Classical period part 2

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Classical period part 2

  1. 1. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1756-1791 <ul><li>One of the greatest composers that ever lived </li></ul><ul><li>His music is the essence of the classical style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elegant, graceful, refined, and high spirited </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Mozart <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, K. 550 (1788) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fourth Movement: Allegro assai (very fast) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The rapid sonata-form last movement of this symphony conveys a feeling of controlled tension </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Franz Joseph Haydn 1732-1809
  4. 4. Joseph Haydn <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Symphony No. 94 in G Major (Surprise; 1791) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second Movement: Andante </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This movement is in Theme and Variations form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are four variations, where the theme is changed in tone color, dynamics, rhythm, and melody </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes the original melody is accompanied by a new one called a countermelody </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These combinations of two distinctive melodies result in polyphonic texture </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. More Classical Forms <ul><li>Minuet and Trio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This type of music originated as a dance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The minuet was a stately dignified dance in which the dancing couple exchanged curtsies and bows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The minuet of a symphony or trio is written for listening and not for dancing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is in ABA form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A- Minuet, B-Trio, A-Minuet </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music; 1787), K. 525 Third Movement: Minuet (Allegretto) </li></ul><ul><li>This work is in the form of a serenade </li></ul><ul><li>Serenades are usually light in mood and meant for entertaining </li></ul><ul><li>The third movement is in minuet form (ABA). The A (minuet) section is stately, mostly loud and staccato, with a clearly marked beat </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast, the B (trio) section is intimate, soft, and legato Its murmuring accompaniment contributes to the smooth flow of the music </li></ul>
  7. 7. More Classical Forms <ul><li>Rondo Form </li></ul><ul><li>Rondo form is a theme that returns several times in alternation with other forms </li></ul><ul><li>It can be outlined as: A B A C A D A E, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>This form can be used independently as its own piece or as a movement (usually the last one) of a symphony </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ludwig van Beethoven 1770-1827
  9. 9. Ludwig van Beethoven <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>String Quartet in C Minor, Op. 18, No. 4 (1798-1800) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fourth Movement: Rondo (Allegro) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This exciting movement from Beethoven can be outlined A B A C A B A </li></ul><ul><li>Its lively main theme A, in the style of a Gypsy dance, is made up of two repeated parts: a a b b </li></ul><ul><li>An unexpected tone held in part b suggests the playing of a Gypsy fiddler </li></ul>
  10. 10. Classical Symphony <ul><li>A symphony is an extended, ambitious composition lasting between 20 and 45 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>It explores the ranges, tone colors, and dynamics of the classical orchestra </li></ul><ul><li>A classical symphony consists of four movements which evoke a wide range of emotions through contrasts of tempo and mood </li></ul>
  11. 11. Classical Symphony <ul><li>A typical sequence is: </li></ul><ul><li>Movement 1 Vigorous, dramatic fast movement </li></ul><ul><li>Movement 2 A lyrical slow movement </li></ul><ul><li>Movement 3 Dance-like movement (minuet or scherzo) </li></ul><ul><li>Movement 4 A brilliant fast heroic movement </li></ul>
  12. 12. Symphony Form: <ul><li>The opening movement is almost always in sonata form </li></ul><ul><li>It is usually the most dramatic movement and stresses an exciting development of short motives (musical ideas) </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes a slow introduction leads to the opening fast movement and creates a feeling of anticipation </li></ul>
  13. 13. Symphony Form: <ul><li>In the second movement, which is slow, we will often find broad song-like melodies </li></ul><ul><li>This movement is usually in sonata form, ABA form, or theme and variations form </li></ul><ul><li>This movement is usually not in the tonic key (key that the first movement is in) </li></ul><ul><li>Changing keys helps the expressive contrast of the second movement </li></ul>
  14. 14. Symphony Form: <ul><li>In the symphonies of Haydn and Mozart the third movement is generally a minuet or trio, and will be in a moderate or quick tempo </li></ul><ul><li>This movement can vary in character from a courtly dance to a lively peasant romp </li></ul><ul><li>Beethoven liked fast, energetic scherzos for his third movements </li></ul>
  15. 15. Symphony Form: <ul><li>The fourth and concluding movement of Haydn or Mozart is fast, lively and brilliant </li></ul><ul><li>Beethoven’s fourth movements tend to be more triumphant and heroic in character </li></ul><ul><li>The final movement of a classical symphony is almost always in rondo form : (A B A C A B A) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Symphony Form <ul><li>To sum it up, A Symphony has: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Movement- Fast (usually in Sonata form) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second Movement- Slow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third Movement- Minuet or Scherzo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final Movement- Fast (usually in rondo form) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Symphonies <ul><li>In most classical symphonies, each movement is a self-contained composition with its own set of themes </li></ul><ul><li>A theme from one movement will rarely appear in another movement </li></ul><ul><li>A symphony is unified partly by the use of the same key in three of its movements </li></ul><ul><li>Most importantly, the movements balance and compliment each other both musically and emotionally </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Classical Concerto <ul><li>Is a three movement work for an instrumental soloist and orchestra </li></ul><ul><li>It combines the soloist’s virtuosity, an interpretive abilities with the orchestra’s wide range of tone colors and dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>The soloist is the star and all of his or her musical talents are needed in this challenging dialogue </li></ul>
  19. 19. Classical Chamber Music <ul><li>Chamber music is subtle and intimate, intended to please the performer as well as the audience </li></ul><ul><li>A chamber music group is a team </li></ul><ul><li>Each member is important and an essential part of the group </li></ul><ul><li>No conductor is needed </li></ul>
  20. 20. Classical Chamber Music <ul><li>The most important form of chamber music (according to this book) is the string quartet, written for two violins, viola and cello </li></ul><ul><li>Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven wrote some of their most important music for this form </li></ul><ul><li>Like a symphony, the string quartet usually consists of four movements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) Fast, (2) Slow, (3) Minuet or scherzo, (4) Fast </li></ul></ul>