1. UNIT 4. LAND RELIEF AND WATER
DISTRIBUTION IN THE WORLD
1. Land relief and water distribution in Spain.
2. Land relief and water distribution in Europe.
3. Land relief and water distribution in Africa.
4. Land relief and water distribution in America.
5. Land relief and water distribution in Asia.
6. Land relief and water distribution in Oceania
7. Land relief and water distribution in Antarctica.
2. 1. LAND RELIEF AND DISTRIBUTION OF
WATER IN SPAIN
• Spain is the forth largest country in Europe.
• Is the second highest country in Europe with an
average altitude of 660 m above sea level.
• Its territory includes:
Most of the Iberian Peninsula.
Islas Baleares and Islas Canarias.
Ceuta and Melilla.
Small archipelagos such as the Chafarinas Islands,
the Alhucemas Islands and Alborán Island.
5. THE MESETA CENTRAL
• Is the major landform on the Peninsula. The Meseta
slopes towards the west which is why the rivers that
cross it flow into the Atlantic Ocean.
• In the Meseta it is located the Sistema Central
mountain chain that includes the Gredos, Somisierra
and Guadarrama mountain ranges.
• The Sistema Central divides the Meseta into two
• Submeseta Norte, with an average altitude of 750
• Submeseta Sur, with an average altitude of 650
metres. The middle part of the Submeseta Sur is called
7. • The Meseta is surrounded by different mountain
chains. The major ones are:
– Montes de León: it has peaks over 2.000 metres, such
as El Teleno (2.188 m).
– Cordillera Cantábrica: in its central section are the
Picos de Europa, the area with the highest mountains,
including Torre Cerredo (2.648 m) and El Naranjo de
Bulnes (2.519 m).
– Sistema Ibérico. Its main mountain ranges are: Sierra
de la Demanda, Picos de Urbión, Sierra del Moncayo,
where it is located El Moncayo (2.313 m), Serranía de
Cuenca and Sierra de Albarracín
– Sierra Morena. It has Sierra de Aracena, Sierra de
Andújar and Parque Natural de Despeñaperros.
9. OTHER MOUNTAIN RANGES
• There are other mountain ranges which do not border the Meseta:
– Pyrenees. It is made up of two groups of mountains:
• The Axial Zone: is a group of high mountains, where the Aneto
(3.404 metres) it is located.
• The Pre-Pyrenees: is a group of low mountains.
– Macizo Galaico. It is made up of small mountains. The highest
mountain is Cabeza de Manzaneda (1.778 metres).
– Montes Vascos. It is made up of low mountains separated by deep
valleys. The highest mountain is Aitxuri (1.551 metres).
– Sistemas Beticos. It is made up of two mountain ranges:
• The Cordillera Subbético: Sierra de Cazorla, Sierra de Segura,
Sierra de Aitana y Sierra de Mariola.
• The Cordillera Penibética: Sierra Nevada, where Mulhacén (3.481
metres), the highest mountain on the Iberian Peninsula, is located.
– Cordillera Costero-Catalana. The highest mountain is Turó de l´Home
11. ISLAND RELIEF.
• Spain has two main groups of Islands:
– The Islas Baleares (located in the Mediterranean
Sea), made up of the islands of Mallorca (Sierra
Tramontana: Puig Mayor – 1.445 metres),
Menorca, Ibiza, Formentera and Cabrera.
– The Islas Canarias (located in the Atlantic Ocean),
made up of the islands of Lanzarote,
Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Tenerife (El Teide –
3.718 metres, the highest mountain in Spain),
Gomera, La Palma and El Hierro.
• Are vast flat areas surrounded by mountain
ranges and crossed by rivers. There are two
depressions on the Iberian Peninsula:
• Depresión del Ebro
• Depresión del Guadalquivir
14. THE COASTS OF SPAIN.
Spain has a very long coastline which is divided
into five sections:
• The Costa Cantábrica.
• The Costa Atlántica-Gallega.
• The Mediterranean coast.
• The Costa Atlantica-Andaluza.
• Islands Coasts.
26. 7. LAND RELIEF AND WATER DISTRIBUTION IN
Antarctica is located inside the
Antarctic Circle. As a result, almost its
entire surface is covered by ice.
This continent is made up of many
islands and a large continental mass
with the following important features:
•A large plateau.
•The Transantarctic Mountains
(Mount Vison, 5.140 metres).