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Chapter 1 : Introduction to Travel and Tourism

  1. Introduction to Travel and Tourism Md Shaifullar Rabbi
  2. Speaker Profile Md Shaifullar Rabbi BBA & MBA, Major in THM, DU Assistant Manger Customer Support and Training Department Sabre Travel Network Bangladesh Limited EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND MBA & BBA, Tourism & Hospitality Management, University of Dhaka. Certified NTVQF Level -4/Assessor Part (Ticketing And Reservation) Diploma Course in Travel Agency & Tour Operation Management Certified NTVQF Level 2 Course entitled Ticketing & Reservation Certified NTVQF Level 1 Course entitled Tour Guiding Md Shaifullar Rabbi
  3. Concept of Travel and Tourism MEANING OF TRAVEL The term travel originates from the Old French word ‘travail’ which meant heavy labor. Travel refers to the movement of people or objects such as airplanes, boats, trains, and other conveyances between various distant geographical locations. Another "etymologically for the world tour as suggested by Theobald in 1994 is that it is derived from the Latin, 'tornare' and the Greek, 'tornos', meaning 'a lathe or circle and the movement around a central point or axis'. This meaning changed in modern English to represent 'one's turn ‘and they suggest the action of movement around a circle. DEFINING TOURISM Tourism in our minds is connected with vacation, holidays, pleasure, tours and travels, attractions, historic or scenic places, and going or arriving somewhere. Tourism is prevalent from the pre-industrial age and some common examples are cruises on the Nile River, tours made by wealthy Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, and the grand tour. People travel for short-term to other places from their normal place of residence and during these temporary visits consume goods and services like transportation, accommodation, etc., and the entire process is known as tourism. According to the W.T.O, Tourism is the movement of people away from their normal place of residence and work for a period of not less than 24 hours and not more than 1 year. United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) definition is “Activities of persons traveling to, and staying in places outside their usual environment; not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business, and other purposes.” Md Shaifullar Rabbi
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  5. The origins of tourism By the early 21st century, international tourism had become one of the world’s most important economic activities, and its impact was becoming increasingly apparent from the Arctic to Antarctica. The history of tourism is therefore of great interest and importance. That history begins long before the coinage of the word tourist at the end of the 18th century. In the Western tradition, organized travel with supporting infrastructure, sightseeing, and an emphasis on essential destinations and experiences can be found in ancient Greece and Rome, which can lay claim to the origins of both “heritage tourism” (aimed at the celebration and appreciation of historic sites of recognized cultural importance) and beach resorts. The Seven Wonders of the World became tourist sites for Greeks and Romans. Pilgrimage offers similar antecedents, bringing Eastern civilizations into play. Its religious goals coexist with defined routes, commercial hospitality, and an admixture of curiosity, adventure, and enjoyment among the motives of the participants. Pilgrimage to the earliest Buddhist sites began more than 2,000 years ago, although it is hard to define a transition from the makeshift privations of small groups of monks to recognizably tourist practices. Pilgrimage to Mecca is of similar antiquity. The tourist status of the hajj is problematic given the number of casualties that—even in the 21st century— continued to be suffered on the journey through the desert. The thermal spa as a tourist destination—regardless of the pilgrimage associations with the site as a holy well or sacred spring—is not necessarily a European invention, despite deriving its English- language label from Spa, an early resort in what is now Belgium. The oldest Japanese onsen (hot springs) were catering to bathers from at least the 6th century. Tourism has been a global phenomenon from its origins. Modern tourism is an increasingly intensive, commercially organized, business-oriented set of activities whose roots can be found in the industrial and postindustrial West. The aristocratic grand tour of cultural sites in France, Germany, and especially Italy— including those associated with Classical Roman tourism—had its roots in the 16th century. Md Shaifullar Rabbi
