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  1. 1
  2. 2 L-Data Science Criticism Leonid Asipov ‫לעתיד‬ Ph.D Introduction 4-5 ‫מדעית‬ ‫ואמינות‬ ‫מדעיות‬ ‫תוצאות‬ ‫הצגת‬ Botany 5-59 Botany research is not needed anymore L-Data vs "Expression of cyanobacterial ictB in higher plants enhanced photosynthesis and growth" L-Data vs "Enhanced photosynthesis and growth of transgenic plants that express ictB, a gene involved in HCO 3–accumulation in cyanobacteria" L-Data vs "A putative HCO transporter in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 " The Ci parameter is WRONG L-Data vs "CO2 Concentrating Mechanisms in Algae: Mechanisms, Environmental" L-Data vs: Development of synchronized, autonomous, and self-regulated oscillations in plant L-Data vs “The Role of Tobacco Aquaporin1 in Improving Water Use Efficiency, Hydraulic Conductivity, and Yield Production Under Salt Stress1” The reason for the lack of photosynthesis after dehydration is lack of water for enzymes
  3. 3 Changes in the properties of reaction center II during the initial stages of photo inhibition as revealed by thermo luminescence measurements SYNERGISM OF LIGHT AND FUSICOCCIN ON STOMATAL OPENING" CO2 not light is the trigger for leaf conductance to gases WUE CANNOT GROW There is no main growth control in: transpiration is related to nutrient transport Cactuses create sugar during the day There is no CO2: O2 concentration blocks photosynthesis by reverse CO2 formation Stomata don't affect photosynthesis CO2 Channels Have to Enlarge Transpiration Human industry is nature's best friend No need for CO2 channel for chloroplast L-Data vs Rapid assessing of water and nitrogen status in wheat flag leaves Physics 59-78 Light Speed is not Constant Relativity Theory Wrong Matter does not have inner structure There is no minimum speed needed to fly to space Gravitational force is related to Surface Area/Mass ratio
  4. 4 The particles are not of right form. Sand, salt and any other materials There is no possibility of creating ideal space Classical energy equation is wrong : energy is speed/mass Movement of masses is enough to explain all physical or chemical phenomena The nature of forces : Gravitational force Thermodynamics are false ‫החשמל‬ ‫חליקי‬ ‫ע"י‬ ‫חום‬ ‫ופיזור‬ ‫גדולים‬ ‫מוליכים‬ ‫של‬ ‫אלסטיות‬ : ‫חשמל‬ Light Speed Changes with collisions ZEREM LO NAHON RADIO WAVE DIFFERS SPEED NOT FREQUENCY Light Speed is not uniform, WAVES WRONG Electricity ERROR: Science fraud PIGMENT REFLECTION : ABSOBTION OF SPEED Chemistry 78-82 Periodic Table might be a falsie Periodic table wrong Rust Properties of water molecule : hydrogen is light but concentrated Hydrogen is small and concentrated : Reactivity
  5. 5 water= 6H O1 Biology 82-90 Model of enzyme of a connector can explain DNA replication as a spontaneous diffusion. Enzymes does not need any energy for function Protein construction control by Proteins No X inactivation exist GENETICS ARE WRONG ‫אפשריים‬ ‫לא‬ ‫כרומזומליים‬ ‫שחלופים‬ Differentiation of cells : protein - protein replication DNA IS SINGLE STRANDED Science 90-95 Science Courthouse : ‫מדע‬ ‫ופעילות‬ ‫מימון‬ ‫צורות‬ Models are proof of understanding : A new science concept ‫קיים‬ ‫לא‬ ‫מימד‬ ‫זמן‬ ‫לבד‬ ‫לפרסם‬ ‫צריכים‬ : ‫צודק‬ ‫לא‬ ‫בארץ‬ ‫המדע‬ ‫מדע‬ ‫של‬ ‫סטודנטים‬ ‫למכור‬ ‫אסור‬ ‫מדע‬ ‫מדע‬ ‫של‬ ‫חירטוטים‬ ‫במכון‬ ‫אסרים‬ ‫ניסויים‬
  6. 6 University Unfair ‫אישורים‬ 96 Introduction Scientific Honesty and Accuracy 1/5/2011 11:53:12 AM ‫מדע‬ ‫תוצאות‬ ‫הצגת‬ ‫מדעית‬ ‫ואמינות‬ ‫יות‬ ‫וסטודנטים‬ ‫מדע‬ ‫אנשי‬ ‫בין‬ ‫להטמעה‬ ‫מאד‬ ‫חשוב‬ ‫מושג‬ ‫היא‬ ‫מדעית‬ ‫אמינות‬ ‫נתונים‬ ‫עיבוד‬ ,‫מדידה‬ ‫באופן‬ : ‫אמינות‬ ‫לחוסר‬ ‫מקומות‬ ‫הרבה‬ ‫טומנים‬ ‫מדעיים‬ ‫ניסויים‬ ,‫למעשה‬ , ‫אמינות‬ ‫וחוסר‬ ‫לנבוע‬ ‫יכולות‬ ‫מדעיים‬ ‫ממחקרים‬ ‫מוטעות‬ ‫מסקנות‬ .‫המסקנות‬ ‫והסקת‬ ‫הנתונים‬ ‫הצגת‬ ‫ומהווים‬ ‫אמינות‬ ‫מחוסר‬ .‫המחקר‬ ‫על‬ ‫שהתבססו‬ ‫אחרים‬ ‫וחוקרים‬ ‫עצמו‬ ‫לחוקר‬ ‫משאבים‬ ‫של‬ ‫בזבוז‬ ‫מדעי‬ ‫סתום‬ ‫במבוי‬ ‫נמצאים‬ ‫חוקרים‬ ‫הרבה‬ ‫כזאת‬ . ‫אמינות‬ ‫רבדי‬ ‫מספר‬ ‫יש‬ ‫מדעיים‬ ‫ניסויים‬ ‫של‬ ‫לתוצאות‬ : 1 . ‫עצמו‬ ‫הניסוי‬ ‫ביצוע‬ ‫ברמת‬ ‫אמינות‬ ‫אפשריים‬ ‫לארטיפקטים‬ ‫לב‬ ‫תשומת‬ ‫המדידות‬ ‫ביצוע‬ ‫נכונות‬ 2 . ‫ב‬ ‫אמינות‬ ‫הניסוי‬ ‫תוצאות‬ ‫עיבוד‬ ‫רמת‬ ‫התוצאות‬ ‫בעיבוד‬ ‫טעויות‬ ‫המידע‬ ‫כל‬ ‫לעומת‬ ‫הקיים‬ ‫מהמידע‬ ‫חלקים‬ ‫הצגת‬ ‫כמותית‬ ‫מול‬ ‫איכותית‬ ‫הצגה‬ ,‫בסטטיסטיקה‬ ‫שימוש‬ ‫חוסר‬ 3 . ‫התוצאות‬ ‫הצגת‬ ‫ברמת‬ ‫אמינות‬ ‫מידע‬ ‫החסרת‬ 4 . ‫שיש‬ ‫הראיות‬ ‫לכל‬ ‫התייחסות‬ : ‫מסקנות‬ ‫הסקת‬ ‫ברמת‬ ‫אמינות‬ ‫ש‬ ‫אפשרות‬ ‫שתומן‬ ‫נוסף‬ ‫עניין‬ ( ‫במחקר‬ ‫אחריות‬ ‫חלוקת‬ ‫הוא‬ ‫אמינות‬ ‫חוסר‬ ‫ל‬ ,‫נתונים‬ ‫עיבוד‬ ,‫מדידה‬ ‫מסקנו‬ ‫הסקת‬ )‫ת‬ ‫לאיתור‬ ‫קשה‬ ‫הוא‬ ‫שלב‬ ‫בכל‬ ‫אמינות‬ ‫חוסר‬ .‫מספקת‬ ‫מרכזית‬ ‫בקרה‬ ‫והעדר‬ . ‫אמינות‬ ‫וחוסר‬ ‫לטיוח‬ ‫פעמים‬ ‫הרבה‬ ‫מובילה‬ ‫במחקר‬ ‫המשתתפים‬ ‫האנשים‬ ‫כל‬ ‫בין‬ ‫אובייקטיביות‬ ‫העדר‬ ‫של‬ ‫בתוצאות‬ ‫שמעוניינים‬ ‫השונים‬ ‫הגורמים‬ ‫אחרות‬ ‫ולא‬ ‫מסויימות‬ .
  7. 7 Botany Botany research is not needed anymore 8/21/2011 12:38:48 PM ‫הידע‬ ‫כל‬ ‫את‬ ‫כבר‬ ‫יש‬ : ‫בוטניקה‬ ‫יותר‬ ‫צריך‬ ‫לא‬ . ‫יותר‬ ‫נחוצים‬ ‫שלא‬ ‫נושאים‬ ‫צורך‬ ‫ללא‬ ,‫סתם‬ ‫חוקרים‬ ‫המדענים‬ . ‫המדענים‬ .‫נוסף‬ ‫למחקר‬ ‫צורך‬ ‫אין‬ ,‫מספיק‬ ‫ידוע‬ ,‫הצמח‬ ‫מדעי‬ ‫של‬ ‫בנושאים‬ ‫הביתה‬ ‫לחזור‬ ‫יכולם‬ ‫התעסוקה‬ ‫מלשכת‬ ‫קצבה‬ ‫ולקבל‬ . ‫שאנושות‬ ‫שנחוץ‬ ‫מה‬ ‫כל‬ - ,‫גודל‬ : ‫רצויות‬ ‫תכונות‬ ‫עם‬ ‫זנים‬ ‫מטפח‬ ‫הזעים‬ ‫בנק‬ .‫צמחים‬ ‫של‬ ‫זרעים‬ ‫בנק‬ ‫מלח‬ ‫ריכוז‬ ,‫סוכר‬ ‫ריכוז‬ ,‫פירות‬ ‫של‬ ‫מקסימלי‬ ‫מספר‬ , ‫הטיפוח‬ .‫גדילה‬ ‫מהירות‬ ,‫חלבון‬ ‫ריכוז‬ - .‫פשוט‬ ‫הצמחי‬ ‫את‬ .‫צמחים‬ ‫מגדלים‬ ‫קדם‬ ‫בימי‬ ‫כמו‬ ‫הטיפוח‬ .‫המשך‬ ‫בדור‬ ‫מרבים‬ ‫טובים‬ ‫הכי‬ ‫ם‬ - ‫דורות‬ ‫מספר‬ , ‫האחרון‬ ‫הדור‬ - ‫פעם‬ ‫זרעיים‬ ‫קונים‬ ‫חקלאים‬ .‫זנים‬ ‫והרבה‬ ‫מינים‬ ‫הרבה‬ ‫יש‬ ‫הזרעיים‬ ‫בבנק‬ .‫לזרעיים‬ ‫אחת‬ - ‫לזרעיים‬ ‫שגודל‬ ‫צמחים‬ ‫של‬ ‫מסויים‬ ‫אחוז‬ ‫יבול‬ ‫בכל‬ ‫לחקלאי‬ ‫יש‬ ‫כך‬ ‫אחר‬ . ‫ד‬ ‫נג‬ .‫וטבק‬ ‫שום‬ : ‫טבעיים‬ ‫אמצעים‬ ‫יש‬ ‫מזיקים‬ ‫חרקים‬ ‫נגד‬ ‫עבודת‬ ‫של‬ ‫אמצעים‬ ‫יש‬ ‫שוטים‬ ‫עשבים‬ ‫השוטים‬ ‫והצמחים‬ ‫בשדה‬ ‫בתחרות‬ ‫מנצחים‬ ‫שמגדלים‬ ‫הצמחים‬ ‫רוב‬ .‫אדם‬ ‫מופיעים‬ ‫לא‬ . ‫שנים‬ ‫במספר‬ ‫פעם‬ ‫בשדה‬ ‫אחרות‬ ‫וקטניות‬ ‫שועית‬ ,‫אפונה‬ ‫גידול‬ ‫עם‬ ‫אפשריים‬ ‫טבעיים‬ ‫דשנים‬ . ‫השקייה‬ - ‫השוטים‬ ‫העשבים‬ ‫כמות‬ ‫את‬ ‫שמקטינה‬ ‫טפטוף‬ ‫עם‬ ‫רגילה‬ - ‫ה‬ ‫לייד‬ ‫ההשקייה‬ ‫כי‬ ‫צמחים‬ ‫לעשבים‬ ‫אור‬ ‫שממסכים‬ . ‫אקמית‬ ‫השכלה‬ ‫דורשים‬ ‫לא‬ ‫ייחורים‬ ‫גידול‬ ‫כגון‬ ‫פשוטים‬ ‫בוטניים‬ ‫אמצעים‬ . ‫הצמחים‬ ‫תורת‬ ? ‫כסף‬ ‫קובלתם‬ ‫מה‬ ‫על‬ ?‫תרומתכם‬ ‫מה‬ ‫בוטנאים‬ - .‫כלום‬ ‫הוסיפה‬ ‫לא‬ ‫המודרנה‬ .‫עתיקה‬ L-Data vs "Expression of cyanobacterial ictB in higher plants enhanced photosynthesis and growth" Leonid Asipov 11/15/2012 10:57:26 AM From letter to the editorial director of the magazine… "My Name is Leonid Asipov. I am the co-author of the article and the worker which accomplished the experiments. The data results are insignificant and no conclusions are possible on basis of the results. Whole experiments were neglected by the main author of the article and the conclusions are scientific lies… "
  8. 8 TOPICS 1. ONLY PARTIAL DATA WAS PRESENTED. THE ADDITIONAL PLANTS SHOW NO SIGNIFICANCE RELATIVE TO WT. 2. SECOND GENERATION OF PLANTS, GROWN OUT OF THE BEST 1-ST GENERATION PLANTS, SHOW NO SIGNIFICANCE AT ALL. 3. FALSE CONCLUSION IN ABSTRACT OF THE ARTICLE, ACCORING TO THE AUTHOR, THE ENHANCEMENT OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN ONLY AT LIMITING CO2 CONDITIONS, HOWEVER, THE RESULTS (BASED ON ONLY 4 PLANTS) SHOW THAT AT ALL CO2 LEVELS, THE TRANSGENIC PLANTS ARE BETTER. NOTE THAT MOST OF THE DATA (THE REST 33 TRANSGENIC PLANTS) WAS NOT PUBLISHED. 4. No significance tests were calculated. The group of transgenic plants is too small(4 plants). THE REAL DATA: EMPIRIC MEASUREMENTS OF GAS-EXCHANGE OF LEAVES: WT VS TRANSGENIC PLANTS. Time of day during measurement The measurement is Gas-Exchange of single leaves. Transgenic and wt plants are similarly measured by the gas-exchange device, in elevating CO2 concentrations and in similar temperature and light conditions. The time of day of the measurement of each plant was different. Part of the plants were measured during morning and part, during the evening. The difference of the Photosynthesis rate between the different times of day is great. During the evening, the plants were photosynthesizing may hours already and part of the enzymes needs regeneration. Moring is hours of highest photosynthesis rates. Note that there is large differences between the photosynthesis and transpiration rates of the plants. Part of the large differences is due to different time of day during measurement.
