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Final ppt group ASHISH.pdf

  2. B.Tech Major Project Presentation on COVERING EARTH REGION USING SATELLITES AT GEOSYNCHRONOUS ORBIT By Puthalapattu Pavansai - O161671 Maddu Mamatha - O161696 Polaka Lakshmi Devi - O161590 Badugu Arjun Kumar - O161035 Varikuntla Priyanka - O161133 Turaka Ashish Preetham - O161685 Under the guidance of Mr. Koteswar Rao HOD, Department of EEE Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies – Ongole Andhra Pradesh 22nd April 2022
  4. WHAT IS GEOSYNCHRONOUS ??? ➢ A Geosynchronous orbit is a higher Earth orbit that allows satellites to match Earth's rotation located at 22,236 miles (35,786 kilometers) above Earth's equator. ➢ This position is a valuable spot for monitoring weather, communications and surveillance because the satellite orbits at the same speed that the Earth is turning, the satellite seems to stay in place over a single longitude, though it may drift north to south. ➢ Satellites are designed to orbit Earth in one of three basic orbits defined by their distance from the planet: Low Earth orbit, Medium Earth orbit or High Earth orbit. ➢ The higher a satellite is above Earth, the slower it moves. This is because of the effect of Earth's gravity; it pulls more strongly at satellites that are closer to its center than satellites that are farther away.
  5. WHY GEOSYNCHRONOUS ??? • What would be the advantage of placing a satellite in geosynchronous orbit? Answer: There are times when you would want to purposely place your satellite into an inclined, geosynchronous orbit, to provide better coverage at high latitudes. A geosynchronous satellite is a satellite in the geosynchronous orbit, with an orbital period which is same as the Earth's rotation period. Such satellite returns to the same position in the sky after each sidereal day(23 hours 56 minutes and 4.1 seconds), and over the course of a day traces out a path in the sky.
  6. HOW GEO SATELLITES CREATED?? • Covering earth region using satellites at geosynchronous orbit can be implemented by using the Systems Tool Kit Software(STK). • With STK, you can analyze the performance of complex systems with a focus on their operational environments. model systems inside a realistic and time-dynamic three- dimensional simulation that includes high-resolution terrain, imagery, RF environments, and much more.
  7. SYSTEMS TOOL KIT(STK) • Systems Tool Kit (STK) is an indispensable digital mission engineering application for the aerospace, defense, telecommunications, and other industries. it features an accurate, physics-based modeling environment to analyze platforms and payloads in a realistic mission context. • The STK interface is a standard GUI display with customizable toolbars and dockable maps and 3D graphic windows. All analysis can be done through mouse and keyboard interaction.
  8. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GEO AND GSO • The Geostationary orbit lies on the same plane as the equator, the geosynchronous satellites have a different inclination. • A Geostationary satellite is parked right on the equator. its orbit has 0 degrees of inclination at the proper altitude (22,300 miles). its ground track is just a dot on the map – it never moves! a geosynchronous satellite has an orbit that has a slight inclination – it is something other than 0 degrees. (eg: 8.5 degrees of inclination) it traces a ground track that looks like a figure 8. why? because with an inclination, your satellite’s orbit is going to travel above the equator, then below the equator, as the earth rotates.
  9. INCLINATION • Inclination:- The angle between orbital plane and earth's equatorial plane is known as Inclination. It is measured at the ascending node with direction being east to north. so, inclination defines the orientation of the orbit by considering the equator of earth as reference. • Place 3 satellites in geosynchronous orbit; one with an inclination of 2 degrees, another with an inclination of 5 degrees and the other with an inclination of 5 degrees, and also 120 degrees apart. Once that is complete, place a sensor on each satellite; cone angle of 8.6711 degrees.
  10. PROCEDURE • Our mission for scenario is to place three satellites at GEO. Place 3 satellites in geosynchronous orbit; one with an inclination of 2 degrees, another with an inclination of 5 degrees and the other with an inclination of 5 degrees, and also 120 degrees apart. Once that is complete, place a sensor on each satellite; cone angle of 8.6711 degrees. • We can use the orbit wizard to create satellites. Named our scenario “geo 10.” • The geosynchronous satellites should be opposite each other. -- Run your scenario. -- Go to the 2D map. Note that the geostationary satellites do not move at all! The geosynchronous satellites slowly trace a figure 8. – Go back to the 3d map. Note your field of view!
  11. -- Pause the scenario and create a sensor for each satellite. --Scenario should now look something like this. -- Run the scenario. --Look closely at the coverage each satellite provides. --The coverage for the geostationary satellites does not change. --Now look closely at the coverage for the geosynchronous satellites. What do we notice? --Now zoom in to the north pole and observe closely the coverage of the geosynchronous satellites. Make your 3D map view look something like this. -- Run the scenario with this view and watch the coverage provided. -- Pause the scenario. -- Change the inclination of the satellite you had at 10 degrees to 15 degrees. -- Run your scenario and observe the coverage.
  12. 3D MAP
  13. 2D MAP
  14. HOW MUCH DOES IT COST TO LAUNCH A GEOSYNCHRONOUS SATELLITE? • Geosynchronous orbit (GEO) is approximately 22,200 miles above sea level. The cost of launching a satellite varies depending on the satellite mass, the orbital altitude, and the orbital inclination of the final satellite orbit. • Launch costs range from approximately $5000 per kg to LEO to $30,000 per kg to GEO.
  16. ADVANTAGES OF GEO-SYNCHRONOUS ORBIT • As it is at greater height, it covers larger geographical area. hence only 3 satellites are required to cover the entire earth. • Satellites are visible for 24 hours continuously from single fixed location on the earth. • It is ideal for broadcasting and multi-point distribution applications. • Ground station tracking is not required as it is continuously visible from earth all the time from fixed location. • The position of the satellite is relative to earth antennas which does not need reorientation. • Less number of satellites are needed to cover the entire earth. total three satellites are sufficient for the job. • Almost there is no doppler shift and hence less complex receivers can be used for the satellite communication.
  17. APPLICATIONS OF GEO SYNCHRONOUS SATELLITE • Navigation and Tracking • Meteorology • Communication • Weather • It is best for meteorological applications because these satellites are positioned at a high altitude.
  18. DISADVANTAGES OF GEO-SYNCHRONOUS ORBIT • The signal requires considerable time to travel from earth to satellite and vice versa. The signal travel delay is about 120ms in one direction. The distance of 35786 km gives 120 ms latency with 3x108 m/sec speed of the signal. Hence it is not suitable for point to point applications requiring time critical applications such as real time voice, video etc. • Since geo orbit is located above the equator, it is difficult to broadcast near the polar region. • Due to longer transmission distance, the received signal is very weak. This requires better LNA (low noise amplifier) and also advanced signal processing algorithms in the satellite modem. This increases cost of the ground station equipments. • It provides poor coverage at higher latitude places usually greater than 77 degrees. • Poor spatial resolution in the polar regions (parallax).
  19. FUTURE SCOPE • The global satellite launch market has been valued at rs 36,000 crore and ISRO has a puny 0.6% share in it. • With cheaper launch options and higher geostationary transfer orbit, ISRO is all set to expand and take on bigger launch services providers.
  20. ANY QUERIES???