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  2. Type State-owned enterprise Industry Aerospace and defence Founded 1940 (in 1964, company took on current name) Headquarters Bangalore, Karnataka, India Chairman Ashok Nayar Products Aerospace equipment Military aircraft Communication & Navigation equipment Space systems Revenue US$2.35 billion (FY 2007) Employees 30,000
  3. “To become a global player in the aerospace industry” > Hindustan Aeronautics Limited is the largest PSU under the Department of Defence Production and is a Navaratana Company. > HAL is one of the largest aerospace companies in Asia with its annual turnover to be running above US$ 2 billion. > It has several facilities throughout India including Nasik, Korwa, Kanpur, Koraput, Lucknow, Bangalore and Hyderabad. THE MISSION
  5. Airbus Boeing Sukhoi Aviation Corporation Israel Aircraft Industries RSK MiG BAE Systems Rolls-Royce plc Dassault Aviation Dornier Flugzeugwerke Indian Aeronautical Development Agency Indian Space Research Organisation. COLLABORATIONS WITH COMPANIES
  6. Fighter Aircraft 1.Su-30 MKI 2. Mig Series 3.Tejas 4.Jaguar 5.MIRAGE -2000 Helicopters 1.Dhruv 2.Cheetah 3.Chetak 4.Advanced Light Helicopters Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Engines 1.Lakshya PTA Passenger Aircraft 1.Dornier 2.Indian Regional Jet Transport Aircraft 1.Saras Light Trainer Aircraft 1.Kiran 2.Basant 3.Sitara Glider 1.HAL G-1 2.Ardhra Satellite Launch Vehicles 1.PSLV 2.GSLV 3.IRS 4.INSAT PRODUCTS OF HAL
  7. SUKHOI-30 MKI
  8. Sukhoi Su-30 MKI The Sukhoi Su-30MKI has been jointly-developed by Russia's Sukhoi Corporation and India's Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Indian Air Force (IAF).  It is a heavy class, long-range air superiority fighter aircraft.  The Su-30 MKI is more advanced than the basic Su-30MK, the Chinese Su-30 MKK, and the Malaysian Su-30 MKM.  The aircraft features state of the art avionics developed by Russia, India , Israel , France and South Africa which includes display, navigation, targeting and electronic warfare systems. MKI stands for "Modernizirovannyi Kommercheskiy Indiski" meaning "Modernized Commercial India".
  9. General Features of Sukhoi 30 MKI  Sukhoi 30 MKI is a 4.5 generation fighter aircraft . Fifth generation planes are yet to come.  Cost of single Su-30 MKI is $ 35 million or Rs 1.61 billion  As per deal between Russia’s Sukhoi Corporation and India’s HAL , in the first phase, components will be imported from Russia and only assembling will be done in India.  In the second phase , there will be transfer of technology from Russia to India , and then both manufacturing & assembling will be done in India.  Various independent sources have claimed Su-30 MKI to be the most superior fighter plane in present World.
  10. Fuel Flow And Metering System In Sukhoi 30 MKI  Fuel capacity of Sukhoi 30 MKI: 12 ton or 12000Kg  There are 5 fuel tanks of which one is service tank or main tank.  Service tank is centrally located is the most important one.  Fuel from all other tanks pass through service tank before consumption.  So in the end fuel remains only in the service tank.  All the 5 tanks are so placed that the aircraft is aerodynamically balanced. TANK 1 TANK 2 TANK 3 SERVICE TANK TANK 4 TANK 5
  11. STRUCTURE Fuel quantity & flow metering system can be subdivided into: 1. Fuel Flow Metering > It computes the total quantity of fuel available in aircraft. Uses impeller type of sensors. 2. Fuel Quantity Gauging > It computes the quantity of fuel in the service tank. Uses capacitance type electronic sensors. 3. Automatic Control > It manages the sequence of fuel flow to/from various tanks during refueling and consumption.
