I am highly indebted to internet, teachers and
my friends for their guidance and constant
supervision as well as for providing necessary
information regarding the project and also for
their support in completing the project.
I would like to express my special gratitude and
thanks to my parents and my group members for
their kind co-operation and encouragement
which helps me in completion of this project.
My thanks and appreciations also go to my
batch-mates in developing the project and people
who have willingly helped me out with their
First aid is the assistance given to any person
suffering a sudden illness or injury, with care
provided to preserve life, prevent the condition
from worsening, and/or promote recovery. It
includes initial intervention in a serious condition
prior to professional medical help being available,
such as performing CPR while awaiting an
ambulance, as well as the complete treatment of
minor conditions, such as applying a plaster to a
cut. First aid is generally performed by the
layperson, with many people trained in providing
basic levels of first aid, and others willing to do so
from acquired knowledge. Mental health first aid is
an extension of the concept of first aid to cover
There are many situations which may require first
aid, and many countries have legislation, regulation,
or guidance which specifies a minimum level of first
aid provision in certain circumstances. This can
include specific training or equipment to be
available in the workplace (such as an automated
external defibrillator), the provision of specialist
first aid cover at public gatherings, or mandatory
first aid training within schools. First aid, however,
does not necessarily require any particular
equipment or prior knowledge, and can involve
improvisation with materials available at the time,
often by untrained persons.
The key aims of first aid can be summarized in
three key points, sometimes known as 'the
Preserve life: the overriding aim of all
medical care which includes first aid, is to
save lives and minimize the threat of death.
Prevent further harm: also sometimes
called prevent the condition from worsening,
or danger of further injury, this covers both
external factors, such as moving a patient
away from any cause of harm, and applying
first aid techniques to prevent worsening of
the condition, such as applying pressure to
stop a bleed becoming dangerous.
Promote recovery: first aid also involves
trying to start the recovery process from the
illness or injury, and in some cases might
FirstAidForSome For Some Common
Learn CPR: If you are interested in learning CPR,
go to the UCOP emergency management webpage
at the link on the slide and complete the training
Spinal/Neck Injuries: If you suspect spinal or neck
injuries – Do NOT move the person. Moving the
person can result in permanent injuries. The only
time you should move the person is if the person is
exposed to an immediate imminent danger.
Trust Your Instincts: When you are assessing the
situation, always trust your own initiative, good
judgment, and common sense. 99% of the time you
initial instincts are usually correct.
In case of tongue fallen backwards, blocking
the airway, it is necessary to hyperextend the
head and pull up the chin, so that the tongue
lifts and clears the airway.
Direct Pressure: If you are cut and bleeding, apply
steady firm direct pressure to the wound using a
clean cloth or bandage. Avoid direct contact with
Maintain Pressure: Maintain direct pressure on the
wound for 15 minutes. If needed, add more layers
of clean cloth or bandages.
Elevate Extremities: If it is a bleeding extremity and
there are no fractures, lie down and raise the
First Degree Burn: A first degree burn results in
minor redness of the skin. Treatment for a first
degree burn is to run cold water over the burn for
at least 5 minutes. Never put ice on the burn. This
can result in frostbite which can further damage the
skin. Do not apply butter or ointments to the burn.
This could prevent proper healing. Place a sterile
gauze bandage over the burn and allow it to heal.
Second Degree Burn: A second degree burn is a
burn into the second layer of the skin and will
eventually blister. Do not break the blisters!Broken
blisters are vulnerable to infection. If the blister
should break, clean the burn and apply an antibiotic
ointment. Cover the burn with a sterile gauze
bandage. Do not use fluffy cotton, which may
irritate the skin. Wrap the gauze loosely to avoid
putting pressure on burned skin. Bandaging keeps
air off the burned skin, reduces pain, and protects
the blistered skin.
Third Degree Burn – A third degree burn is the most
serious type of burn which results in charred skin.
Immediately call 911 if a person has a 3rd
Identify The Substance: For poisonings, you should
try to identify the substance which was ingested.
Identification can be done by looking for the
container or other clues such as stains, odors, or
Contact The Poison Control Center: Immediately
contact the poison control center for advice.
