l.crane@lancaster.ac.uk          p.benachour@lancaster.ac.uk        p.coulton@lancaster.ac.uk                             ...
Project Background                                 A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context   ...
A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context                                                            ...
RSS Widget                                     Twitter Widget   A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Con...
•   (a) University colour coded    wireless LAN coverage•   (b) a more realistic visualisation    of access and distributi...
A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context                                                            ...
 Access to free Wifi network showed limitations. Support for existing distance learning models to increase engagement. ...
 Do locative context aware over ride temporal updates?      • Time is the usual variable for information retrieval freque...
Intrusion into students   personal domain                              Interests          A User Study of the Spatial and ...
Intrusion into                          Support for thestudents personal                      students organisation     do...
Support for theIntrusion into students                                          students organisation   personal domain   ...
Intrusion into                              Support for the students personal                          students organisati...
Time Based RSS Application                                  Location Based RSS Application             A User Study of the...
A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context                                                            ...
Point of Interest                    Temporal Response                               Spatial Response   Intrusion into stu...
Precedence of Context    • Exploring the order of precedence when using      contextual dimensions for mobile information ...
Defining Context     Schilit, Adams &                                                                                     ...
Dimensions of Context                                                      Identity     Relationship                      ...
Dimensions of Context                                               PhD Student      Doors, Micr                          ...
Description of Study           Survey 1                              Survey 2                                  Survey 3   ...
Results of First StudyLecture Theatre                              Not at All                                             ...
Results of Second StudyLearning Area                              Not at All                                              ...
Results of Third StudyStudent Accommodation Not at All                                                                    ...
Aggregated Results of Study    Not at All                  Not Very                        Somewhat                    Ext...
Overall Order of Precedence for Study            TIME                       ACTIVITY                                      ...
Future Directions and Developments• Integrate and investigate other dimensions of context into  mobile information deliver...
References            Crane, L., Benachour, P., and Coulton, P., “Dissemination of Learning Services: Using RSS for m-lea...
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A User Study of Spatial & Temporal Dimensions of Context to support Virtual Learning Environments

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The work which was submitted as a paper for MLearn2011 in Beijing. Investigating the differences between space & time in delivering information from the VLE.

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A User Study of Spatial & Temporal Dimensions of Context to support Virtual Learning Environments