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  7. Travelling for pleasure: a brief history of tourism  Tracing the development of tourism from the 17th century to the present-day. People have always had a need to travel, be it to explore and discover new lands or for our own enjoyment.Tourism covers precisely the latter.  We can trace the origin of the modern concept of tourism back to the 17th century, when young nobles from western and northern European countries made what was called the Grand Tour: a trip around Europe (usually covering France, Germany, Italy and Greece) with the main purpose of soaking up history, art and cultural heritage. It was considered a perfect way to be educated.  By the 18th century, this custom was widespread among wealthier classes and it spread to other parts of the world, such as America. Similarly, religious pilgrimages that were already popular during the Middle Ages continued during this period.  The Industrial Revolution, which began in the second half of the 18th century, produced a major economic, social and technological transformation that would spread to the rest of the world. As a result of these changes, there was an exodus from rural regions to growing big cities, which needed labour for the new industry.  Therefore, new social classes appeared. Developments in transport were also key. The improvements in freight and passenger transport contributed to the birth of leisure, new forms of entertainment and travel. People travelled mainly by train, taking advantage of the fact that railway networks connected the destinations in Europe and other parts of the world.  The 19th century saw the creation of the first travel agencies. One of the pioneers was Thomas Cook & Son, which was the first to offer excursions and holidays for groups, which included transport, accommodation and food tickets, thus making costs cheaper.This would be the origin of what we now know as package holidays.  In the first half of the 20th century, the tourism industry continued to grow thanks to the mass production of buses and cars. Coastal tourism began to gain importance and, after World War II, the Mediterranean coast quickly grew in popularity. Also, improvements in air transport (charter flights) as well as progress in labour legislation and a growth in social welfare led to a boom in tourism.  The tourism sector suffered a recession during the 1970s, mainly due to the energy crisis, leading to lower costs and prices. That's when mass tourism emerged. Travelling went from being something only for an exclusive group to become a leisure activity within the reach of many.  In the following decades, there was a progressive internationalization of hotel companies, travel agencies and airlines. New products and new leisure activities were also offered, revolving around sports and health, among others. Md Shaifullar Rabbi
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  9. Technology and the democratization of international tourism Transport innovation was an essential enabler of tourism’s spread and democratization and its ultimate globalization. Beginning in the mid-19th century, the steamship and the railway brought greater comfort and speed and cheaper travel, in part because fewer overnight and intermediate stops were needed. Above all else, these innovations allowed for reliable time-tabling, essential for those who were tied to the discipline of the calendar if not the clock. The gaps in accessibility to these transport systems were steadily closing in the later 19th century, while the empire of steam was becoming global. Railways promoted domestic as well as international tourism, including short visits to the coast, city, and countryside which might last less than a day but fell clearly into the “tourism” category. Rail travel also made grand tour destinations more widely accessible, reinforcing existing tourism flows while contributing to tensions and clashes between classes and cultures among the tourists. By the late 19th century, steam navigation and railways were opening tourist destinations from Lapland to New Zealand, and the latter opened the first dedicated national tourist office in 1901. After World War II, governments became interested in tourism as an invisible import and as a tool of diplomacy, but prior to this time international travel agencies took the lead in easing the complexities of tourist journeys. The most famous of these agencies was Britain’s Thomas Cook and Son organization, whose operations spread from Europe and the Middle East across the globe in the late 19th century. The role played by other firms (including the British tour organizers Frame’s and Henry Gaze and Sons) has been less visible to 21st-century observers, not least because these agencies did not preserve their records, but they were equally important. Shipping lines also promoted international tourism from the late 19th century onward. From the Norwegian fjords to the Caribbean, the pleasure cruise was already becoming a distinctive tourist experience before World War I, and transatlantic companies competed for middle-class tourism during the 1920s and ’30s. Between the World Wars, affluent Americans journeyed by air and sea to a variety of destinations in the Caribbean and LatinAmerica. Md Shaifullar Rabbi