Induce Vomiting: If directed by the poison control
center, induce vomiting. You should never induce
vomiting if the victim is unconscious or if the victim
has ingested corrosives or caustics.
If Vomiting – Roll To TheSide:If the victim is
vomiting, they should be rolled onto their side to
allow for drainage.
Altitude sickness, which can begin in susceptible
people at altitudes as low as 5,000 feet, can cause
potentially fatal swelling of the brain or lungs.
Give oxygen, if available.
Keep the person warm and have him or her
Give plenty of liquids.
Give acetaminophen (Tylenol) or
ibuprofen(Advil, Motrin) for headache.
Anaphylaxis, a life-threatening condition in which
the airway can become constricted and the
patient may go into shock. The reaction can be
caused by a systemic allergic reaction
to allergens such as insect bites or peanuts.
Anaphylaxis is initially treated with injection
Battlefield first aid-This protocol refers to treating
shrapnel, gunshot wounds, burns, bone fractures,
etc. as seen either in the ‘traditional’ battlefield
setting or in an area subject to damage by large-
scale weaponry, such as a bomb blast.
Bone fracture, a break in a bone initially treated
by stabilizing the fracture with a splint.
Cardiac Arrest, which will lead to death unless
CPR preferably combined with an AED is started
within minutes. There is often no time to wait for
the emergency services to arrive as 92 percent of
people suffering a sudden cardiac arrest die
before reaching hospital according to the
American Heart Association.
Choking, blockage of the airway which can quickly
result in death due to lack of oxygen if the
patient’s trachea is not cleared, for example by
the Heimlich Maneuver.
Cramps in muscles due to lactic acid build up
caused either by inadequate oxygenation of
muscle or lack of water or salt.
Diving disorders, drowning or asphyxiation.
Gender-specific conditions, such
as dysmenorrhea and testicular torsion.
Heart attack, or inadequate blood flow to the
blood vessels supplying the heart muscle.
Heat stroke, also known as sunstroke
or hyperthermia, which tends to occur during
heavy exercise in high humidity, or with
inadequate water, though it may occur
spontaneously in some chronically ill persons.
Sunstroke, especially when the victim has been
unconscious, often causes major damage to body
systems such as brain, kidney, liver, gastric
tract. Unconsciousness for more than two
hours usually leads to permanent disability.
Emergency treatment involves rapid cooling of
Heavy bleeding, treated by applying pressure
(manually and later with a pressure bandage) to
the wound site and elevating the limb if possible.
and Hypoglycaemia (insulin shock).
Hypothermia, or Exposure, occurs when a
person’s core body temperature falls below
33.7 °C (92.6 °F). First aid for a mildly
hypothermic patient includes rewarming, which
can be achieved by wrapping the affected person
in a blanket, and providing warm drinks, such as
soup, and high energy food, such as
chocolate. However, rewarming a severely
hypothermic person could result in a
fatal arrhythmia, an irregular heart rhythm.
Insect and animal bites and stings.
Poisoning, which can occur by injection,
inhalation, absorption, or ingestion.
Seizures, or a malfunction in the electrical activity
in the brain. Three types of seizures include a
grand mal (which usually features convulsions as
well as temporary respiratory abnormalities,
change in skin complexion, etc.) and petit mal
(which usually features twitching, rapid blinking,
and/or fidgeting as well as altered consciousness
and temporary respiratory abnormalities).
Muscle strains and Sprains, a
temporary dislocation ofa joint that immediately
reduces automatically but may result in ligament
Stroke, a temporary loss of blood supply to the
Toothache, which can result in severe pain and
loss of the tooth but is rarely life-threatening,
unless over time the infection spreads into the
bone of the jaw and starts osteomyelitis.
Wounds and bleeding,including lacerations, incisi
ons and abrasions, Gastrointestinal
bleeding, avulsions and Sucking chest wounds,
treated with an occlusive dressing to let air out
but not in.
