2. WHAT IS EPISTEMOLOGY?
-The doctrine or study of knowledge is derived
from the Greek words episteme, which means
“knowledge” and suffix ology, which means the
"doctrine of," hence it is also known as the theory of
knowledge. A branch of philosophy that examines
theory, nature, and the foundations of knowing
3. 1. EMPIRICISM
-believing in or using methods
bared, experienced or
experimented rather than on
EXAMPLE: A farmer who
observes the effect of a
“Companion Planting” on a feild in
order to build evidence that it
appears to have some beneficial
TWO TYPES OF EPISTEMOLOGY:
- Is a theory based on the claim
that reason is the source of
knowledge, since through rational
thought alone we can plumb the
depths of numerical relations,
construct proofs, and deduce ever
more complex mathematical
WHAT IS KNOWLEDGE?
is a type of cognitive success. More specifically, it’s a familiarity, awareness, or
understanding of someone or something. Knowledge may include:
knowledge or “knowing
- acquiring knowledge
being said or heard from
- called procedural
TWO CATEGORIES OF KNOWLEDGE:
1. A PRIORI KNOWLEDGE
-knowledge prior to any
experience using only reason
Example: if you are inside a room
without windows and you heard the
continous drop of water outside, you
may have speculated that it is raining
therefor you say “its raining outside”.
2. A POSTERIORI KNOWLEDGE
- knowledge posterior to, or following
sense experience in addition to reason
Example: It often rains at baguio.
7. PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE
-practical knowledge is often called “know-how” because it is the ability to know how
to do something. This type of knowledge is implicit or unconscious and in fact the
very knowledge we use in a daily basis.
2 TYPES OF KNOWLEDGE:
EXAMPLE: we dont have to learn on how to walk down a flight of steps when we
know how to walk. Instead at an early age we developed the practical knowledge to
walk and unconciously retain this knowledge for the rest of our lives
PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE vs PROPOSITIONAL KNOWLEDGE
8. PROPOSITIONAL KNOWLEDGE is about how we construct knowledge in
epistemology or when we try to understand exactly what it is that we know.
knowledge of facts.
THREE CORE VALUES of PROPOSITIONAL KNOWLEDGE
-an acceptance that a statement is true or that something exist.
EXAMPLE: For one to accept the proposition that the sky is blue one must believe
that it is blue. if one cannot believe to the particular matter, one cannot have
knowledge about it.
.- ones beliefs are in accordance with reality or objective facts. If one cant acquire
true belief then one has no knowledge. However not all true beliefs constitute to
*according to Duncan Pritchard, we could simply have epistemic luck.
For instance you had high fever and shortness of breath for longer period of time,
you then speculated that you might have covid. Upon going for a check up, the
doctor cofirms your speculation. Hence you are right but it was simply a matter of
10. -why one has a good reason for holding their beliefs. Only true beliefs
arrived at in a right way can be considered real knowledge.
*JUSTIFIED TRUE BELIEF or JTB (EPISTEMIC JUSTIFICATION)
-philosophers of the 20th century believed that JTB is a fully accurate
nature of knowledge. Beliefs that are justified by concrete evidences.
However philosopher Edmond Gettier in his paper entitled “Is Justified
True Belief Knowledge?” he contradicted the essence of JTB. He argued
that luck can still play a role despite one having a justified true belief.
- internalists claim that a belief is entirely determined by the factors that are
relevantly internal to the believers perspective on things.
- Internalists maintained that knowledge requires justification and that the nature of
this justification is completely determined by a subject's internal state or reason.
- factors outside of just psychological ones, such as perception can be conditions
- Externalists maintained that the facts that determine a belief's justification include
external facts such as whether the belief is caused by the state of affairs that
makes it true.
INTERNALISM vs EXTERNALISM
- the theory that justification is a relation of mutual support among many beliefs that fit together
like a puzzle. Think of it as a spider web where each belief is a section of the web and its
strength of staying in tack depends on the strength of the surrounding areas of the web.
-certain beliefs can be based on other beliefs. An example is Aristotle deducting that Socrates
is a man. Theres logical real, states that all humans are mortal. Socrates is a human and
humans are mortal hence same goes for Socrates. However there is skepticism in
foundationalism. In fact, much of epistemological study throughout the century has been just to
address epistemological skepticism solely
*SKEPTICISM is an attitude of being sceptical or a tendency to be doubtful, either
generally or with regard to a specific object
COHERENTISM vs FOUNDATIONALISM