  9. 9 Scientific conclusions The plants are to be measured in equal conditions: equal time of day and equal age. When the experiment is large, the task is impossible. Since the gas-exchange measurement device is based on a single leaf and is expensive, in addition to long measurement time of the CO2 curve (at least 15 minutes for each plants + acclimation time) and large number of plants demanding other method for plant screening for better photosynthesis and transpiration properties. Measurement in a single CO2 concentration is partial solution for possible measurement of many plants in short period of time. The results of the article: partial data was presented. The transgenic plants are to be considered similar "treatment" and a large number of plants are to be measured and T significance tests are to be calculated. If some particular transgenic plant is for any reason considered to be "other treatment", the plant is to be cloned to next generation and large amount of plants are to be measured in order to perform T significance tests. Second generation of arabidopsis(NOT PUBLISHED DATA) Second generation was cloned of the 4 considered transgenic plants and the results showed no significant difference relative to wt plants. THE PAPER WAS PUBLISHED WITH WRONG CONCLUSIONS BASED ON PARTIAL DATA, WHEN ALL DATA WAS ABUNDANT. THE SCIENTISTS ARE LIERS. Presentation of all the data The real Gas-Exchange data. The first experiment included 37 transgenic arabidopsis plants vs 7 wt plants. The published chart however consists of only 4 transgenic plants. The researchers have neglected all the rest 33 plants and CONCLUDED FALSE conclusions, according to which the transgenic protein has positive effect on photosynthesis of plants. The absence of statistics The variation of the plants is high and T significance tests of all the 37 plants vs
  10. 11 wt show no significance at all. The experiment of protein transformation is to be considered similar “treatment”. The 4 top plants were cloned to the next generation and similar tests were conducted. No significance was seen. Original chart published in paper: only 4 plants of 37 transgenic plants were published. Note the inconsistent conclusion in abstract of the article : “photosynthesis was enhanced under limiting and not under saturating CO2 concentrations…” ALL 4 transgenic plants are better photosynthetically at ALL CO2 points(NOTE THE REST 33 PLANTS WHICH ARE NOT). All 37 transgenic plants. Only top 4 were published. The rest of the plants are with large variance. Better or worse than wt. Wt is also variant. Note that only 6 wt plants were measured. More plants, more variance.
  11. 11 THE PUBLISHER DID PUBLISH ONLY 4 TRANSGENIC PLANTS. REST OF THE DATA WAS HIDDEN. THE SCEITIFIC FRAUD WAS CAUGHT!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 2nd generation arabidopsis (number of plants > 30). UNSIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WT AND THE TRANSGENIC. The protein was also tested in other plants. Similar gas-exchange experiments were conducted.
  12. 12 The protein does NOT enhance photosynthesis or prevent transpiration… Soybean experiment. The theory behind the article is wrong. Theoretic criticism. The CO2 channel in chloroplast is not needed : the membrane keeps the unique environment in chloroplast. Channels conduct to and from the chloroplast. The reason of the membrane is to block particles from diffusion from the chloroplast to the cytoplasm. Additional CO2 channel in chloroplast membrane would have forced diffusion of small and medium particles from the chloroplast to the cytoplasm, slowing the enzymatic processes in the chloroplast. The diffusion of CO2 to chloroplast is fast due to large surface area/volume ratio. The main slowing process is diffusion through the cytoplasm. The surface area of a chloroplast is large relative to volume…. The main obstruction to diffusion of CO2 from the air the chloroplast is cytoplasm volume and cytoplasm membrane… The distance of diffusion is the whole cytoplasm… The distance of diffusion through the chloroplast is small and don't forget the large surface area / volume ratio of the chloroplast which cause fast diffusion through the membrane. The conclusion is that no CO2 channels are needed to
  13. 13 chloroplast membrane. Addition of CO2 channel, don't enhance any processes in the plant cell…And might slow some processes by diffusion of needed particles from chloroplast to the cell cytoplasm. Bacterial proteins does not express properly in higher organisms. Note folding proteins which are needed. Expression of bacterial protein in higher plants: wrong concept. It is well known in science that proteins from eukaryotes cannot be easily expressed in prokaryotes. In order to create the antibodies, mammal or fly biological systems are needed. The 3rd structure of the proteins need folding proteins. Spontaneous expression of a bacterial protein in plants is not likely to produce a proper protein. The folding proteins of the plant are not compatible. A whole set of additional proteins are needed in order to create a proper protein. The ribosomes of bacteria are different, suggesting the building of the proteins is as well. Possible even the genetic code differs and codons code to other amino acids. The task of the researchers is to prove the protein function, 3-d structure and proper attachment of the protein in the chloroplast membrane. Since the protein was described as "putative", and no 3d structure was proved, as well as no positioning in the chloroplast membrane, it is impossible to claim any biological effect. The foreign bacterial protein may be malfunctional and not even expressed in chloroplast. The difference of the plants in sampling time The experiment was sampled during 2 months and life of arabidopsis plant is about 3 months only. The first plants were the best transgenics, the control plants were measured during the last 4 days of experiment. The control plants were 2 months older than the best (published) transgenics. The difference of the plants is mostly at transpiration parameter, not photosynthesis, and the root system of the transgenic plants which are older by two months is obviously larger, and thus the transpiration. The difference between the transgenic and wt plants is due to age, no genetic differences. External CO2 vs Photosynthesis (wt vs best transgenics)
  14. 14 External CO2 vs transpiration: transpiration of wt plants is larger (most possibly because of root system) The ages and sampling dates :
  15. 15 PROPER SCIENTIFIC WAY The proper way of molecular biology is protein crystallization to prove proper function : CO2 channel. CO2 channels, as any channel is a pipe-like protein. The pipe is only molecule size specific. CO2 channels conduct medium and small size molecules such as water, CO2, H and other. Proof of protein expression and positioning in chloroplast membranes. The protein has to be proven to have proper channel function and positioning. ONLY AFTER PROPER MOLECULAR PROOF, transgenic plants are to be grown and compared with wt plants. BEFOREHAND we cannot even ask any scientific question, since the protein may be not a channel, not properly built by the plant protein building machinery or not to be positioned in the chloroplast membrane. GUESSING is not proper science. THEORY HAS TO PERCEDE the scientific research with all the possibilities of the results.
  16. 16 The Ci parameter : wrong science The Ci parameter is wrong. Photosynthesis is linked to X and Y axis on Ci-Photo charts. Proper comparison is possible between curves is possible at similar X points. The empirically changed parameter is the external CO2 concentration (CO2R). Photosynthesis and Transpiration are biological parameters affected by the external CO2 change. The proper way to compare the effect of external CO2 on photosynthesis and transpiration is to present the external [CO2] on the X axis and plot 2 separate curves for transpiration and photosynthesis. The Ci parameter is wrong : Ci = External [CO2] * STOMATA APERTURE AS TRANSPIRATION * pressure / PHOTOSYNTHESIS * leaf temperature One Ci, different Photosynthesis and transpiration values. If transpiration and photosynthesis is high, the ci is same if transpiration and photosynthesis is low. When plotting relative to photosynthesis, points are compared at different X values, which are related to Y (PHOTOSYNTHESIS) . The ci parameter cannot tell anything about the real properties. Since it is basically ratio of TRANSPIRATION/PHOTOSYNTHESIS. PHOTOSYNTHEIS and TRANSPIRATION IS TO BE PRESENTED AS FUNCTION OF EXTERNAL CO2 CONCENTRATION. L-Data vs "Enhanced photosynthesis and growth of transgenic plants that express ictB, a gene involved in HCO 3–accumulation in cyanobacteria"
  17. 17 11/15/2012 11:46:40 AM Criticism Under low relative humidity, the stomata are more open, and there is more transpiration. What is the limiting photosynthesis factor under low humidity relative to high humidity? The ONLY factor which is to consider is transpiration. Under lower humidity concentrations, there is higher concentration of CO2 in the air, and thus photosynthesis is ENHANCED. The protein works more at lower air humidity, ONLY AT HIGHER CO2 concentrations. The protein should be a difference at limiting CO2 conditions, not low humidity. Internal article inconsistency. Since there almost no PHOTOSYNTHESIS dependence on stomata aperture(Fig 1), The photosynthesis under any humidity is relatively constant. The only factor is humidity which lowers the CO2 concentration of the air. According to the article, at lower CO2 concentrations, WT plants are better. WT is the better CO2 conductor than the transgenic plants. The "faster" growth of the transgenic plants at lower humidity, most possibly is accompanied with higher transpiration rates. Why the Water USE Efficiency parameter was not calculated? The transpiration was reported to be similar between the wt and the transgenic plants. Why more growth at lower humidity, at higher CO2? "CO2 compensation point": the plant is breathing more CO2. More energetically demanding plant.
  18. 18 At lower CO2 concentration, there is almost no photosynthesis. The plant is breathing and CO2 is diffusing from the plant to the air. If the plant is more sugar demanding there is more breathing and thus, there will be more CO2 absorption when the external CO2 is lower. The expression of additional protein in energetically demanding. The plants breathe more, thus lower compensation point, due to higher CO2 in the leaf. The CO2 compensation point is related to the two first measurements of Photosynthesis and Transpiration. The usual CO2 concentration is 50 and 100 ppm. The compensation point is a calculated point between 50 and 100 ppm at which photosynthesis becomes more than 0. If plant breathes more, at similar photosynthesis, There is more CO2 after the air travels through the chamber, and the result is LESS photosynthesis. Due to breathing, there could be two reasons for lower compensation point. 1. More photosynthesis 2. Bore breathing, which leads to CO2 diffusion from the leaf to the air out of the plant. The advice is to measure photosynthesis at higher concentrations, when to the additional from plant breathing CO2 there is less meaning. The real DATA The number of plants is only 4 transgenic plants vs 1 wt. How is it possible to conclude anything of so few plants? Part of the transgenic plants are not better, how to explain? If part of transgenic plants are to consider other properties than the rest of the plants, the plants should have been cloned to the next generation and large number of plants were supposed to be sampled. Conclusions are to be made on basis of T significance tests of many plants and not on only 4 transgenic and 1 wt plants. The Arabidopsis conclusion was based on 2 transgenic and 1 wt plant. Conclusions could have been made due to too small plants group. The wt plants are relatively at the average of the transgenic plants CO2 curve. Why the conclusion was that the transgenic plants are better, when some transgenic plants was not?