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  11. Characteristics of Tourism  Tourism involves travel and stay, can also include day trips, business trips, etc.  There is a movement of tourists from the place of origin to the destination.The tourism industry is tourist-oriented and built entirely upon people.  Tourism can be international when travel is from one country to another  Domestic tourism means the travel is within the country  Tourism is a leisure activity  Tourism also involves a journey and services like transport, accommodation, catering, and viewing, etc.  The journey and stay is generally at a site is outside the normal working place or residence  Tourism is for a short period  Tourism may involve a variety of experiences. Every individual tourist may have different perceptions about the same products/services of the tourism industry.Tourism is always about the experience that the customer makes. Md Shaifullar Rabbi
  12. Characteristics of Tourism  The products and services of the tourism and travel industry are perishable meaning they are consumed as soon as they are produced and cannot be stored for the future.  Tourism is also associated with the status symbol in modem society  There may be indirect and direct recreational and health benefits of tourism  Tourism is now emerging as global phenomena  There exists a variety of tourist types and modes of tourist experiences  The tourism industry involves tourists, tourist product, types of destinations, attractions,and tour management  Most of the tourism products are intangible as tourism is about the time spent and the experience made  Social, economic, and institutional factors affect travelers’ decisions to travel to certain selected destinations that affect these decisions  Supply-side of the tourism industry is limited and pre-fixed that is surplus capacity based on demand cannot be instantly created like train berths, hotel rooms, etc. Md Shaifullar Rabbi
  13. Sectorsand Companies Within the Travel and Tourism Industry 1) Transportation  Airline Industry  WaterTransport  Spacecraft  Car Rental  Coach Services  Railway 2) Accommodation  Hotels  Shared Accommodation  Hostels  Camping  Bed and Breakfast  Cruises  FarmhouseAccommodation and Agro-Tourism  Timeshare Accommodation Md Shaifullar Rabbi
  14. Sectorsand Companies Within the Traveland TourismIndustry 3) Food & Beverage  Restaurants  Catering  Bars & Cafés  Nightclubs 4) Entertainment  Casino  Tourist Information  Shopping  Tourist Guides &Tours 5) Connected Industries  Financial Services  TravelAgents  Tour Operators  OnlineTravelAgencies  Tourism Organizations  Educational  Travel andTourism Marketing Md Shaifullar Rabbi
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  16. Growth of Tourism as an Industry There has been an up-trend in tourism over the last few decades. People have a wide range of budgets and tastes, and a wide variety of resorts and hotels have developed to cater for them. As per the reports of the World Tourism Organization, in 2010, there were 940 million international tourist arrivals, with a growth of 6.6% as compared to the year 2009. As per their reports, France and the United States are the most visited countries in terms of the number of international travelers. Economic growth in China triggered tourist inflow and in 2010, China overtook Spain to become the third most visited country. The tourism industry is already the largest of all sectors in terms of world employment and is expected to grow 50 percent faster than in other sectors. It is also an excellent career option and offers various avenues to pursue a fulfilling career.  The travel and tourism industry’s percentage of world gross domestic product is 9.0 percent.  The world travel and tourism industry support 266 million jobs (1 in 11 of world jobs).  The world travel and tourism industry accounts for 6 percent of the world’s exports.  By 2020 there were over a billion international tourism trips and up to 7 billion domestic trips.  Tourism is an activity of global importance and significance and a major force in the economy of the world Md Shaifullar Rabbi
