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<ul><li>“ A careful, critical search for solutions to the problems that puzzle the mankind.” </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific investigation of the “known” for the purpose of discovering the “unknown.” </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Any relatively systematic, formal, conscious procedure for evolving and testing hypotheses about reality, or in more modern terms for decisions. </li></ul>Scientific Research
Hall Marks of Scientific Research Purposiveness Rigor Testability Replicability Precision Confidence Objectivity Generalizability Parsimony
<ul><li>May it be investigation or scientific research’ both are undertaken with a clear purpose and objective to lead into problem identification or the range of inquiry. The process leads into the study of the implications deducted from the issues and their relationship within the theoretical framework. </li></ul>Purposiveness
<ul><li>A good theoretical base and a sound methodological design would add rigor to a purposive study. </li></ul><ul><li>Rigor donates carefulness and the degree of exactitude in research investigations. </li></ul>Rigor
<ul><li>A research design is prepared to facilitate the understanding of the sequence of study and method to be applied to formulate hypotheses, collect data and analyze it with the help of statistical tests and techniques. The methods used are to achieve the objectives and purpose of the study. The objective descriptions of the methods, problems and hypotheses with the relationship of different variable make the study, hence testable. The testability is the characteristic and attribute of scientific investigation making it replicable and it also contributes to generalization </li></ul>Testability
<ul><li>The method of testing of hypotheses and the study of the problem facilitates Replicability of the research. This reflects the validity and reliability of the measures adopted by the researchers. The repetition of the procedures to study similar situations will increase confidence in the methodology and understanding of the research process </li></ul>Replicability
<ul><li>Precision refers as to how close are the findings based on a sample or reality. In other words, precision reflects the degree of exactitude or the results based on the sample, to the phenomena studied as they exist in the universe. </li></ul>Precision
<ul><li>Confidence refers to the probability that our estimations are correct. It is not enough to be merely precise or one can say that 95% of the time we are going to find our results to be true and there will be 5 % chances of being wrong. This is known as confidence level and some refers to it as accuracy. The precision and confidence are important aspects of research and can be achieved by the proper sampling and analysis of data. </li></ul>Confidence
<ul><li>The conclusions drawn through data analysis and interpretation of the results should be objective, based on the fact, resulting from actual data and not on the subjective evaluation. The more objective the interpretation of the data, the more scientific research it becomes. The researcher should take measures to eliminate his level of subjectivity and depend on the objectivity. </li></ul>Objectivity
<ul><li>The characteristic of research is more applicable in case of pure or general research because the result of this type of research is not restricted upto one organization. Generalizability means that the result of research conducted by the one organization is acceptable by the majority of other organizations. </li></ul>Generalizability
<ul><li>It is also named as economical. For every research task cost and time is required. The span of time should be moderate, not too much and not too less. And cost should also not too huge or less but moderate. </li></ul>Parsimony
<ul><li>A manager who is interested in investigating how employee’s commitment to the organization can be increased. We examine how the above stated hall marks of science applied to his investigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Reference studies: </li></ul><ul><li>Research Methods by Umma Sekaran </li></ul><ul><li>Research Methods by Dr. Matin Ali Khan </li></ul>Case Study