  19. 19 Why DO we care about photosynthesis at limiting conditions. The real conditions at fields are not limiting. There is no advantage of transgenic plants and NO transpiration difference. The stomata respond to CO2 with closure. Better photosynthesis, lower CO2, more stomata aperture and MORE TRANSPIRATION. If the plants are better at Lower humidity, MORE TRANSPIRATION is EXPECTED but not reported. CO2 is the main trigger of stomata aperture, and photosynthesis is related to CO2 concentration in the leaf and near the stomata. At high photosynthesis, more transpiration is expected. DATA INSTABILITY: There was too many samples and the AIR CO2 concentration at every sample is not clear. Either the researchers were only slightly changing the AIR CO2 concentration, or there was no enough time of acclimation to the external CO2 conditions. The differences in Ci is at almost every sample, was there a real change is the air CO2? MORE ACCLIMATION TIME IS TO BE GIVEN TO THE PLANT AFTER CO2 changes in the air. The Ci parameter has to be constant and only then the sample to be taken. There are more than 20 samples of every plant and the concentration of CO2 was changed between 50 and ~800 (UNMENTIONED AT ARTICLE) . Was the external CO2 changed at every point? Why there is more than one sampling at a single CO2 point? Acclimation times and CO2 concentration points were unmentioned at Materials and Methods. Growth results There was too few plants to conclude any conclusion. Conclusions are to be based on large number of plants and statistical T tests are to be performed. The growth in lower humidity (which is seen as higher photosynthesis measured at the external to leaf air) would have affected transpiration. Lower CO2 of the air is causing stomata aperture to grow, and thus the transpiration rate is HIGHER. The transgenic plants are more water DEMANDING, which is not positive to
  20. 21 agriculture. "The experiments were held 6 times", where are the results? Why the statistical data was not presented? 70% RH is wide and common humidity. Under many agricultural applications there is no advantage of the protein. WHY TO ADVANCE PARTIAL AND UNCLEAR SOLUTION which is not better at most cases? Conclusions 1. The better photosynthesis at lower humidity is not logical. There is more CO2 in the air. Better CO2 assimilation is of WT plants. The protein enhances CO2 transport only at higher CO2 concentrations. INCONSISTENCY. The transgenic plants do not grow better at lower co2 concentrations, but at higher ones. 2. The limiting CO2 concentrations are not real at earth. Normal air has no limitation of CO2 (~400ppm). No advantage of the protein. 3. NO EFFECT ON TRANSPIRATION WAS REPORTED, which is impossible. More photosynthesis, more stomata aperture, since stomata are triggered by CO2 concentration. 4. Higher transpiration rates are expected from transgenic plants due to higher photosynthesis. The transgenic plants are WATER DEMANDING. 1. The water use efficiency was NOT CALCULATED. 2. Experiments were based on SMALL NUMBER OF PLANTS. 3. NO STATISTICS WERE PRESENTED. CONCLUSIONS ARE IMPOSSIBLE BASED ON ONLY 4 TRANSGENIC AND 1 WT PLANT. TRANSGENIC PLANTS AS PRESENTED ARE MORE WATER DEMANDING AND GROW BETTER AT HIGHER CO2 CONCENTRATIONS (LOW HUMIDITY) The CO2 is the main stomata trigger. More photosynthesis, more transpiration.
  21. 21 Fig 1 Decoupling of photosynthesis and transpiration, after alterations of CO2 concentration, proves that there is no significant dependence of stomata and photosynthesis. The CO2 diffusion is fast and stomata limit mostly evaporation, while the photosynthesis is almost not affected by stomata change of conductance. L-Data vs "A putative HCO transporter in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 " 11/15/2012 11:54:34 AM CO2 CHANNELS ARE NOT NEEDED IN BACTERIA Bacteria have large surface area/volume ration, and thus there is no channels needed to conduct water or CO2. The mutant, which need more CO2 for proper photosynthesis rate, can be defected in any photosynthetic-related protein, not especially CO2 channels. If there are CO2 channels in bacteria, why to add a channel to a chloroplast?
  22. 22 The channels in bacteria would have forced small molecules such as H, H2O, CO2 And many more molecules to diffuse out of the bacterium. To cytoplasm wants to Remain UNIQUE and thus any channel force larger particle concentrations. EUKARYOTIC cells are large, with SMALLER surface area/ volume ratio, and thus Channels are necessary. A CHLOROPLAST IS A CYANOBACTERIA. CHANNELS ARE CONSISTENT. THE TERM "CCM" "CCM" CO2 concentrating mechanisms. It is impossible to concentrate CO2, ONLY to transport faster to the cell. The diffusion rate is related to Concentration of CO2 and to the speed of conduction of CO2 by the cell wall. There is no artificial concentrating mechanisms, only diffusion. THE PROTEIN MIGHT BE NOT A CHANNEL Since the "putative" protein is not necessarily a CO2 channel, which are not expected to be expressed in bacteria, expression in plant will not initiate any change. First the structure of the protein to BE crytallized and proved AS a CHANNEL, pipeous proteins are channels. THEN, the protein has to be proved to be positioned in the chloroplast membrane. ERROR IN FIGURE : "External Ci" concentration. External = CO2R. There is NO Ci in cyanobacteria. Ci is concentration of CO2 in the leaf.
  23. 23 The transporter does not influence the concentration, only rate of acclimation to the CO2 change surrounding the cell. The external concentration of CO2 is large (mmol) and the photosynthesis is slow (micromoles) and therefore, after change in external CO2, ACCLIMATION TO ALTERATIONS IN CO2 There is acclimation during which the inner cell concentration becomes as the external concentration of CO2. The uptake is slow, and during uptake, the cell concentration barely changes. The rate of diffusion of co2 is LARGE, therefore, the cell concentration is CONSTANT and similar to OUTER (IN CASE OF EQUAL OTHER SOLUTE CONCENTRATION). If the acclimation time after change in external CO2 is long, there should be no difference between the mutants and the wt. Since in the mutant there is already full steady state photosynthesis (starting at 15mM HCO3 or 6 mM CO2), the rate of diffusion is BEYOND the scope of the limitation of photosynthesis. The real limiting factor of the mutant relative to wt is SOME PROTEIN NEEDED FOR PHOTOSYNTHETIC REACTIONS. The diffusion of CO2 is already at saturation, and all the cytoplasm is with concentration of CO2 similar to the external. Since, the mutants need more CO2 and not only more acclimation, the mutants are impaired in photosynthesis Proteins expression. LESS PROTEINS, LESS PHOTOSYNTHESIS. HIGHER CO2 FOR SILIMAR PHOTOSYNTHESIS. TIME BETWEEN THE MEASUREMENTS(CHART 2) WHAT WAS THE TIME BETWEEN MEASUREMENTS(AFTER ALTERATIONS IN EXTERNAL CO2)? In CASE of the protein as a CO2 channel, more acclimation, would result in
  24. 24 similar PHOTOSYNTHESIS at similar [CO2]. At shorter times, there is still uneven [CO2] between The surroundings and the cytoplasm. More CO2 needed for faster diffusion and similar Photosynthesis. In case, time does not force any similarity of PHOTOSYNTHESIS of wt and the treatment, THE PROTEIN IS NOT A CHANNEL . "The protein encoded by ORF467 contains 10 putative transmembrane regions and is inner-membrane-located." WHERE IS THE PROOF? A PUTATIVE REGIONS WHICH ARE SIMILAR TO OTHER STUDIED PROTEINS ARE NOT TO BE CONSIDERED AS PROOF FOR PROTEIN FUNCTION. THE DATABASE ANALYSIS OF PROTEINS ARE MERELY A CLUE TO THE REAL PROTEIN FUNCTION AND NO CONCLUSIONS CAN BE CONCLUDED FROM ANY FORMAL SIMILARITY OF THE GENETIC CODE AND ANY KNOWN PROTEINS. THE MOTIFS ARE NOT PROOF BUT SPECULATIONS. REAL PROOF = CRYSTALLIZATION AND POSITIONING OF GFP FOLLOWINF MICROSCOPY. Channels/ carriers NO ACTIVE CO2 CHANNELS ARE EXPECTED. THE OUTER CO2 is mmoles, and the photosynthesis is micromoles. THEREFORE, the DIFFUSION IS NOT ACTIVE. The "channels" are pipes which enhance membrane transport. The pipes are unspecific. The size of molecule is the only limiting factor. Large Surface area/ volume of bacteria, lead to the unnecessary existence of any channels in bacteria. CONCLUSIONS
  25. 25 1. The protein might be not a channel. 2. If there are channels in bacteria, there are also channels is chloroplast. 3. NO PROOF FOR FUNCTION 4. NO "CONCENTRATING MECHANISMS" EXIST 5. ACCLIMATION BETWEEN MEASUREMENTS UNMENTIONED. 6. NO PROOF FOR POSITIONING The Ci parameter is WRONG 11/15/2012 12:21:54 PM Mathematical function is set of points to compare at Y axis at similar X. The Ci parameter includes the photosynthesis. WHY TO INCLUDE TO X THE Y axis of the CI CURVE? The Ci curve is comparison of PHOTOSYNTHESIS VALUES AT DIFFEARENT Ci, When Ci includes already photosynthesis, resulting change in X values to different values. The X of the compared points is not same. COMPARISON IS WRONG. The calculation of Ci is artificial (not measured) calculation of a parameter similar to the measured parameter CO2R (External CO2). The true parameter which should be set to X axis is CO2R. COwR is the manually or automatically changed parameter and as function of CO2R changes in photosynthesis and transpiration do happen in the plant leaf. The artificial parameter Ci, calculates some a value close to CO2R, and based on Transpiration/ photosynthesis ratio, leaf temperature, and pressure. The artificial CO2 concentration is similar to CO2R, but less usually. The ERROR of Ci is that the CO2 concentration of the leaf is not related to STOMATA APERTURE. The diffusion of CO2 is barely limited by stomata. The only limitation of stomata is on transpiration. Therefore, the Ci is artificial and wrong. See "DECOUPLING OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND TRANSPIRATION AFTER ALTERATIONS
  26. 26 IN EXTERNAL CO2". ORANGE: IRRADIATION PURPLE: CO2 CONCENTRATION OF AIR GREEN: PHOTOSYNTHESIS BLUE: TRANSPIRATION Figure 1: DECOUPLING OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND TRANSPIRATION AFTER CHANGES IN CO2(Chart from Leonid Asipov MSc THESIS). The transpiration changes during a long time of 30 minutes or more after the change in CO2. Photosynthesis changes almost instantly(30 seconds), During the change in the transpiration rate, the photosynthesis does not change. During the period of change of the transpiration, Stomata change the aperture, process which does not affect the photosynthesis rate. The conclusion is that stomata mainly affect the transpiration rate due to differences in concentration between the leaf the air and slower speed of water diffusion (MORE LIQUID THAN CO2). CO2 diffusion is fast and almost not limited by stomata.
  27. 27 The BEST parameter is the real parameter CO2R, presented with Transpiration or Photosynthesis on separate curves. Ci unclear results : no conclusions EXTERNAL CO2 VS PHOTO
  28. 28 EXTERNAL CO2 VS TRANSPIRATION CONCLUSION : TRANSIRATION IS THE CAUSE FOR CHANGE OF CI , NOT PHOTO. .