  12. FUEL FLOW METERING  Computes the quantity of fuel left in aircraft.  Based on the principle of impeller movement.  Impeller is a device which rotates due to the movement of liquid(fuel) through pipe.  One complete rotation of impeller is associated with a unique amount of fuel flow. This gives us the volume of fuel consumed.  So weight of fuel consumed: weight of fuel = volume * density  Net fuel remaining = initial quantity of fuel – fuel consumed
  13. FUEL QUANTITY GAUGING  Computes the quantity of fuel left in service tank.  It is an electronic system based on the principle of variation of capacitance with change in dielectric medium.  It consists of uniform cylindrical shaped capacitor with the fuel acting as the dielectric.  As the fuel gets consumed , the fuel is replaced by air as dielectric and there is a change in capacitance.  So , the remaining fuel in the service tank can be calculated on the basis of variation in capacitance.  Fuel quantity gauge is of utmost importance when 1. Only service tank is left with fuel. 2. Flow metering system fails.
  14.  The system comprises of 1 . A capacitance based gauging probe. 2. Cable assembly. 3. Sensing amplifier box.  The gauging probe assembly in the fuel tank is connected to the sensing box by means of cable assembly.  Depending on the fuel level in the tank , the capacitance formed is sensed and amplified by the amplifier box and the data is sent to the electronic display in the cockpit. Continued…….. Amplifier box Capacitance Based Gauging probe Cable assembly Electronic Display in cockpit display
  15. AUTOMATIC CONTROL PORTION  Automatic control manages sequence of fuel flow to/from various tanks during refueling as well as consumption.  The fuel from all the five tanks is taken in such a way that the aerodynamic balance of the plane is not disturbed. This is done with the help of automatic control system. Fuel from a certain tank is not taken all at once. After taking a certain quantity of fuel from one tank, the valve is closed and then fuel is drawn from another tank. So, the sequence of fuel flow from various tanks is decided by automatic control system.
  16. FUEL QUANTITY &FLOW METERING SYSTEM FLOW METERING PORTION FUEL QUANTITY GAUGE PORTION AUTOMATIC CONTROL PORTION 1. Fuel Flow Transmitter 2. Refueling Fuel Flow Transmitter 3. Two Channel Temperature Probes 4. Fuel Flow Unit 5. Fuel Control Panel 1. Fuel Quantity Transducers 2. Two Channel Temperature Probes 3. Fuel Quantity Unit 4. Digital Light Indicator 5. Fuel Control Panel 1. Fuel Quantity Transducers 2. Electronic Transducer Unit 3. Relay Semiconductor Control Unit
  17. Brief Discussion Of Components Signaling Transmitters(DSMK)  These are sensors for sensing the fuel levels in various tanks. Magnetic operated level switches of these probes generates signal at one particular level of fuel.  Signals generated by these sensors act as an input for automatic control portion.  6 types of such sensors are fitted in various tanks.
  18. FUEL FLOW TRANSMITTERS These are impeller type of sensors which produce electrical signal proportional to the rate of flow of fuel through it.  Fuel consumed by aircraft is computed based on the signals provided by these sensors. FUEL QUANTITY TRANSMITTERS  These are sensors for computing fuel quantity in service tank.  Capacitance of these probes change with variation in fuel level in tank.  Resultant capacitance acts as an input for computing fuel in service tank.
  19. Fuel Flow Unit  Computes quantity of total fuel available in aircraft based on signals from sensors which are impeller type fuel flow transmitters and temperature probes.  It delivers the information to following instruments: 1. Refueling Control Panel 2. Stand By Equipment (SBI) 3. Complex Information Signaling System 4. Flight Data Recorder (FDR) 5. Integrated System (SOS) 6. Transponder
  20. Fuel Quantity Unit  Computes quantity of fuel in service tank based on signals from fuel quantity transmitters and temperature probes.  It delivers the information to following instruments: 1. Refueling Control Panel 2. Stand By Equipment (SBI) 3. Complex Information Signaling System 4. Digital Light Indicator  It gives warning signal to pilot for residual fuel of 1500 Kg in main tank.
  21. Digital Light Indicator  It is an electronic display device in cockpit.  It continuously displays fuel quantity of service tank. Semiconductor Relay Control Unit  It is a part of automatic control portion.  It works as an amplifier and a switching device for the signals required for opening and closing of valves of various tanks in aircraft.
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