It, also known as sun stroke, is a severe heat illness,
defined as hyperthermia with a body
temperature greater than 40.6 °C (105.1 °F)
because of environmental heat exposure with lack
of thermoregulation. This is distinct from a fever,
where there is a physiological increase in the
temperature set point of the body. The term
"stroke" in "heat stroke" is a misnomer in that it
does not involve a blockage or haemorrhage of
blood flow to the brain. Preventive measures
include drinking plenty of cool liquids and avoiding
excessive heat and humidity, especially in
unventilated spaces, such as parked cars, that can
overheat quickly. Treatment requires rapid physical
cooling of the body.
Between 1998 and 2011, at least 500 children in
the United States died from being inside hot cars
and 75% of the victims were less than 2 years old.
When the outside temperature is 21 °C (70 °F), the
temperature inside a car parked in direct sunlight
can quickly exceed 49 °C (120 °F).
Young children, elderly adults, or disabled
individuals left alone in a vehicle are at particular
risk of succumbing to heat stroke. "Heat stroke in
children and in the elderly can occur within
minutes, even if a car window is opened slightly."
As these groups of individuals may not be able to
open car doors or to express discomfort verbally (or
audibly, inside a closed car), their plight may not be
immediately noticed by others in the vicinity. It is
recommend that parents put their purse, wallet, or
anything that is valuable in the backseat so that
when they get their items out of the backseat they
can see that their child is there as well. For larger
groups in a van or bus, checking for stragglers at the
end of the trip is essential, complemented by other
procedures such as a head count.
Heat stroke occurs when thermoregulation is
overwhelmed by a combination of excessive
metabolic production of heat (exertion), excessive
environmental heat, and insufficient or impaired
heat loss, resulting in an abnormally high body
temperature. Substances that inhibit cooling and
cause dehydration such as alcohol,
stimulants, medications, and age-
related physiological changes predispose to so-
called "classic" or non-exertional heat stroke
(NEHS), most often in elderly and infirm individuals
in summer situations with insufficient ventilation.
Exertional heat stroke (EHS) can happen in young
people without health problems or medications –
most often in athletes, outdoor laborers, or military
personnel engaged in strenuous hot-weather
activity or in certified first responders wearing
heavy personal protective equipment. In
environments that are not only hot but also humid,
it is important to recognize that humidity reduces
the degree to which the body can cool itself by
perspiration and evaporation. For humans and
other warm-blooded animals, excessive body
temperature can disrupt enzymes regulating
biochemical reactions that are essential for cellular
respiration and the functioning of major organs.
The risk of heat stroke can be reduced by observing
precautions to avoid overheating and dehydration.
Light, loose-fitting clothes will allow perspiration to
evaporate and cool the body. Wide-brimmed hats in
light colors help prevent the sun from warming the
head and neck. Vents on a hat will help cool the
head, as will sweatbands wetted with cool water.
Strenuous exercise should be avoided during
daylight hours in hot weather, as should remaining
in confined spaces (such as automobiles)
without air-conditioning or adequate ventilation.
In hot weather, people need to drink plenty of cool
liquids to replace fluids lost from sweating. Thirst is
not a reliable sign that a person needs fluids. A
better indicator is the color of urine. A dark yellow
color may indicate dehydration.
The Occupational Safety and Health
Administration in the United States publishes a
Quick Card with a checklist designed to help protect
from heat stress:
Know signs/symptoms of heat-related
Block out direct sun and other heat sources.
Drink fluids often, and before you are thirsty.
Wear lightweight, light-colored, loose-fitting
Avoid beverages containing alcohol or
Person being cooled with water spray
Treatment of heat stroke involves rapid mechanical
cooling along with standard resuscitation measures.
The body temperature must be lowered quickly.
The person should be moved to a cool area
(indoors, or at least in the shade) and clothing
removed to promote heat loss (passive cooling).
Active cooling methods should also be used, if
possible: The person is bathed in cold water, or a
hyperthermia vest can be applied. (However,
wrapping the person in wet towels or clothes can
actually act as insulation and increase the body
temperature.) Cold compresses to the torso, head,
neck, and groin will help cool the victim. A fan or
dehumidifying air-conditioning unit may be used to
aid in evaporation of the water (evaporative