  17. Travel Agency and Tour Operator TRAVEL AGENCY A travel agency is a private retailer or public service that provides travel and tourism-related services to the general public on behalf of accommodation or travel suppliers to offer different kinds of travelling packages for each destination. Travel agencies can provide outdoor recreation activities, airlines, car rentals, cruise lines, hotels, railways, travel insurance, package tours, insurance, guide books, VIP airport lounge access, arranging logistics for luggage and medical items delivery for travelers upon request, public transport timetables, car rentals, and bureau de change services. TOUR OPERATOR A tour operator is a business that typically combines and organizes accommodations, meals, sightseeing and transportation components, in order to create a package tour. They advertise and produce brochures to promote their products, holidays and itineraries. Tour operators can sell directly to the public or sell through travel agents or a combination of both. The most common example of a tour operator's product would be a flight on a charter airline, plus a transfer from the airport to a hotel and the services of a local representative, all for one price. Each tour operator may specialize in certain destinations. Md Shaifullar Rabbi
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  19. History of Travel Agency and Tour Operation  In 1758, Cox & Kings became the first travel agency in modern history.  In 1840, the Abreu Agency was established in Porto by Bernardo Abreu, becoming the world's first agency to open its services to the public.  In 1841, Thomas Cook, a Baptist preacher who believed that alcohol was to blame for social problems, reached an agreement with the Midland Railway to organize the transportation of 500 members of his temperance movement from the Leicester Campbell Street railway station to a rally in Loughborough in exchange for a commission. He formed Thomas Cook & Son, which later became The Thomas Cook Group. It filed bankruptcy and underwent liquidation in 2019.  In 1871, Dean and Dawson was founded in the United Kingdom and in the 1950s, it was acquired byThomas Cook. Md Shaifullar Rabbi
  20. History of Travel Agency and Tour Operation  In 1870, the Polytechnic Touring Association was founded in the United Kingdom.  In 1887, Walter T. Brownell established Brownell Travel, the first travel agency in the United States, and led 10 travelers on a European tour setting sail from NewYork on the SS Devonia.  In 1895, Baldwins Travel was founded by Alfred K Baldwin, originally a printer, bookbinder and publisher in Tunb ridge Wells. Baldwins begins selling railway tickets and helping friends to travel to Europe and beyond. News spreads and the former printers slowly build a strong side-line in travel at the back of the Baldwins Stationery shop at 27 Grosvenor Road.  Originally, travel agencies largely catered to middle and upper-class customers but they became more commonplace with the development of commercial aviation.  In 1923, after being treated badly by a British travel agency, K. P. Chen formed what became the China Travel Service, the first travel agency in China.  The industry suffered during World War II. However, the Post–World War II economic expansion in mass-market package tours resulted in the proliferation of travel agencies catering to the working class.  In 1905, NipponTravel Agency became the first travel agency in Japan. Md Shaifullar Rabbi
  21. History of Travel Agency and Tour Operation  In 1929, In tourist was formed as the official state travel agency of the Soviet Union, with the goal of convincing outsiders to visit the country.  During the Cold War, travel agents were used by people from Western countries to travel behind the Iron Curtain.  In 1951, the precursor to Hello world Travel became one of the first travel agencies in Australia.  In 1955, Henderson Travel Service became the first black-owned travel company and the first to take large groups of black tourists to Africa.  In the early 1980s, American Airlines' Sabre unit created a direct- to-consumer booking tool for flights, hotels and cars called Sabre.  In 1989, with the liberalization of travel for South Koreans, Mode Tour became the first travel agency in the country.  In 1991, Hotel Reservations Network, the precursor of, was founded. At first, hotels did not pay much in commissions.With the advent of the internet, travel agencies migrated online and underwent disintermediation by the reduction in costs caused by removing layers from the package holiday distribution network. Md Shaifullar Rabbi