  29. 29 L-Data vs "CO2 Concentrating Mechanisms in Algae: Mechanisms, Environmental" 11/15/2012 12:01:42 PM CCM mechanisms are not likely. CO2 is high concentration in the air, relative to plant. Artificially to elevate concentration is an impossible mission with an inefficient nature. Why to artificially elevate the concentration of CO2 in the chloroplast? The chloroplast's nature sugar consumption produces more CO2, thus elevating the CO2 concentration near the chloroplast. The discussed CO2 may be the reason scientists thought that the chloroplast possesses CO2 concentrating mechanisms. The nature works with diffusion. It is impossible to artificially change concentrations opposite to the substance concentrations. Water, salt, CO2, sugar, all substances diffuse naturally in the plant and the plant adapts to certain concentration of the substances. The citrated work does not prove existence of CCM, but states the CCM may exist. The science does not like science fiction. CO2 channeling. Channels are proteins which conduct particles according to the concentration gradient. The PIPES, are normal protein pipes. There are no transporters but PASSIVE, with GRADIENT. ENERGY IS MOVEMENT. MATTER DISSOLVING TO SMALLER PARTICLES ENLARGES HEAT CONDUCTANCE. CHAOS. THE MATTER IS STRUCTURE. THE CELLS CANNOT ENLARGE THE REACTIVITY( BY DISSIPATION OF SUGARS) AND EXPECT TRANSPORT OF SUBSTANCES AGAINST THE CONCENTRATION GRADIENT. THE DIFFUSION OF ONE SUBSTANCE IS BARELY RELATED TO THE OTHER. THE DIFFUSION IS RANDOM. THE DEPENDENCE IS ONLY AT HIGH CONCENTRATIONS, WHEN THE VOLUME IS A LIMITING FACTOR. THUS, NO ACTIVE TRANSPORTERS EXIST. REGULAR DIFFUSION ONLY. THE PLANT IS BUILDING THE ORAGNIZM WITH PARTICLES SUCH AS SUGAR, PROTEIN OR FAT, NO "ENERGY" EXIST
  30. 31 IN MATTER. SOME REACTIVITY (HIGH HEAT CONDUCTANCE DUE TO SMALL PARTICLES) IS NEEDED FOR DISSIPATION OF SUBSTRATE FROM ENZYME OR TEMPORARY LIFE OF BIO SUBSTANCES, WHICH IS VITAL FOR NEW CELL REBUILDING. L-Data vs: Development of synchronized, autonomous, and self-regulated oscillations in plant 11/14/2012 6:27:04 PM P.S I was a student of the publishers and the data abundant. Please consider the papers I enclose scientifically. SUMMARY NO SHORT TERM OSCILLATIONS OF PLANT TRASPIRATION EXISTENT. THE MEASUREMENT EFFECT IS DUE TO MEASUREMENT INACCURACY Flaws in the reported article. 1. SIMILAR OSCILLATIONS WITHOUT IMPORTANCE DAY/DARK 2. NO SHORT TERM OSCILLATIONS AT GAS EXCHANGE MEASUREMENT 3. OSCILLATIONS ARE SMALLER THAN THE NORMAL INACUURACY OF A ELECTRONIC SCALE: +- 2 grams (ACCORDING TO PRODUCER) Data from Tedea-Vishay 1040 C3 transducer. Total error : 0.02% of rated output. 0.02% of 5000 grams (average plant) is +- 1 gram. The total error of course is measured in ideal conditions of humidity, noise, temperature and wind. Normal experimental conditions of course Elevates the noise. THE NOISE OF WEIGHT SCALE IS AT LEAST +-1 gram.
  31. 31 Actual noise: +- 2 grams. 1. Inability to differentiate between oscillations due to fluctuation in light, temperature, humidity and water availability and the reported "spontaneous" oscillations. The reported experiments were held in a greenhouse with fluctuating irradiation parameter. The claim for "spontaneous" transpiration oscillations is impossible due to unstable environment. The control is a wet blanket positioned on a similar scale weight. The short term fluctuations of the control is without any significant correlation to plants, suggesting the short term fluctuations are not related to temperature or irradiation, but another sensor of transpiration (gas exchange of a single leaf) suggests the total absence of oscillations on basis of short term periods of less than 5 minutes. Since the temperature or light was not measured by any other sensor than the scale, an artifact can be speculated. The control should have been additional sensor such as light, temperature or humidity simultaneous to the weight measurement. The absence of a proper control to the experiment suggests improper scientific approach basing on a single device. The electronic scale has certain accuracy. The minimal accuracy stands for 0.3 % from the weight, and about +- 2 grams. The size of the reported oscillations is about +- 1 gram. Less than minimal accuracy, suggesting the short term oscillations are noise. 2. The weight measurement should have been held in controlled environment, to avoid any fluctuations of li8ght as effect on transpiration. Since the experiment was held in unstable light, the oscillations may be due to external irradiation fluctuations… The experimental setup Fig 1A: Whole plant on a weight scale for continuous transpiration measurement. Readings every 10 seconds, average to 3 minutes.
  32. 32 Fig 1B: Gas-exchange measurement of a single leaf. Points are measured every 2 minutes. The size of the oscillations is similar to normal measurement noise
  33. 33 Fig2: Weight scale measurement of a whole plant. Inaccuracies unseen since the total weight of the plant is much larger than the noise. Fig 3: Small noises are seen after differentiation since the transpiration value
  34. 34 between each point and the following point is only ~10 grams. The noise is 0.3% of total plant weight (about +-2 grams). Noise is 20% of measured value. Significance of results exists when value of transpiration is much larger than noise. On scale of 30 minutes the extent of the noise is 2.5%. After averaging on the range of 30 minutes, the oscillations are correlated with the irradiation levels (Fig 6). PAPER 1: DATA FROM MSC THESIS ACCEPTED BY THE CAMPUS OF REHOVOT. Simultaneous measurement of Gas-Exchange and Scales. Additional sensor. The scale is only one sensor. Artifact regarding the scale itself is to consider. The control of the scale is transpiration measured by gas-exchange method. The oscillations are expected to be larger, since a single leaf is less synchronized than the whole plant. The more stomata is measured, the less oscillations are expected, since the oscillations of single stomata is averaged by the experiment. The whole plant transpiration can be considered as NON oscillating PARAMETER. Experiment Setup 1. Load Cell A whole tomato plant is positioned on a load cell in a water container. The rate of transpiration is calculated from weight loss of the plant and the container. 2.Gas-exchange The rate of transpiration of the same plant is simultaneously measured using gas exchange method on a single leaf in the upper part of the plant. The experiment was made on a well watered plant during a whole day in natural light. Results
  35. 35 Fig 4: Simultaneous measurement of transpiration using load cell and gas exchange methods. Conclusions The oscillations are the similar size during the night and the day periods. The forecast is that during high transpiration period, the oscillations are supposed to be higher. However the oscillations, are not different. The fact that the oscillations are abundant during the night suggests that the oscillations are due to measurement artifact, which is basically inaccuracy of the weight scale. The accuracy is 0.3 % which is about +- 2 grams. The reported short term oscillations are about the same size, ~+-1 gram. The lack of any oscillations during the night period observed in gas-exchange measurement, suggests that the oscillations are an artifact related to the electronic scale. During the day period, there are long-term light-correlated oscillations seen also in gas-exchange experiment.
  36. 36 The fact that the experiment was held in natural light, adds uncertainty to the experiment. There is a degree of oscillations related to light fluctuations. The scale weight oscillations are hardly differentiated from light oscillations, however, the nocturnal oscillation of the weight suggests that the oscillations are an artifact. The better experiment is to measure in controlled environment, with constant light levels. The oscillations of a single leaf are expected to be larger than the oscillations of a whole plant. Light-Driven oscillations affect more higher leaves. The whole plant is less affected due to shading of leaves. The following chart consists of a smoothed (30 minutes moving average) weight scale experiment and a simultaneous gas exchange measurement. Chart 1: Simultaneous measurement of plant transpiration: Gas exchange – and scale. From Maters thesis Leonid Asipov, 2011. Fig 5:
  37. 37 1: Light (ORANGE) 2: Transpiration of a leaf(BLUE) 3. Transpiration of whole plant(DARK BLUE) Light: SUNLIGHT. LONG TERM FLACTUATIONS ARE CLEAR IN GAS EXCHANGE AND SCALES. Short term oscillations are random and night/day unspecific. Longer oscillations (0.5 hour) are related to fluctuations of irradiation levels. The pattern of the correlation is seen both in gas-exchange and scales experiment. Longer term oscillations are related to irradiation fluctuations. The short term oscillations seen on electronic scales measurement, are related to weight measurement inaccuracy. We would expect that oscillations in transpiration rate should be larger at daytime since transpiration is larger. The measured oscillations were found to be similar during DAY/NIGHT, suggesting the oscillations are not related to the transpiration rate but to spontaneous measurement noise. SHORT TERM OSCILLATIONS ARE ONLY SEEN AT ELECTRONIC SCALES MEASUREMENT OF A WHOLE PLANT. The significance of the measurement of the scales is when the transpiration is larger significantly than the measurement noise. The transpiration of 0.5 hour is 80 grams at maximum transpiration levels. The noise is 0.3 % which is about +- 2 grams. 2 grams is 2.5% of the measurement. The smaller the scale of consideration, the degree of noise is larger than the total transpiration during the period of time. The transpiration during 3 minutes is 8 grams. 2 grams of 8 is 25%. The extent of the spontaneous oscillations is large and the spontaneous noise on the scale of 3 minutes (the considered time scale of the reported article) is similar to the reported oscillations. Since the reported oscillations are similar to the spontaneous noise of the electronic scale, short time periods are not to be considered significant to the measurement. The measurement is considered to be significant when the extent of the transpiration is significantly larger than the noise. The time scale to
  38. 38 consider is larger than 0.5 hour. The total transpiration between the measurements is about 10 grams (3 minutes). The spontaneous inaccuracy is +-2 grams per measurement. 2 grams is about 20% of the measurement and is in the size of the reported oscillations. The weight is not to be considered on short time scale, when the total transpiration is not significantly larger than the spontaneous noise. The suggested time scale is not less than 0.5 hour, when the noise is about 2.5% of the total transpiration. The short term fluctuations are artifact. Fig 6: Measurements each 10 sec, averaged to 3 minutes. Y Axis: weight loss [grams/sec] X Axis: Time of day PURPLE: Transpiration without smoothing GREEN: Smoothing 13 points RED: Smoothing 25 points "The term" short term oscillations are related to fluctuations of transpiration on scale of less than 3 minutes. The short term oscillations are considered an artifact of the electronic scale. Transpiration and Photosynthesis measurement in controlled environment: stable transpiration parameter, changes due to CO2 changes in the air.
  39. 39 GAS EXCHANGE METHOD SHOW NO SHORT TERM OSCILLATIONS IN CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT 1. Gas-exchange measurement of photosynthesis and transpiration in controlled environment: no short term oscillations, transpiration responds to changes in CO2. Fig 7: 1: orange Light levels. 2. Purple CO2 Concentration 3. Green Photosynthesis 4. Blue Transpiration of a tomato plant is controlled room. Measured by gas-exchange method.
  40. 41 Fig 8: Gas-exchange measurement of photosynthesis and transpiration in controlled environment: no short term oscillations, transpiration responds to changes in CO2. Similar experiment Gas exchange method works on a single leaf. The speculated oscillations should have been larger since synchronization of oscillations is hard to imagine. Nevertheless, no short term oscillations in plant transpiration are evident in gas- exchange measurement of transpiration. CONCLUSION: THERE ARE NO SHORT TERM OSCILLATIONS IN PLANT TRANSPIRATION L-Data vs “The Role of Tobacco Aquaporin1 in Improving Water Use Efficiency, Hydraulic Conductivity, and Yield Production Under Salt Stress1” 11/15/2012 11:34:24 AM
  41. 41 Rationale: Expression of an additional aquaporin improves water transport of the plant. Improvement of the water transport elevates the transpiration levels. The photosynthesis levels might elevate a little, however the main effect of stomata are on transpiration. Fig 1: 1: light levels 2. CO2 concentration 3. Photosynthesis 4. Transpiration Gas exchange experiment in controlled environment. Tomato photosynthesis and Transpiration rates during changing CO2 concentrations. Result 1. Fast acclimation of photosynthesis to CO2 alterations and constant photosynthesis rate during the stomata aperture change. Conclusion
  42. 42 1. Stomata barely affect photosynthesis. 2. The negative effect of salt on photosynthesis is not result of stomata closure (which does not change the abundant CO2 concentration), but due to the direct effect of salt on the plant photosynthesizing enzymes. 3. Enhanced water transport may improve enzymatic rates ONLY at salt stress conditions. The more open stomata due to the expresses aquaporin, are supposed to enhance transpiration but not elevate photosynthesis at normal (NOT SALT) conditions, since stomata aperture is not related to the photosynthesis rate(Fig1). The reported WUE enhancement of the transgenic plants is absurd, Water use efficiency: Total dry plant to unit of water weight. Plant dry weight [kg] /WATER [kg] The transpiration rate is about 70 times faster (per mole water relative to mole CO2) than photosynthesis. In order to preserve constant WUE at elevation of 15% in transpiration levels, which is seen in the transgenic plants, Photosynthesis has to be elevated 10 times (1000%) 70 + 15% of 70 = 80 photosynthesis units. The molar weight of water is 19 and the assimilation of a single C atom is only 6 gram/mole. The O2 is returned back to the air and thus, at single molar measurement of photosynthesis and transpiration additional 300% of the elevation in transpiration rate to be added to the photosynthesis rate in order to preserve constant WUE. 70 + 15% of 70 + 3* 15% of 70 = number of photosynthesis units needed for CONSTANT WUE = 42 times more photosynthesis needed to preserve constant WUE at 15 % more transpiration. The duration of transpiration is the whole day, while the photosynthesis is abundant only at day time. Therefore the total daily transpiration of the transgenic plants is elevated MUCH more than the total photosynthesis.
