have ever seen. The biggest table in the room. Here are the rules for choosing and forming the right form:
  80. 80. 80 Superlatives are usually preceded by the word the. Positive Form The positive form is used in cases where there are no differences between the two compared things or persons. To form the positive, we use the word as before and after the positive form of the adjective. For example: 1. Danny is as smart as Phillip. 2. She is as beautiful as her older sister. This can also be applied in a negative context to indicate that the compared objects are not similar: 1. Danny is not as smart as Phillip. 2. She is not as beautiful as her older sister.
  81. 81. 81 Exceptions (Irregular Forms) Certain adjectives have irregular forms in the comparative and superlative degrees: Examples of Comparing Adjectives 1. This house is bigger than that one. 2. This flower is more beautiful than that. 3. He is taller than Mr. Hulas. 4. He is more intelligent than this boy. 5. Jonathan is the most handsome man on campus. 6. This is the prettiest dress in the window. 7. I lost my most comfortable shoes.
  82. 82. 82 Chapter 5 Post Test Adjectives 1. Choose the comparative adjective in each group of sentences: A. 1. Her hair is short. 2. Her hair is shorter than it was before. 3. Her hair is the shortest it has ever been. B. 1. We live nearer the train station than we used to. 2. Park in the lot nearest the train station. 3. I know the train station is somewhere near. C. 1. My dog might be ugly, but he is nice. 2. That’s the ugliest dog I’ve ever seen! 3. Because he was uglier than the others, my dog won the ugly dog contest. D. 1. Your presentation was more informative than most. 2. She gave an informative talk on honeybees. 3. That’s the most informative speech I’ve ever heard Professor Brown give! 2. Which of the following sentences does not contain a comparing adjective? A. I’d like to have more participation from each of you this time around. B. If you’d have listened better, you wouldn’t be confused right now. C. They live in the brick house on the corner. 3. Choose the superlative adjective in each group of sentences: A. 1. That’s the best ice cream I’ve ever tasted! 2. You’re a lot nicer than your sister.

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