Solvents can be defined as chemicals that are
capable of dissolving, suspending, or extracting
other substances, typically without causing
changes in the chemical nature of either the
solvent, or the materials being treated.
Industrial solvents are a chemical class that can
be found in many different applications.
They are used to remove solids, grease, and
other substances from materials. They have
also been used as cleaning agents for many
years. At the same time, they have also been
known to cause harm to humans and the
Solvents can be both organic and nonorganic.
When a solvent is organic, it contains carbon.
Halogens – fluorine, bromine, iodine-
respiratory tract irritants
alkaline materials – ammonia, calcium
hydroxide, calcium oxide, potassium
hydroxide, sodium carbonate etc. – corrosive
local action such as irritating to all mucous
membranes; nitrous oxide is a weak narcotic
trace metals – cadmium, chromium, copper,
lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, arsenic –
toxic and environmentally perssistant
Organic solvents are classified by their
chemical structure. There are three main types,
Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.
Alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, glycol ethers,
esters, and glycol ether esters.
Chlorinated and brominated hydrocarbons.
Halogenated hydrocarbons - methylchloride,
chloroform, carbon tetrachloride. Many of
them are used in dry cleaning or solvents.
Alcohols – methanol, ethanol, propanol etc. –
most notable toxic to the central nervous
Glycols and derivates – ethylene glycol are
used as antifreezeing agents.
An organic solvent and is an important industrial
solvent because of its low volatility towards air,
its ability to evaporate off when exposed to light,
it is also very cheap and widely used as a
It can be used as a solvent for many different
applications such as.
It terms of inertness, 1,2-Dichloroethane ( 1,2-
DCE) is one of the few low-viscosity solvents that
has been shown to be safe.
Colorless viscous liquid or powder, a new type of
high-efficiency and low-toxicity detergent
solubilizer conditioner. It is a powerful chemical
which can be used to dissolve metal, ceramic and
non-metallic materials through oxidation.
Sodium Xylenesulfonate is widely used in
chemical industry because of its high efficiency,
low toxicity and low cost. It can dissolve metal,
ceramic and non-metal materials like stainless
steel, ferrosilicon, brass materials etc., at room
temperature or below the temperature
Inhalation -This is the easiest way in which
solvents are harmful to you. Because they are
absorbed by your lungs and then into your
body, they can cause a number of respiratory
problems such as asthma. The most common
reason for inhalation is due to car exhaust
fumes and any work that requires you to
Many industrial sol vents leave your skin dry
and flaky, which can result in rashes, bumps
and burns. So if you’re working with chemical
solvents or paint thinner, you need to be
cautious about how much of the solvent is
applied on your skin.
Many industrial solvents can cause eye
problems; this mostly happens when they
evaporate on clothing or skin. If you’re using
solvent for cleaning or painting, you need to be
careful about how much solvent is applied on
your clothes and skin as well. Make sure to
wear gloves and protective eyewear if your
exposure to the chemicals is high enough.
Many solvent are potentially toxic to the liver
either alone or in combination With other
solvent . For example liver damage is caused
by the dry cleaning solvent carbon
tetrachloride Other chlorinate and
Chronic drug and alcohol abuse can lead to
severe kidney damage or failure. Like carbon
tetrachloride trichloroethane .
Foe example gasoline , gel fuel , turpentine are
among the most common toxicant.
Typical solvent applications include
Paints and coatings
Cleaners and degreasers
Whether it be from penicillin to viagra, the
manufacturers of large amounts of everyday
pharmaceutical products would be impossible
without the inclusion of solvents in the
operations of producing them
As mentioned previously, a lot of products that
we see and use in our everyday lives are
produced as a result of solvents. This would
include cosmetic materials such as baby oil and
face creams, nail polish, skin lotion, and other
types of moisturizers.
For modern farming, crop protection is an
integral part to emphasize given that it is
required to produce the vast amount of foods
required to help feed a population that
continues to grow. Solvents are very useful for
the production and application for both
fertilizers and crop protection formulas.
When looking at paints or coatings, solvents
tend to dissolve or disperse varying
components of its formulation such as pigment
and resin, allowing for the final product to
have the desired consistency that is required.
Once the paint has been applied, the solvents
then evaporate, allowing for the resins and
pigment to form a protective coat or film, and
then eventually dry off.
When looking at the printing inks used by daily
newspapers and magazines, even the labels and
packing used for goods ordered off of amazon, and
foods, in general, depend a lot on solvents in order
for the texts and designs to be applied properly
and to stay in place
Through controlling the viscosity within the ink
formulations, the solvents can allow for just
enough ink to flow in order for the print on the
magazines/labels/newspapers to be just visible to
just the right extent in order to be effective
If solvent-based products are used, make sure the
work area is well ventilated.
Open doors, windows, roof lights, etc. To increase
ventilation and make sure that
they are kept open. Local exhaust (mechanical)
ventilation may be necessary in some cases.
If possible, avoid spraying solvent-based products,
as this causes more vapour to get into the air than
using a brush