  22. Historyof Travel Agencyand Tour Operation  In 1994, launched as the first online directory of hotels.  In 1995, Internet Travel Network sold the first airline ticket via the World Wide Web.  In October 1996,, funded with hundreds of millions of dollars by Microsoft launched as the first large online travel agency.  At the same time, Cheap flights started as a listing service for flight deals from consolidators.  In 1998, was founded in the United Kingdom.  In 1999, European airlines began eliminating or reducing commissions, while Singapore Airlines did so in parts of Asia. In 2002, several airlines in the United States did the same, which led to an unsuccessful lawsuit alleging collusion among the airlines, that was decided on appeal in 2009.  In 2007, the launch of the iPhone and related mobile apps increased travel bookings made online.  In 2008, the launch of Airbnb created an online marketplace for spare bedrooms and apartments.  In 2011, the launch of Hotel Tonight highlighted instantaneous same-day hotel room booking.  In 2021, travel agency Baldwins Travel Group, which was founded in 1895 was bought by business group. Md Shaifullar Rabbi
  23. History of Tour Guiding The first tour operator went into business in England in 1758, and is still in business today. In Europe, pleasure travel started in earnest during the 1840s, when Thomas Cook began conducting tours to Paris and later around Europe. By the 1850s, railroad tours were already in operation. Modern tour operators – companies that organize group tours and independent travel packages — date back to the mid-nineteenth century, and most likely have their roots as ticket agents for steamship lines and railroads. In addition to selling passage, the agents were eventually called upon to develop itineraries and secure accommodations for their wealthy clients. Out of this grew the organized business of selling planned tours to groups of travelers. Through the 1930s tour wholesaling continued to grow, but that happened slowly, since comfortable and affordable means of passenger transportation were not widespread, and travel was costly. The post- World War II period, beginning with the late 1940s and early 1950s, marked a dramatic turning point for the tour operator industry. The introduction of modern long-range commercial aircraft and the development of the interstate highway system both opened long distance travel to millions of middle class travelers. Add to that the growth of low cost airlines, increased access to airports, and the ability to travel more cheaply, and the travel bug sent millions of people all over the planet. Md Shaifullar Rabbi
  24. Differences between Tour Operator and Travel Agency BasicTerms Tour Operator Travel Agent Definition It is the person or company responsible for planning the trip. It is a broker or intermediary selling the tour packages. Role Taking care of the client according to the package description Sell holiday packages purchased from different tour operators. Countries Dealing Specializes in one or a few countries destinations Deal with many countries’ destinations. Amount of Profit Earn huge profits since they set the price tag. Earn a commission based on the number of bookings. Dependence Independent Depend on principle operators Requirements Business management skills Simple training programs Significance Offer advice about the legalities on the ground Offer to advise concerning the travel documents like visa and passport Job Description Their job ends when the traveler returns home. Their job ends when the traveler starts the vacation Other Responsibilities Look after hotel, accommodation, meals, and conveyance. Only sell and administrate the tour packages Act as Wholesalers in the travel industry Retailers in the travel industry Md Shaifullar Rabbi
  25. Main Difference between Tour Operator and Travel Agent  Tour operators create holiday packages, sell, advertise and plan. Travel agents sell and administrate tour packages.  Tour operators deal with finer details such as accommodation, tickets, and meals. Travel agents help tourists to choose a suitable package.  Tour operators offer advice on legalities on the ground while travel agents offer advice on travel documents such as passports or visas  Tour operators’ job ends when the client returns home after vacation while travel agents job ends when the client makes a booking for vacation.  Tour operators earn huge profits since they set trip fees while travel agents earn commission from the bookings made by the client. Md Shaifullar Rabbi
  26. Similarities between Tour Operator and Travel Agent  Both belong in the travel industry  Both help tourists fulfill their holiday experiences  Both have information about various destinations.  Both promote tourism in various destinations. Md Shaifullar Rabbi
  27. References  travel-and-tourism/meaning-and-definition-of-travel-and- tourism/31039730  history-of-tourism  and-tourism-domain/item/what-is-travel tourism#:~:text=People%20travel%20for%20short%2Dterm,provi ding%20enjoyment%20and%20pleasurable%20experiences.   C%20Cox%20%26%20Kings%20became,its%20services%20to%20t he%20public.  and-travel-agent/  Md Shaifullar Rabbi
  28. Thank You Md Shaifullar Rabbi