  1. 1. l.crane@lancaster.ac.uk p.benachour@lancaster.ac.uk p.coulton@lancaster.ac.uk @laura_crane @benachou @mysticmobileA User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context to Support Virtual Learning Environments
  2. 2. Project Background    A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 1 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments
  3. 3. A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 2 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments
  4. 4. RSS Widget Twitter Widget A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 3 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments
  5. 5. • (a) University colour coded wireless LAN coverage• (b) a more realistic visualisation of access and distribution• (c) representation of the most popular routes used by students, this clearly show that access to mobile learning is limited and constrained by infrastructural boundaries A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 4 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments
  6. 6. A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 6 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments
  7. 7.  Access to free Wifi network showed limitations. Support for existing distance learning models to increase engagement. Overall positive results, but time of updates became a key discussion. Frequency of updates not imperative for students. A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 6 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments
  8. 8.  Do locative context aware over ride temporal updates? • Time is the usual variable for information retrieval frequency. • Popularity & penetration of location based services. • Relationship of Scheduled Based Services and Location Based Services* • Lack of context-aware computing integrated into Virtual Learning Environments.*J. Anhalt, A. Smailagic, D. P. Siewiorek, F. Gemperle, D. Salber, S. Weber, J. Beck, andJ. Jennings. Toward context-awarecomputing: Experiences and lessons. IEE Intelligent System, 3(16):38–46, May-June 2001. A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 7 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments
  9. 9. Intrusion into students personal domain Interests A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 8 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments
  10. 10. Intrusion into Support for thestudents personal students organisation domain of learning Interests A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 9 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments
  11. 11. Support for theIntrusion into students students organisation personal domain of learning InterestsPerceived helpfulness for receiving course information A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 26 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments
  12. 12. Intrusion into Support for the students personal students organisation domain of learning InterestsPerceived helpfulness Comfortableness for receiving course when using students information ambient information A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 11 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments
  13. 13. Time Based RSS Application Location Based RSS Application A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 12 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments
  14. 14. A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 13 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments
  15. 15. Point of Interest Temporal Response Spatial Response Intrusion into students “No, unless the movements are “No, unless the movements are collated and recorded for an recorded for other purposes. Always domain. alternative purpose.” the option of simply ignoring the message or turning off phone.” Support for the students “It did, but not schedule and routine “ I generally do the same routes changes on a daily basis, therefore the around campus, and visits the same organisation of learning. application must also understand places on a daily basis.” this.” Perceived helpfulness for “Still have to make a conscious “Yes, but ‘Exit Checkpoints’ on decision to read the updates. May be campus, when you hit a checkpoint itreceiving course information. useful, but overall the individual has could update before you go home.” the choice to read them or not.”Comfortableness when using “No – not at all. Only those who have “Level of interest, depends on usage something to hide.” by those who are running the students ambient systems. If this was the case I would information. be concerned.” A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 14 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments 12:34 PM
  16. 16. Precedence of Context • Exploring the order of precedence when using contextual dimensions for mobile information delivery • Time, Location, Activity, Identity & Relationships to n. • Students perspective on their own contexts. • “..We cannot enumerate which aspects of all situations are important, as this will change from situation to situation.”Dey, A. K. (2001). Understanding and using context. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing,Special issue on Situated Interaction and Ubiquitous Computing 5 (1). A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 15 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments12:34 PM
  17. 17. Defining Context Schilit, Adams & Zimmerman, Lorenz & Want (1994) Dey (2001) Opperman (2007) 1980 1994 1999 2001 .... ..... 2004 ...... 2007Barwise (1980) Schmidt, Beigl,& Lonsdale, Vavoula & Gellersen (1999) Sharples (2004) A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 16 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments 12:34 PM
  18. 18. Dimensions of Context Identity Relationship Location to n. Activity TimeZimmermann, A., Lorenz, A.,& Oppermann, R. (2007). An operational definition of context. In B. Kokinov (ed.),Sixth Internationaland Interdisciplinary Conference on Modelling and Using Context .pp. 558-571. A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 17 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments
  19. 19. Dimensions of Context PhD Student Doors, Micr Beijing ophone Presenting 12:34 PMZimmermann, A., Lorenz, A.,& Oppermann, R. (2007). An operational definition of context. In B. Kokinov (ed.),Sixth Internationaland Interdisciplinary Conference on Modelling and Using Context .pp. 558-571. A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 18 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments
  20. 20. Description of Study Survey 1 Survey 2 Survey 3 • Designated • Lecture Theatre • Student Study area on • Weekday Residences campus Morning • Evening • Lunchtime Results of Survey 1 Results of Survey 2 Results of Survey 312:34 PM A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 19 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments
  21. 21. Results of First StudyLecture Theatre Not at All Time Location Activity Extremely Not Very Identity Relationships Somewhat A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 21 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments
  22. 22. Results of Second StudyLearning Area Not at All Time Location Activity Extremely Not Very Identity Relationships Somewhat A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 22 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments 12:34 PM
  23. 23. Results of Third StudyStudent Accommodation Not at All Time Location Activity Extremely Not Very Identity Relationship Somewhat A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 22 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments 12:34 PM
  24. 24. Aggregated Results of Study Not at All Not Very Somewhat Extremely Time Location Activity Identity Relationships A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 23 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments 12:34 PM
  25. 25. Overall Order of Precedence for Study TIME ACTIVITY LOCATION ID RELATIONSHIPS A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 24 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments 12:34 PM
  26. 26. Future Directions and Developments• Integrate and investigate other dimensions of context into mobile information delivery. • Variation of Approximation’ and ‘changes of focus’.• Android Development A User Study of the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Context 25 of 26 to Support Virtual Learning Environments12:34 PM
  27. 27. References  Crane, L., Benachour, P., and Coulton, P., “Dissemination of Learning Services: Using RSS for m-learning”, in Proceeding of the IADIS International Conference for Mobile Learning 2010, Porto, Portugal, March 2026  Crane, L., Benachour, P., and Coulton, P., “A study of student engagement using RSS and Twitter for m- learning”, Submitted to the International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, September 2026.  Zimmermann, A., Lorenz, A., and Oppermann, R. (2007) An operational definition of context. In B. Kokinov (ed.),Sixth International and Interdisciplinary Conference on Modeling and Using Context – The Context 07, Denmark, 20–24 August 2007 (pp. 558-571). Berlin,Heidelberg: Springer.  Falk JH, Dierking LD (2002). Lessons without limits: how free-choice learning is transforming education. Institute for Learning Innovation.  Economides, A. A. (2008). Context-aware mobile learning. The Open Knowledge Society, A Computer Science and Information Systems Manifesto, First World Summit, WSKS 2008, Athens, Greece, September 24- 26, 2008. Proceedings. SPRINGER Communications in Computer and Information Science (CCIS) 19, pp. 213- 220.  Georgiadis, C.K., Mavridis, M., Manitsaris, A. (2005): Context based Humanized and Authorized Personalization in Mobile Commerce Applications. International Journal of Computing and Information Sciences, Vol. 3. No.2  J. Anhalt, A. Smailagic, D. P. Siewiorek, F. Gemperle, D. Salber, S. Weber, J. Beck, andJ. Jennings. Toward context-aware computing: Experiences and lessons. IEE Intelligent System, 3(16):38–46, May-June 2001.12:34 PM

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