  43. 43 The reports regarding the elevated WATER use efficiency of the transgenic plants are not logical. Every percent of elevation in transpiration levels is actually more than 3 times more water per unit of dry weight. The amount of CO2 molecules per single water is 70, meaning that elevation in transpiration is serious to WUE. For a single percent of added transpiration 300% of photosynthesis is needed to keep constant WUE, otherwise WUE declines. The cells which are full in water are larger in size, and thus the time CO2 diffuses is longer. The longer time of diffusion causes usually decline in photosynthesis rates in highly irrigated plants. The extent of photosynthesis addition of the transgenic plants is incomparable to the extent of used water. The improvement of 50% in photosynthesis is only in peak irradiation hours and salt stressed plants. To elevate WUE photosynthesis has to elevate 45 and not 2 times. NO ELEVATION IN WATER USE EFFICIENCY IS EVIDENT EVEN IN THE TOP LIGHT and SALT STRESS CONDITIONS, when the aquaporin is the most affecting the plant. During normal conditions the differences in photosynthesis are not large, however the difference in transpiration in steady on ~16% from wt. Note that the plant transpires all the day and not only at peak light hours. Inconsistency of the results measured by gas-exchange and whole plant scale measurement. Figure 3 presents larger transpiration rates to transgenic plants both at salt and normal irrigation. Figure 2 presents transpiration results of whole plant. The whole plant transpiration of transgenic plants is lower than WT. Aquaporins
  44. 44 improve water transport, and thus more transpiration is expected. HOW THE AUTHOR EXPLAINS THE INCONSISTENCY? WHY IS PHOTOSYTHESIS ON NORMAL IRRIGATION IS NOT PRESENTED? The effect of the aquaporin is significant only when there is water deficit. At normal irrigation, the photosynthesis levels of Transgenic and wt plants should not differ significantly. The reason of the aquaporin effect on photosynthesis is that the photosynthesis is reduced by high salt concentration during salt stress. Moreover, the transgenic plants transpire more water and thus get faster to drought stress. The addition of the aquaporin enhances water transport, which is positively affecting photosynthesis only at salt stress conditions, when the salt levels start to block enzymatic processes. CONSTANT LIGHT DURING THE GAS-EXCHANGE EXPERIMENT The light during the experiment was artificial and constant. The reason for high transpiration at noon hours is temperature not irradiation. Due to the artificial light, the photosynthesis was elevated during the whole measurement period (morning=>noon), which would have not been expected with natural light, which is at PEAK only few hours a day. When light is less intense, differences in photosynthesis rates are smaller. The LIGHT levels was 1200uE which is stronger intensity relative to real conditions. The light was TOO high in order to intensify the photosynthesis rates of plants and enhance the effect of the aquaporin on salt stress. LESS LIGHT would have declined the TOTAL photosynthesis and thus WUE would have been declined. TOO HIGH LIGHT is UNHONEST EXPERIMENT. The real light is lower, not only to the top leaves but to the rest of the plant. Most of the plant is at much lower light levels (~200uE). The differences in photosynthesis rates due to better water transport during salt stress would have declined to ~5-10 % at maximum relative to the reported 50%.
  45. 45 Note that the transpiration of the transgenic plants is elevated at all conditions to more than 15%. At real conditions, the light levels are much lower, regarding the fact that at morning and evening hours the light is very low intensity. However, transpiration levels are related to temperature and are not maximum, since the temperature of the air is related to the real irradiation. CONSTANT LIGHT DURING EXPERIMENT IS A FRAUD. THE TEMPERATURE OF THE AIR ALTERS TRANSPIRATION, BUT PHOTOSYNTHESIS IS KEPT MUCH MORE CONSTANT DUE TO CONSTANT LIGHT (NOT ENTIRELY CONSTANT DUE TO TEMERATURE WHICH INCREASES THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC REACTIONS AND DIFFUSION). THE PHOTOSYNTHESIS CURVE WAS NOT PRESENTED MOST POSSIBLY DUE TO CONSTANT LIGHT WHICH DOES NOT CORRELATE TO THE CHANGING TRANSPIRATION. NATURAL LIGHT DID NOT AFFECT PHOTOSYNTHESIS, ONLY TRANSPIRATION.
  46. 46 Fig 5: Typical irradiation levels in a greenhouse with natural light. UPPER LEAVES. Rest of the plant, LESS than the following. Average irradiation of morning: 450-500 uE, average irradiation of Noon : 750uE The reported experiment : constant 1200uE from morning to evening. The publisher enhances photosynthesis, which is enhanced by the aquaporin at SALT STRESS. At real light conditions there is less photosynthesis due to lower light levels. The transpiration levels, however are kept according to the air temperature and are influenced by the changing irradiation levels. The real light is HOT, and the artificial light is cold. 1200uE of SUNLIGHT would have elevated transpiration significantly. 1200uE of artificial light, is constant, from morning to noon and transpiration is related to air temperature affecting on the whole plant. The effect of irradiation on transpiration is reduced due to the cold artificial light of the measurement chamber. The researcher accents photosynthesis and tries to hide transpiration. In order to
  47. 47 report POSITIVE WUE of transgenic plants. HOWEVER TO IMPROVE WUE, photosynthesis has to rise by 45 times of the elevation of transpiration, during the whole day Period due to mass differences of water and Carbon and molar differences of transpiration and photosynthesis. The SALT STRESS EXPERIMENT Salt ACCUMULATION in plant force plants to grow BAD on water with high salinity. The more plants transpire, faster the accumulation of salt, and therefore the plants live shorter lives until the plant death. Growth and fruit count declines. The transgenic plants are more sensitive to salt on the longer run due to salt accumulation. The addition of salt during the experiment is not a good model for NATURAL field conditions. The fields which absorb too much salt for plant growth should be replaced with new soil. Drought stress is the real experiment to test new genetically engineered plants. The drought stress is predicted to be a failure for the transgenic plants carrying the aquaporin which causes more transpiration and thus the plants get stressed before the wt plants. Elevated transpiration of the transgenic plants DECLINE WUE causing drought sensitive plants or LARGER WATER DEMAND. The improvement of photosynthesis is ONLY at SALT STRESS CONDITIONS WHICH ARE NOT REAL. BETTER SOLUTION THAN GENETIC ENGINEERING IS REPLACING THE SOIL. Conclusions 1. WUE of the transgenic plants to decline since the differences in photosynthesis rates are not high enough relative to differences in transpiration. 2. The transpiration of the whole plant is inconsistent with transpiration of a single leaf (ERROR IN FIGURE?).
  48. 48 3. The effect of stomata aperture on photosynthesis is small. The effect of the aquaporin enhances the photosynthesis mainly at salt stress conditions, when enzymes has not optimal concentration of solutes. Better water transport elevate photosynthesis. The transpiration is mostly related to stomata aperture. The effect of the water on photosynthesis is not related to stomata, otherwise we would expect similar or smaller effect on photosynthesis. 4. The transgenic plants are salt stress sensitive due to salt accumulation. 5. The transgenic plants are drought stress sensitive due to higher transpiration rates. 6. The LIGHT levels during the gas-exchange experiment was constant, larger and colder than natural light. The fact enhances photosynthesis, while transpiration is reduced. SUNLIGHT is hot irradiation which enhances transpiration. The elevation of transpiration during the day is due to temperature changes in the greenhouse. The constant light is UNHONEST SCIENCE, since the air temperature was not kept constant (SEEN AS UNCONSTANT TRANSPIRATION LEVELS). The reason for the lack of photosynthesis after dehydration is lack of water for enzymes 30/12/2012 18:51:51 Transpiration and photosynthesis during three dehydration days. Note that day 2 is less water for plants and nevertheless there is more transpiration and same photosynthesis. The stomata close. Same photosynthesis : there is no relation of stomata and photosynthesis: enough water = same photosynthesis. Transpiration is higher due to higher leaf temperature and less water elevation by the roots thus less leaf cooing by transpiration...
