2. Table of Content
• Introduction to Android
• What is Android
• History of Android
• Architecture Of Android OS
• Developing Environment
• Application life cycle and its Hierarchy
• Components of Android Application
• Conclusion and Future Scope
Android is a widely used software cluster these days for mobile device
that includes an operating system, key application and middleware.
It provides a rich application framework that allows you to build
innovative apps and games for mobile devices in a Java language
4. WHAT IS ANDROID ?
Android is an open source and Linux kernel-based Operating System designed
primarily for touch screen device e.g. mobile devices such as smartphones and
tablets.(Linux version 2.6)
It was created by Andy Rubin in 2003.
Android was developed by the Open Handset Alliance(OHA), led by Google, and other
Android has its own virtual machine i.e. DVM (Dalvik Virtual Machine) which is used
for executing the android application.
Android's source code is released by Google under an open source license.
Android has its own market from which application can be downloaded i.e. Google
play store. As of Feb. 2017 it features more than 2.7 million application.
In Palo Alto, California USA, Andy Rubin [Co-founder of Danger Inc.], Rich
Miner, Nick Sears, and Chris White founded Android Inc. in October 2003.
In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc. in $50 million and Rubin as a
On November 5, 2007, Unveiling of Android Platform was announced with the
founding of OHA.
On November 12, 2007, First Android SDK beta version was launched.
On September 23, 2008, First Android version 1.0 was launched. HTC T-mobile
G1 was first android powered phone.
After that, 16 Android version and 26 APIs has been released till now. Latest
of them is Android ‘Oreo’ released in August 2017.
6. OPEN HANDSET ALLIANCE(OHA)
The Open Handset Alliance (OHA) is a consortium of 84 firms to develop open
standards for mobile devices.
The OHA was established on 5 November 2007, led by Google with 34
members, including mobile handset makers, application developers, some
mobile carriers and chip makers. Android, the flagship software of the
alliance (first developed by Google in 2007), is based on an open-source
license and has competed against mobile platforms
from Apple, Microsoft, Nokia (Symbian), HP(formerly Palm), Samsung
Electronics/ Intel (Tizen, bada), and BlackBerry.
Member firms include HTC, Sony, Dell, Intel, Motorola, Qualcomm, Texas
Instruments, Google, Samsung Electronics, LG Electronics, T-Mobile, Sprint
Corporation, Nvidia, and Wind River Systems.
1.5 CUPCAKE, APR 27,2009 Virtual Keyboard, Improvement of the camera
1.6 DONUT, SEPT 15, 2009 Text – to – speech
2.0 ÉCLAIR, OCT 26, 2009 Bluetooth 2.1, HTML5 support
2.2 FROYO, MAY 20, 2010 Hotspot, Adobe Flash 10.1, Multilanguage keyboard
2.3 GINGERBREAD, DEC 6,2010 Select text copy/ paste, Integrated internet calls
3.0 HONEYCOMB, FEB 22,2011 Tethering via Bluetooth, Support for file transfer in PC
4.0 ICE CREAM, OCT 18, 2011 Picture clicking with smile, Screenshot, Support for Wi-Fi Direct, Beam
4.1 JELLY BEAN, JULY 9, 2012 Voice dictation offline
4.4 KITKAT, OCT 31, 2013 Support for Wireless printing, Bluetooth MAP
5.0 LOLLIPOP, NOV 12. 2014 Battery saver, ART instead of Dalvik runtime
6.0 MARSHMALLOW, OCT 5, 15 Granular app permission, Fingerprint API
7.0 NOUGAT, AUGUST 22, 2016 Split screen mode, Fingerprint gesture, VR mode
8.0 OREO, AUGUST 21, 2017 Google play protect
Android operating system is a stack of software components which is roughly
divided into five sections and four layers.
1. Linux Kernel
3. Android run time
• Core Libraries
• Dalvik Virtual Machine(DVM)
4. Application Framework
5. Application layer
10. LINUX KERNEL
Bottom layer of android operating system is Linux kernel.
Android is built on top of Linux 2.6 Kernel and few architectural changes
made by Google.
Linux Kernel provides the basic system functionality such as process
management, memory management and device management
Linux kernel also provides array of device drivers which make our task easier
while interfacing the android with peripheral devices.
On the top of Linux Kernel another layer called libraries is present.
It provides the different libraries useful for well functioning of android operating
Libraries are java libraries build specific for android operating system.
Some of the libraries are listed below –
SQLite It is used to access data published by content providers and
includes SQLite database management classes
SSL It is used to provide internet security
OpenGL It is used to provide Java interface to the OpenGL/ES 3D
graphics rendering API.
Media Framework It is used to provides different media codecs which allow
the recording and playback of different media formats
Web Kit It is the browser engine used to display internet content or
12. ANDROID RUN TIME
It is third component of the android architecture and placed in second layer
It provides most important part of android called Dalvik Virtual Machine.
Dalvik Virtual Machine is similar to JVM but only difference is that it is
designed and optimized for Android.
Dalvik Virtual machine uses core functions of Linux such as memory
management and multithreading and enables each android app to run its own
The Android runtime also provides a set of core libraries which enable Android
application developers to write Android applications using standard Java
13. APPLICATION FRAMEWORK
It is 2nd topmost component in android operating system stack
Android applications directly interacts with application framework.
Application framework manages the basic functions of android device such as
resource management, voice call management etc.
Important blocks of Application framework are :
Activity Manager Block is used to manage complete activity life cycle of
Content Provider Block is used to manage the data sharing between two
Telephony Manager Block is used to manages all voice calls
Location Manager Block is used to manage the Locations obtained using GPS or
Resource Manager Block is used to manage the different types of resources
used in android app
14. DEVELOPING ENVIROMENT
Application development completely based on Java programming language.
It requires JDK and Android SDK
Initially development is done on Eclipse ide using Android SDK with it.
In 2012 , Google launches its own application development.
Two types of logics are to be made
• Presentation logic
• Business logic
Presentation logic written in XML whereas Business logic written in java.
16. LIFE CYCLE OF AN APPLICATION
An Application passes through
seven stages from its origin to
There are seven methods
17. COMPONENTS OF APPLICATION
Application components are the essential building blocks of an Android
These components are loosely coupled by the application manifest file
AndroidManifest.xml that describes each component of the application and
how they interact.
There are following four main components that can be used within an Android
• Broadcast Receivers
• Content Providers
An activity represents a single screen with a user interface.
It dictate the UI and handle the user interaction to the smartphone screen.
A service is a component that runs in the background to perform long-running
They handle background processing associated with an application.
20. BROADCAST RECEIVER
Broadcast Receivers simply respond to broadcast messages from other applications
or from the system.
Broadcast Receivers are used to handle communication between Android OS and
21. CONTENT PROVIDER
A content provider component supplies data from one application to others on
They handle data and database management issues.
22. OTHER COMPONENTS
Fragments Represent a behaviour or a portion of user interface in an
Views UI elements that are drawn onscreen including buttons,
lists forms etc.
Layouts View hierarchies that control screen format and
appearance of the views.
Intents Messages wiring components together.
Resources External elements, such as strings, constants and
Manifest Configuration file for the application.
23. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE
Android technology brought a huge change in the world smart phone.
Currently android is using in smart phone, Tablets and Wears.
It is very user friendly.
Android powers hundreds of millions of mobile devices in more than 190
countries around the world.
It's the largest installed base of any mobile platform and is growing fast.
Future scope of android is limitless.
• health Industry
• Artificial Intelligence
• Android TV
• Google car
• Appliances such as Washing Machine ,Oven etc