  49. 49 WUE CANNOT GROW 10/9/2012 11:57:08 AM CRITICISM ON : "The role of tobacco aquaporin 1 in improving water-use efficiency, hydraulic conductivity and yield production under salt stresses. " WUE OF PLANTS EXRESSING AQUAPORIN CANNOT GROW. MORE WATER FOR TRANSPIRATION ALL THE TIME. PHOTOSYNTHESIS HAS TO DECLINE DUE TO MORE WATER IN CYTOPLASM. MOR DIFFUSION TIME. THE OPEN STOMATA ARE NOT SUPPOSED TO ENHANCE PHOTOSYNTHESIS DUE TO HIGH SPEED OF DIFFUSION OF CO2. NEVERTHELESS, THE PERIOD OF LIGHT IS SHORT AND THE TRANSPIRATION ELEVATION IS FOR LONG TIME. THE TOTAL WUE HAS TO DECLINE DUE TO TRANSPIRATION ELEVATION. THE RESULTS SUGGEST ELEVATION OF WUE but ONLY FOR A TOP LIGHT STRENGTH AND SHORT PERIOD (GAS EXCHANGE, ARTIFICIAL LIGHT AND TOP CO2 CONCENTRATIONS). L-Data vs "SYNERGISM OF LIGHT AND FUSICOCCIN ON STOMATAL OPENING"
  50. 51 11/15/2012 12:03:31 PM Stomatal opening in FC or KCI. How possible that higher concentration of KCL open the stomata and not closing? High concentration, water exits the stomata and the stomata closes. 2. Why to couple 2 effects: solute concentration and light? Light causes photosynthesis and thus decline in CO2 concentration. When CO2 concentration is below threshold of stomata opening, the stomata start to open. Solute concentration is effect unrelated to light. L-Data vs "Changes in the properties of reaction center II during the initial stages of photo inhibition as revealed by thermo luminescence measurements" 11/15/2012 11:56:53 AM Leaves of plants exposed to intense light accumulate more light particles. At lower temperatures than usual, the particles will be depleted off the plant tissue. The switch of the band from higher temperature to 15% is due to more light particles accumulated in the leaf. Phosphorus is the main matter accumulating light and producing phosphorylation. The concentration of phosphorus is the main factor of phosphorylation, as measured by TL system. The TL is mainly a phosphorus meter. Additional light absorbing substances are also existent. A regular spectrophotometer can usually replace TL. Photo inhibition is due to destruction of plant leaves by excessive irradiation. The cure: shading. CO2 not light is the trigger for leaf conductance to gases
  51. 51 1/9/2011 11:16:47 AM Introduction Changes in light levels or air CO2 concentration cause changes in leaf conductance to gases. I: Leaf conductance changes in response to changes in air CO2 concentration : the response happens in darkness or light. Conclusion The response ton changes in CO2 concentration is light independent. This suggests that CO2 is a trigger which inflicts on leaf conductance to gases. In light the effect is stronger due to photosynthesis, which lowers the CO2 concentration near and inside the leaf. II: Direct effect of light 1. High Light
  52. 52 2. Low light Conclusions The effect of light on leaf conductance (which we see as transpiration rate) after turnover from darkness is not immediate, and gets larger with lower light levels. During this response time, the COI2 levels in the leaf intercellular space gets below certain threshold after which an effect on transpiration is visible. In higher
  53. 53 light levels thr transpiration response time shortens significantly as intercellular CO2 threshold is reached quicker in faster photosynthesis levels. The fact that the effect of light on leaf conductance to gases (as seen in transpiration) is not immediate and related to the gradual reduction in the CO2 concentration in the intercellular space, in addition to light independent response of the leaf conductance to gases to changes in CO2 concentration in the air, suggests that CO2 is the primary trigger of the leaf conductance to gases, while light plays an indirect role as Photosynthesis inducer. Materials and Methods Data-Lightning universal platform for data analysis, L-Data. There is no main growth control in plant : transpiration is related to nutrient transport 8/28/2011 9:41:40 AM ‫של‬ ‫אין‬ )‫חלבונים‬ ,‫(פחמימות‬ ‫בנייה‬ ‫חומרי‬ ‫של‬ ‫מדפוזיה‬ ‫נובעת‬ ‫שרואים‬ ‫התופעה‬ .‫בצמח‬ ‫קודקודי‬ ‫טון‬ ‫טרנספירציה‬ ‫גם‬ ‫ולכן‬ ‫פוטוסינטזה‬ ‫שמבצעים‬ ‫בצמח‬ ‫לעלים‬ . ‫המים‬ ‫של‬ ‫הריכוזים‬ ‫מפל‬ ‫עם‬ ‫תמידית‬ ‫מים‬ ‫של‬ ‫זרימה‬ ‫יש‬ ‫טרנספירציה‬ ‫כשיש‬ . ‫מורידה‬ ‫טרנספירציה‬ ‫לעלה‬ ‫מים‬ ‫של‬ ‫זרימה‬ ‫יש‬ ‫ולכן‬ ‫המןמסים‬ ‫ריכוז‬ ‫את‬ . ‫לאט‬ ‫לאט‬ .‫לעלה‬ ‫מים‬ ‫של‬ ‫זרימה‬ ‫אין‬ ‫ולכן‬ ‫טרנספירציה‬ ‫ללא‬ ‫נמצאים‬ ‫פוטוסינטזה‬ ‫מבצעים‬ ‫שלא‬ ‫עלים‬ ‫מדי‬ ‫איטית‬ ‫הסוכרים‬ ‫ואספקת‬ ‫הסוכרים‬ ‫נגמרים‬ . ‫אספקה‬ ‫מהעדר‬ ‫נושרים‬ ‫בחושך‬ ‫ושנמצאים‬ ‫פוטוסינטזה‬ ‫ללא‬ ‫העלים‬ . ‫תאים‬ ‫של‬ ‫למוות‬ ‫גורמים‬ ‫סוכרים‬ ‫עודף‬ .‫סוכרים‬ ‫מעודף‬ ‫נובלים‬ ‫שנתיים‬ ‫חש‬ ‫צמחים‬ ‫מאוסמולריות‬ ‫מהתייבשות‬ ‫מת‬ ‫והצמח‬ ‫גבוהה‬ . ‫בעתיד‬ ‫משתלמת‬ ‫אבל‬ ‫אנרגטית‬ ‫השקעה‬ ‫שעולה‬ ‫וגדילה‬ ‫אנרגייה‬ ‫ייצירת‬ ‫הם‬ ‫צמח‬ ‫של‬ ‫חיים‬ ‫תחילת‬ . ‫מנת‬ ‫על‬ ‫מספיק‬ ‫מייצר‬ ‫לא‬ ‫עצמו‬ ‫העלה‬ ‫כי‬ ‫לגדילה‬ ‫אספקה‬ ‫מקבלים‬ ‫באור‬ ‫שנהנצאים‬ ‫וענפים‬ ‫עלים‬ ‫רק‬ ‫הצמח‬ ‫כל‬ ‫של‬ ‫משותפים‬ ‫ממשאבים‬ ‫הגדילה‬ ,‫לגדול‬ . ‫רי‬ ‫כשיש‬ ‫הפחמימות‬ ‫ריכוז‬ ‫את‬ ‫לווסת‬ ‫מנת‬ ‫על‬ ‫לגדול‬ ‫רוצים‬ ‫עלים‬ / ‫הענפים‬ ‫כל‬ ‫אנרגייה‬ ‫של‬ ‫גבוה‬ ‫כוז‬ . ‫האנרגייה‬ ‫את‬ ‫משקיע‬ ‫הצמח‬ .‫פירות‬ ‫גידול‬ ‫מתחיל‬ ,‫מסויים‬ ‫ריכוז‬ ‫מעל‬ ‫גדל‬ ‫הפחמימות‬ ‫שריכוז‬ ‫בשלב‬ ‫ולא‬ ‫קבוע‬ ‫ם‬ ‫מומסי‬ ‫ריכוז‬ ‫על‬ ‫לשמור‬ ‫מנצת‬ ‫על‬ ‫בפירות‬ ‫שפירות‬ ‫בסוף‬ .‫לסף‬ ‫מעבר‬ - ‫אפשרות‬ ‫אין‬ ‫גדולים‬ ‫האנרגייה‬ ‫וריכוז‬ ‫אנרגטית‬ ‫להשקעה‬ ‫לצמח‬ ‫אחרת‬ ‫המקסימלי‬ ‫לסף‬ ‫מעבר‬ ‫עולה‬ ‫בצמח‬
  54. 54 ‫הצמח‬ ‫והתיישבושת‬ ‫תאים‬ ‫של‬ ‫למוות‬ ‫שגורם‬ ‫מה‬ . ‫נוע‬ ‫הדבר‬ .‫הימוח‬ ‫אנרגיית‬ ‫את‬ ‫מקבלים‬ ‫העליונים‬ ‫והענפים‬ ‫שהעלים‬ ‫בכך‬ ‫מתבטא‬ ‫הקודקודי‬ ‫השלטון‬ ‫טרנספירציה‬ ‫ומבצעים‬ ‫באור‬ ‫המצאים‬ ‫שהם‬ ‫מכך‬ . ‫יק‬ ‫גורמת‬ ‫טרנספירציה‬ .‫לצימוח‬ ‫שטובים‬ ‫והחלבונים‬ ‫הסוכרים‬ ‫לאספקת‬ ‫ולכן‬ ‫המים‬ ‫בפוטנציאל‬ ‫רידה‬ ‫קודקודי‬ ‫שלטון‬ ‫של‬ ‫נוספת‬ ‫תופעה‬ - ‫אם‬ ‫הציד‬ ‫גידול‬ ‫ראשית‬ ‫מריסטמה‬ ‫להעדר‬ ‫קשורה‬ ‫התופעה‬ .‫קודקוד‬ ‫אין‬ - ‫מנוצלת‬ ‫האנרגייה‬ .‫צימוח‬ ‫אפשרות‬ ‫אין‬ ‫אחרות‬ ‫במריסטמות‬ . ‫טרנספירציה‬ ‫פחות‬ ‫צריך‬ ‫כך‬ ,‫אנרגייה‬ ‫יותר‬ ‫שיש‬ ‫ככל‬ ‫אספקה‬ ‫לקבלת‬ , ‫שעשיר‬ ‫צמח‬ ‫של‬ ‫במצב‬ ‫כך‬ ‫באנרגייה‬ - ‫הצידה‬ ‫גם‬ ‫היא‬ ‫הגדילה‬ . Cactuses create sugar during the day 9/8/2011 3:39:39 PM
  55. 55 Cactuses create sugars from CO2 and water. During the night, all the gas exchange takes place. The stomata open, the O2 from the day irradiation diffuses to the air and CO2 diffuses to the plant. The plant structure is low surface area/volume ratio and accumulates large amount of CO2 and O2. A the morning stomata close and irradiation start creating O, H and C from H2O and CO2. The O2 is accumulated in the plant leaves, and CO2 is the accumulated CO2. The sugar is enzymatically formed during the day, while the basic components are created. As soon as stomata are opened during the night, gas exchange takes place. CO2 diffuses to the plant, where CO2 concentration is low. O2 diffuses to the air. Without irradiation, the basic components are becoming back to CO2 and H2O. During the night only gas exchange takes place. There is no CO2 fixation : O2 concentration blocks photosynthesis by reverse CO2 formation
  56. 56 9/11/2011 6:54:38 PM There is no CO2 fixation. CO2 diffusion from the air brings CO2 to cells, then light break the two bonds of CO2 and leaves C in the cells. O2 is diffused back to air. The effect of O2 on photosynthesis is C returning back to O2 and CO2 reforming. On higher O2 concentrations, the reaction of C creation is reversed, and thus, no visible photosynthesis takes place (photosynthesis is measured by CO2 concentration change in time unit). The formation of C from CO2 is light driven, not enzyme driven. The next stage is enzymatic formation of sugar. Stomata don't affect photosynthesis 9/18/2011 9:59:52 AM Stomata aperture don't affect photosynthesis, only transpiration. Decoupling of photosynthesis and transpiration rate after CO2 changes, has to be explained. The difference of the effect is due to high water concentration difference between the plant and the air. CO2 concentration difference is not high, due to respiration of the plant. The stomata aperture mainly affect not photosynthesis.
  57. 57 CO2 Channels Have to Enlarge Transpiration 9/25/2011 4:19:05 PM CO2 channels have to enlarge transpiration. Any channel which conduct molecules with size larger than water, would conduct water. If Such channels exist, they would have to conduct water. Over expression of CO2 channels would enlarge transpiration. CO2 channels are static like every channel. Since no charge exist, the channels are only size limiting. Whether if they exist we don't know. An possibility is that water channels conduct CO2 also, they have a size larger than water molecule. The stated protein was said to lower transpiration. If the protein, as stated is a CO2 channel, transpiration would have to be elevated.
  58. 58 That is the reason for absence of any physiological effect of stated proteins on photosynthesis or transpiration. Human industry is nature's best friend 10/23/2011 11:04:39 AM Humans are friends of nature. Without humans, nature would have run off of CO2. Bacreria which create oil, take CO2 and create solid or liquid matter. CO2 is off circulation. Humans found oil, and coal and crated industry and engines, while returning CO2 back to atmosphere. With no humans nature would have disappeared, plants would have no CO2 to produce sugars and animals would have no food. CO2 circulation due to industry elevate crops and saves water. Humans and modern culture of industry is best friend of nature. No need for CO2 channel for chloroplast 1/18/2012 9:19:29 AM
  59. 59 L-Data vs Rapid assessing of water and nitrogen status in wheat flag leaves. NOT N, possibly only water is reason for difference in weight of wheat 10/10/2012 3:00:42 PM "Near pipes there is more water and N. Weight of wheat is higher. The authors wrote N is causing the weight. WHY NOT IRRIGATION? TRAIT OF WEIGHT ON FIELD PIPE.AND Physics Light Speed is not Constant Light speed is not constant. Light particles have mass, and like everything with mass
  60. 61 are subject to gravity interactions with other masses. The light particles are emitted from the sun in process of thermonuclear processes and have high speed and high energy (much higher than visible light). In the process of light travel in space there is constant gravitational force of the sun on the light particles, which slow down and with their arrival to earth they are less energetic and mostly in visible light spectrum. The light rays are not straight too, due to mass effect by planets from the side during their travel in space. Relativity Theory Wrong 5/11/2011 7:12:57 PM Relativity theory wrong: Matter is not relative. Gravitational interactions between masses
  61. 61 exist without dependence of other factors. The only two natures exist in the world is mass (matter) and its movement. Relative phenomena is movement of masses. Speed is rate of change of position distance/per time = movement of mass relative to another mass. But not matter itself: it is not relative. ‫משוגע‬ ‫היה‬ ‫ידוע‬ ‫מדען‬ ‫יחסי‬ ‫אינו‬ ‫החומר‬ ‫תנוע‬ = ‫והאנרגייה‬ ‫חומר‬ ‫של‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מחומר‬ ‫תנועה‬ ‫ליצור‬ ‫ניתן‬ ‫כביכול‬ ‫שלפיה‬ ‫דבילית‬ ‫נוסחא‬ ‫כובת‬ ‫המדען‬ . ‫הידועה‬ ‫הנוסחא‬ = ‫בטלוויזיה‬ ‫שודר‬ ‫אפילו‬ ‫שלאחרונה‬ ‫דביליזם‬ . ‫לעבור‬ ‫צריך‬ ‫שחומר‬ ‫לכך‬ ‫נגרר‬ ‫יחסי‬ ‫שהכל‬ ‫התחלתית‬ ‫הכרזה‬ ‫על‬ ‫מגונן‬ ‫בעודו‬ ‫המדען‬ = ‫ותנועה‬ ‫חומר‬ .‫נפל‬ ‫המדען‬ ‫למעשה‬ .‫המדען‬ ‫נופל‬ ‫אחרת‬ ‫לתנועה‬ ‫שונים‬ ‫מושגים‬ ‫שני‬ . Matter does not have inner structure 5/16/2011 5:25:55 PM Matter does not have an inner structure: inner structure was historically to explain magnetic and electrostatic forces. No inner structure is better perspective: all the particles have affinity to one another. Electrostatic forces are due to the effect of elevation in gravitational force in smaller masses due to surface area/volume ratio. The smaller particles have higher affinity and thus electrostatic forces are created. Magnetic force is due to spontaneous exit of particles from the conductor. There is no minimum speed needed to fly to space 8/17/2011 1:54:32 PM ‫מהי‬ ‫שצריך‬ ‫טענו‬ ‫מדענים‬ ‫לאורביט‬ ‫מסה‬ ‫ליציאת‬ ‫מינימלית‬ ‫רות‬ ‫ה‬ . ‫דלק‬ ‫מספיק‬ ‫שיש‬ ‫בתנאי‬ ‫איטית‬ ‫במהירות‬ ‫אפילו‬ ,‫הארץ‬ ‫כדור‬ ‫של‬ ‫המשיכה‬ ‫מכוח‬ ‫לצאת‬ ‫ניתן‬ . ‫הדלק‬ ‫תצרוכות‬ ‫עולים‬ ‫ולכן‬ ‫המשיכה‬ ‫כוח‬ ‫מול‬ ‫להחזיק‬ ‫זמן‬ ‫יותר‬ ‫בהרבה‬ ‫צורך‬ ‫יש‬ ‫איטית‬ ‫במהירות‬ ‫הרבה‬ ‫ששוקל‬ . ,‫קל‬ ‫דלק‬ ‫עם‬ ‫מנוע‬ ‫ויש‬ ‫במידה‬ ‫מהירות‬ ‫בכל‬ ‫לחלל‬ ‫לטוס‬ ‫ניתן‬ . ‫לכדור‬ ‫המסה‬ ‫של‬ ‫לחזרה‬ ‫תגרום‬ ‫מספיקה‬ ‫לא‬ ‫מהירות‬ .‫הארץ‬ ‫לכדור‬ ‫במשיק‬ ‫מהירות‬ ‫דורשת‬ ‫אורביטה‬ ‫הארץ‬ ,
  62. 62 ‫הגורם‬ .‫נדרשת‬ ‫מינימלית‬ ‫מהירות‬ ‫ואין‬ ,‫המשיכה‬ ‫מכוח‬ ‫ולצאת‬ ‫לחלל‬ ‫לטוס‬ ‫ניתן‬ ‫מהירות‬ ‫בכל‬ ‫אבל‬ ‫דלק‬ ‫הוא‬ ‫המגביל‬ ‫בצורה‬ ‫הסבירות‬ ‫לא‬ ‫המדענים‬ ‫וכך‬ ‫המהירת‬ ‫לא‬ ‫של‬ ‫המשיכה‬ ‫מכוח‬ ‫יציאה‬ ‫של‬ ‫ט‬ ‫הקונצפ‬ ‫את‬ ‫נכונה‬ ‫הארץ‬ ‫כדור‬ . Gravitational force is related to Surface Area/Mass ratio 8/21/2011 2:34:33 PM Gravitation of small particles Gravitational force has direct relation with mass surface area/volume proportion. Force create acceleration, which is directly related to mass. The surface area is the area on which a collision with the gravitation particle can happen. Thus the relation of the gravitation force has to be F= SurfaceArea/Mass. Smaller masses have relatively higher gravitational effect but only on collision with gravitation particles. Without collision, they travel farther,
  63. 63 due to lower collision chance. Irradiation consists of large amount of particles and thus many of them travel without any collision. The more surface area a mass has, the more chance is to collide with the gravitation particle. And thus, larger masses have larger visible effect of gravitation. High speed of particles with large mass can make collision with gravitation particles not to be in high effect. If masses relatively larger than a single gravitation particle are considered, the frequency of collisions with the gravitation particle is higher to mass unit in masses with high surface area/ mass ratio relative to masses with lower surface area/mass ratio. Smaller masses have higher gravitational forces with proportion to the mass. This is correct to relatively large particles, such as atoms. Smaller particles such as photons, electrons have lower chance for collision with gravitation particles and therefore the effect of gravitation is less than for larger particles. This is seen is large distance travel of photons, and wire skipping of electrons following electric force. The particles are not of right form. Sand, salt and any other materials 8/23/2011 12:52:48 PM The particles are not of right form. Sand, salt and any other materials under the microscope show differences in particle size, form and generally without proper form. We speculate that the phenomena is also on microscopic level of atoms. They vary in size, mass, their properties are due to differential concentration and therefore hardness which is related to the time the matter was concentrating by the gravitational forces. The world is not consisting of even size or right form particles. All the particles are different, and the distances between them are various. The gravitational force concentrate the particles and gradually change
  64. 64 their form until gaps disappear. There is no possibility of creating ideal space 8/28/2011 10:05:49 AM There is no possibility of creating ideal space. Every space is particle collection. To create space, a flow of smaller particles is sent through an area with larger particles. The smaller particles are pushing the larger ones off an are but themselves are spread in the area. During the whole time of the flow of the small particles some particles flow in opposite direction.
  65. 65 Classical energy equation is wrong : energy is speed/mass 9/11/2011 6:46:20 PM Energy is speed/mass, not the usual equation. All there is is movement to mass. The classic equations are wrong. In mechanical system, movement/mass is constant. Masses transfer movement/mass to each other at collision. Since all there is is matter and speed, speed/mass is the only possible energy parameter.
  66. 66 The parameter which change matter properties is mass/volume, matter concentration. Movement of masses is enough to explain all physical or chemical phenomena 8/21/2011 12:53:25 PM There is two natures in the universe: mass, which is matter, and it's movement, which is speed. On micro level small particles of matter, without any further structure construct all the universe we see, including light, air, water, hard material or magnetic fields. The nature of forces: Gravitational force
  67. 67 The nature of forces between the particles is constant flux of tiny particles from many directions on every mass. The collision of small particles and the other masses create the gravitational force on every mass. Small or big masses are affected by the gravitational particle flux. A field is a cloud of particles moving in certain speed. In the area of the field masses are affected by collisions of the particles of the field. Gravitational particles create gravitational field. The force is not related directly with the masses, it is caused by flux of tiny particles from the outer side of the masses. Magnetic Fields. The nature of magnetic fields is flux of electrons from the wire. Some electrons exit the wire from the side, the gravitation force affect the particle from the side until the direction is around the wire.
  68. 68 The magnetic force is created by collision of electrons with the mass affected by the force. Activation energy: chemical bonds, Temperature, Exothermic and Endothermic reactions The effect of temperature is related to frequency and power of collisions of particles on a surface. Chemical reactions require energy which is minimal speed of particles needed for proper collision and chemical bond creation. Less than the minimum speed won't stand against the gravitational force and the back flow of gravitation particles from every atom. Proper collision partially disrupt the structure of the atoms creating tiny particle cloud around the area of the collision. The gravitation particle flux concentrate the cloud until creation of strong area which is called chemical bond. On collision, the two particles lose speed and therefore the reaction causes a temperature decline, due to reduction of the frequency of collision of the particles on the surroundings. Exothermic reaction is reaction with elevates the temperature
  69. 69 of the surroundings. This kind of reaction is disruption of chemical bonds. The activation energy needed for exothermic reaction is movement of other particles which have to collide with the bigger molecule until disruption of the chemical bond. On disruption of the chemical bond, smaller masses are created, which hit the surroundings with higher frequency. The higher frequency cause temperature elevation, or better conduction of kinetic energy from the atoms of the reaction to the surroundings. Atomic Bomb There is no ideological difference between the atomic bomb and a regular fire. In fire a molecule of some fuel is disassembled to atoms and the atoms collide with the bigger molecule. The collision create high speed movement of the small masses as well as evaporation of the matter. The high temperature is due to the high speed movement of the particles. Atomic bomb is the same process on the level of the atom. Uranuim atom is being partially destructed by a regular explosive. The tiny particles created collide with the big atoms and travel on
  70. 71 high speed to every direction. The particles create high temperature on collision with other masses. Hydrogen Bomb Hydrogen bomb is high speed movement of tiny particles created by collision between two hydrogen atoms. The collision is caused with collision of tiny particles created by an atomic bomb explosion. The two hydrogen atoms collide and some of the particles of the atom are released and collide with the bigger atoms. On collision the tiny particles gain high speed. The tiny particles travel on large distances because they are not collided with the gravitational particles. They create high temperatures on collision with other matter.
  71. 71 Electrical force, structure of metals Metals are constructed of atoms which are connected to each other. The connection is uniform. Between the atoms of the metal small ducts are created, in those ducts, electrons can travel from the high concentration to the low concentration, creating the possibility of electric power usage in their way. The electrons as well heat the wire by random collisions. Some of the electrons skip from the wire to the side, creating the magnetic field.
  72. 72 Gases, Liquids and Solids The difference is in matter concentration. Gases are consisted of small particles with large distances travelling on high speed. The particles can be rearranged closer to each other by speed reduction or in other words, temperature reduction. As soon as they are close, the gas is solid. The particles of the gas are still to as concentrated as solids. Solids consist of small particles which are very close to each other and thus the gravitational force is affecting from all sides and keep the concentration of the mass to maximum strength. The strength of matter is a sole result of closeness of the particles to each other and the phenomena is seen in metals. It is enough to press two pieces of metal to each other with strength if the surface is very straight. The two pieces are connected strongly and act like connected material. Since the atoms are with no right form (malformed structure) , it takes time to create solid matter, since gravitational particles collisions create the effect of matter solidification which is concentration of matter particles. The structure of the particles is slightly rearranged and the spaces between the particles disappear. As soon as this happed, the matter becomes strong. Spaces between the matter particles make weaker matter. Gases are matter with large spaces, liquids with smaller, solids with even smaller. The smaller distances between the particles of the solid, the stronger is the solid. Elevation of the speed of the particles can make deconcentration of matter, liquidation , or evaporation. Reduction of speed create more solid matter. The concentration of matter is made by gravitation particles constant flux on every mass.
  73. 73 Electromagnetic fields Electromagnetic field is a cloud of small particles travelling usually in high speeds. Light particles travel in high speed and affect other masses in the area of their travel. Conclusions The matter consists of tiny particles lacking any further structure. The matter properties such as strength or matter state (liquid, gas, solid) are a result of the distances between the matter particles. The gravitational forces gradually create concentrated matter and the matter structure becomes stronger. All the forces (gravitation, magnetic forces, electrical forces) are a result of collision of masses. Small masses which are gravitation particles collide with all the other masses on frequent level. These collisions create forces of affinity which lead to acceleration of the masses. Phenomenae such as atomic bomb, thermo nuclear bomb are a result of high speed collision of small or medium particles with Uranium/Hydrogen atoms. The result is partial dissipation of the atom to smaller particles which collide with the larger particle and thus travel in very high speed. The tiny particles travelling in high speed are Irradiation resulting from the reactions. The particles hit other matter, and create vibration / disruption of molecules, elevating the temperature. Regular combustion reaction is conceptually the same, with the difference that the particles are not that small and the dissipated matter is molecule and not atom. The resulting small particles are atoms, which similarly to the tiny particles created in Nuclear/Thermo nuclear reaction collide with larger particles and travel fast elevating temperature. During the dissipation of molecules, the solid matter becomes gaseous. Magnetic forces have the same nature of result of mass collisions. Electrons skip from the wire and due to wire deformation travel partially
  74. 74 sideways. The gravitational force affect the electrons to move mostly around the wire. Electrical forces are movement of electrons in ducts of the conductor. Since the only observation is that mass collision cause speed change of the two colliding particles can conceptually explain all the physical and chemical phenomenae we conclude that the only natures in the universe are matter and matter movement. Thermodynamics are false 3/2/2011 11:31:59 AM Thermodynamics are false. The degree of order cannot represent degree of energy. Energy is movement of matter. Out of order which is position of objects in space, we cannot gain any movement. We move to create order and this movement is energy waste which cannot be regained. ‫החשמל‬ ‫חליקי‬ ‫ע"י‬ ‫חום‬ ‫ופיזור‬ ‫גדולים‬ ‫מוליכים‬ ‫של‬ ‫אלסטיות‬ : ‫חשמל‬ 12/17/2012 11:26:49 AM ‫גוף‬ ‫או‬ ‫מנורה‬ .‫מכאנית‬ ‫לתנועה‬ ‫וגורמים‬ ‫המוליך‬ ‫על‬ ‫מתנגשים‬ ,‫החשמל‬ ‫של‬ ‫הקטנים‬ ‫החלקיקים‬ .‫ואלסטיות‬ ‫התייל‬ ‫של‬ ‫מתנועה‬ ‫אלא‬ ‫בעיקר‬ ‫מהחלקיקים‬ ‫לא‬ ‫החום‬ .‫אפשריות‬ ‫אפליקציות‬ ‫חימום‬ ‫נע‬ ‫התייל‬ ‫הקטנים‬ ‫החלקיקים‬ .‫מכאניות‬ ‫וויברציות‬ ‫קולות‬ ,‫האוויר‬ ‫טמפרטות‬ ‫בעקבות‬ ‫אלסטי‬ ‫באופןצ‬ ‫לצרכן‬ ‫האוויר‬ ‫חלקיקי‬ ‫משאר‬ ‫שתנועתי‬ ‫מהתייל‬ ‫חום‬ ‫הסעת‬ ‫מאפשרים‬ ‫וכך‬ ‫חום‬ ‫הולכת‬ ‫מעלים‬ ( ‫מנורה‬ ) . Light Speed Changes with collisions 1/15/2012 1:31:51 PM
  75. 75 The speed of light changes with other light beams. The light is flux of particles. Collisions change particle speed and thus light changes the speed. Flux of particles in space is from many points and thus the speed of light declines. The particles themselves are moving in different speed. The speed is seen as color in visible light. ‫נכון‬ ‫לא‬ ‫הזרם‬ ‫מושג‬ 2/21/2012 10:10:09 AM
  76. 76 RADIO WAVE DIFFERS SPEED NOT FREQUENCY 9/21/2012 11:12:50 AM Irradiation= PARTICLES WHICH MOVE AT SOME SPEED AT A FREQUENCY WHICH HOLDS THE SOUND INFO... SPEED=RADIO STATION. THE WIRE IS BUILT ON A CIRCULAR MAGNET WHICH DISTRACTS CERTAIN SPEED OF PARTICLES...A SINGLE SPEED IS COLLIDING TO THE WIRE AND TRAVELS TO THE TRANSISTOR, HEATING THE SILICONE, AND RESULTING Vibration OF LARGE ELECTRIC FREQUENCY =>SPEAKER!!!!!!!!! Light Speed is not uniform, WAVES WRONG... Leonid Asipov 11/7/2012 10:27:24 AM The property of color is related to the particle speed, and is function of
  77. 77 destructivity of the light flux. Destructivity is dissipation of speed to area. The larger the speed, the smaller the particle, the destructivity is large. Slower and larger particles are less destructive. The destructivity is barely rises with particle density because the collisions with the target are diffused to the whole area of the target. To a single unit of area (as large as a single light particle), only one light particle can cause deformation, which is read and interpreted by the biological organism as color. The strength of light is correlative to the light density, density of the particles. The frequency of the collisions with the target is correlated to the density of light. Measuring light: Measurement is a form of change in a measuring matter as a result of light flux. The changes in the matter are dependent on the matter properties (such as elasticity) as well as on the properties of the light flux. Temperature cause electrical flux and by the addition of a diode, the electrical flux is single directed and later is measured by addition of a magnet(after simple amplification). The measurement is of temperature of a measuring matter. Since matter has different heat flux properties such as different absorption of different light speeds, the temperature is a qualitative parameter to compare different light beams, and not to explain the properties of a single beam by itself. After the measurement the temperature is written as light intensity. The intensity changes according to the variation of the electricity which creates the artificial light or the nature sunlight. The sunlight is created by explosions in the sun, and thus the flux is of different density and particle speeds. Additional way to measure light is by sound measurement. The particles are hitting a small membrane which create electricity pulses. Tiny sensor (size of a light particle) will theoretically return the real single light particle amplitude (speed) and frequency (density of particles). The light "wave": wrong parameter of wrong science. The amplitude and phase are a way to track the real measurements and are not a physical phenomena. Assume we are measuring light by a small sensor with a size of a single light particle. The amplitude of a wave is correlated to the strength of the collision of the particle with the sensor. The frequency is
  78. 78 correlated to the density of particles. The real sensors are larger than a single light particle and thus many particles collide with sensor at a single time unit. Therefore, the amplitude is correlated to speed and density of the light. The frequency (phase of waves) is correlated to the change in intensity. Really, the waves are changes in light intensity and average particle speed. Constant light (constant density and average particle speed ) should return no waves at all. The result is a single temperature VALUE without waves. Electricity ERROR: Science fraud
  79. 79 11/29/2012 7:28:03 PM The - electrode of the battery should hold electrons, according to the science. However, the power is + electrode. Protons are not current. A simple connection is + to electric device and the second wire has to be - or ground. The current is from + to - . ELECTRONS ARE AT +!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! PIGMENT REFLECTION: ABSOBTION OF SPEED ... 8/5/2012 6:46:51 PM Pigment does not reflect a color : it absorbs all colors and the properties of the pigment reflect all particles to certain speed. The pigment does earn movement of light collisions. The movement elastic properties of the pigment cause most of the particles a reflection to a speed. A speed is related to visible color. ALL LIGHT IS CAUSING THE VIBRATION OF THE LEAF. ALMOST ALL LIGHT IS REFLECTED. Chemistry Periodic Table might be a falsie 5/19/2011 6:57:55 PM ‫כסטח‬ ‫הינה‬ ‫מחזורית‬ ‫טבלה‬ ‫גז‬ ‫של‬ ‫מולקולות‬ ‫בין‬ ‫שמרחק‬ ‫בהנחה‬ ‫קבוע‬ ‫גז‬ ‫נפח‬ ‫בעזרת‬ ‫נמדדה‬ ‫מולרית‬ ‫מסה‬ - ‫קבועות‬ ‫להי‬ ‫צפויים‬ ‫לא‬ ‫מרחקים‬ ‫ולכן‬ ‫מולקולות‬ ‫בין‬ ‫משיכה‬ ‫יש‬ ,‫אבל‬ ‫זהים‬ ‫ות‬ . ‫חומר‬ ‫לכל‬ ‫שונה‬ ‫חלקיקים‬ ‫מספר‬ ‫ימצאו‬ ‫גז‬ ‫של‬ ‫אחיד‬ ‫בנפח‬ ‫לכן‬ . ‫בטבלא‬ ‫מסויים‬ ‫למקום‬ ‫ומסה‬ ‫מטען‬ ‫מבחינת‬ ‫התאימו‬ ‫שלא‬ ‫לאטומים‬ ‫ברשימות‬ ‫נוספו‬ ‫נייטרונים‬ . ‫אטומי‬ ‫למספר‬ ‫בנוסף‬ ,‫המדידות‬ ‫תוצאות‬ ‫עם‬ ‫המולרית‬ ‫המסה‬ ‫מסתדרת‬ ‫הנייטרונים‬ ‫הוספת‬ ‫עם‬ ‫אחד‬ ‫בפרוטון‬ ‫תמיד‬ ‫שעולה‬ . ,‫למעשה‬ ‫מסה‬ ‫ומבחינת‬ , ‫בטבלא‬ ‫משכתוב‬ ‫אחר‬ ‫פרוטונים‬ ‫מספר‬ ‫של‬ ‫מצב‬ ‫להיות‬ ‫יכול‬ ,
  80. 81 ‫המספר‬ ‫באותו‬ ‫נייטרונים‬ ‫יש‬ . ‫פרוטונים‬ ‫של‬ ‫שונה‬ ‫מספר‬ ‫עם‬ ‫אך‬ ,‫מולרית‬ ‫במסה‬ ‫הזהים‬ ‫אטומים‬ ‫של‬ ‫מצבים‬ ‫גם‬ ‫ייתכנו‬ . ‫ע"י‬ ,‫מכוונת‬ ‫בצורה‬ ‫נוצרו‬ ‫המחזורים‬ .‫מדעי‬ ‫בטחון‬ ‫תחושת‬ ‫ליצירת‬ ‫נועד‬ ‫מחזורי‬ ‫סידור‬ ‫רישום‬ ‫יצירת‬ ‫להשלמת‬ ‫שנדרש‬ ‫מה‬ ‫פי‬ ‫על‬ ,‫נייטרונים‬ ‫השלמת‬ ‫עם‬ ,‫מסויים‬ ‫פרוטונים‬ ‫מספר‬ ‫על‬ ‫דומות‬ ‫תכונות‬ ‫עם‬ ‫חומרים‬ ‫העמודות‬ ‫האותן‬ ‫היו‬ ‫לא‬ ‫אחרת‬ .‫בטבלא‬ ‫המחזורים‬ . ‫שמדענים‬ ‫טענו‬ ‫ודתיים‬ .‫לדת‬ ‫מדע‬ ‫בין‬ ‫קשה‬ ‫מאבק‬ ‫היה‬ ,‫הטבלא‬ ‫כשנוצרה‬ ,‫היסטורית‬ ‫יצ‬ .‫להבנה‬ ‫ניתן‬ ‫ולא‬ ‫כאוטי‬ ‫העולם‬ ‫כי‬ ‫לכלום‬ ‫יגיעו‬ ‫לא‬ ‫ביתר‬ ‫הגיוני‬ ‫ידע‬ ‫ירת‬ , ,‫בטבלא‬ ‫שיוצר‬ ‫כפי‬ ‫נועדה‬ ‫כוחות‬ ‫של‬ ‫סודות‬ ‫לגלות‬ ‫מאמצים‬ ‫על‬ ‫לגהנום‬ ‫יגיעו‬ ‫שמדענים‬ ‫שאיימו‬ ‫דת‬ ‫אנשי‬ ‫כנגד‬ ‫כקונטרה‬ ‫גדולים‬ . ‫תחמון‬ ‫ע"י‬ ‫שהושגה‬ ,‫יתר‬ ‫הגיוניות‬ ‫של‬ ‫רוח‬ ‫עם‬ ‫עוצבה‬ ‫המחזורית‬ ‫הטבלא‬ . Periodic table wrong 4/16/2012 7:29:43 PM The periodic table mentions grams per mole Mole is incorrect due to neglection of collisions Between particles Smaller particles collide more and thus in give Volume there were expected less particles than In A mole of larger particles Grams or weight is wrong since the size causes Gravitation by flow blocking The larger is the molecule the more flow Is blocked The mass is relevant but the size is the main parameter Undense and large molecules are heavy Small and dense molecules are light Immersion or acceleration blocking of A standard
  81. 81 string is the precise parameter to Measure mass. Rust 4/16/2012 7:13:48 PM Rust is bulks of oxygen stuck to a metal The amount of gas particles to relative metal in gaseous State particle can be various and not precise The ordinary equation is not real there are no Distinct molecules but bulk of metal with gas particles Solids are large connected particle not Sole molecules Gas is sole particles of various size Properties of water molecule: hydrogen is light but concentrated 9/11/2011 6:42:20 PM The properties of water: gravitation of small particles. Gravitation affects differently on particles with different sizes. Small particles can be concentrated, but almost no gravitation effect because low chance to collision with gravitation particles. The effect is on weight of small particles which is very low. However, the mass might be high, and when the particles are connected with particle with large volume/mass ratio, the effect of small concentrated particles, is high molecule mass, which blocks effects of random collisions. There is high speed/mass needed to move such molecules and this effect leads to the matter to be liquid. Without the oxygen, which is large in volume/mass, hydrogen is light and hardly affected by gravitation. Hydrogen, however is concentrated and with bond to water, causes water molecule to become with large mass, and thus not easily moved. The effect of gravitation on water is through oxygen molecule, which is large volume/mass.
  82. 82 Hydrogen is small and concentrated: Reactivity 1/5/2012 2:36:09 PM Hydrogen is reactive. Small and light molecule would not be sufficient for any molecular damage for other molecules. The hydrogen is heavy and concentrated, but small. The small molecule has small surface area for bond with oxygen. The small bond is weak bond. The detached hydrogen is heavy and collisions with other molecules are serious structure deformators. The heaviness of hydrogen causes only two hydrogen particles to make oxygen liquid (seen as water). The gaseous state of hydrogen is due to smaller size relative to gravitation particles. water= 6H O1 2/7/2013 4:46:40 PM
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