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Principles and techniques of technology dissemination 16.2.2021 feroj

  1. 1. Principles and procedures of technology Dissemination Dr A F M Feroj Hasan Adaptive Research and Extension Division (ARED) 16 February, 2021
  2. 2. What Extension Does? - To bring desirable changes in behavior The changeable behavioral components are - Change in knowledge - Change in skill - Change in attitude - Change in understanding - Change in goal - Change in actions - Change in confidence
  3. 3. Principles of Agricultural Extension “Principles is said to be statement of policy to guide decision and action in a consistent manner” Further “it is a universal truth and found to be true under varying conditions & circumstances”
  4. 4. The widely applied and tested Principles of Agricultural Extension are- - It becomes effective when it values the knowledge and resource of local people - It becomes effective if there is a firm relationship between research and extension - It becomes effective when it follows the whole family approach.
  5. 5. Cont’d - It becomes effective when every extn personnel has a plan of work - It becomes effective when local leaders are trained and utilized - It becomes effective when available local resources are fully utilized - It becomes effective when each new or changed practice is both technically sound and financially profitable
  6. 6. Cont’d - It becomes effective when extn contact with farmers is fitted into times when they are not otherwise busy - It becomes effective when the results of each practice are demonstrated just before the time of use - It becomes effective when client system actively participate in extn activities - It becomes effective when it fulfills the need and interest of people
  7. 7. Cont’d - It becomes effective when it works with old institutions rather than creating new institutions - It becomes effective when extn programme is monitored and evaluated at regular interval - It becomes effective when a wide variety of teaching methods are used - It becomes effective when local culture is duly recognized and respected
  8. 8. Technology - Technology is the subject of agricultural extension that is taught to the farmers. - In fact, it becomes the central theme of extension teaching. - Technology should be problem-solving oriented. - More the adoption of technology more the development of agriculture.
  9. 9. What is Technology/Innovation? An innovation is an idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption (Rogers, 1995). An innovation may not be new to all people at the same time. When an individual already aware of any or object that is not an innovation for him, but an individual who was quite unaware of the same idea or object that may be innovation for him.
  10. 10. 1. Newness 2. Technical appropriateness 3. Experimentally proved 4. Environmentally-friendliness/ Environment friendly 5. Sustainability Characteristics/Attributes of an innovation /a technology
  11. 11. 6. Relative advantage/Profitability/Economic viability is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as being better than the idea it superceedes in terms of economic profitability, social prestige, physical convenience, and psychological satisfaction. It is usually expressed in terms of economic gain. 7. Compatibility with i) existing norms, values and culture; ii) existing level of farm management; iii) the stage of farm development; iv) the resource availability Cont’d
  12. 12. 8. Complexity is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as relatively difficult to understand and use. The more complex the innovation, the slower is its rate of adoption. 9. Trialability is the degree to which an innovation may be experimented on a limited basis. 10. Observability is the degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others. The easier the results are to observe, describe, and communicate to others, the faster the rate of adoption. Cont’d
  13. 13. Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of social system (Rogers, 1995). The process of diffusion may be characterized as the (1) acceptance, (2) over time, (3) of some specific item or practice, (4) by individual, groups or other adopting units, linked, (5) to specific channels of communication, (6) to a social structure, and (7) to a given system of values, or culture (Katz et al., 1963). Concept of Diffusion/Dissemination
  14. 14. Model of Communication (Berlor’s model ) 1. Source 2. Massage 3. Channel 4. Receiver S  M  C  R
  15. 15. The innovation-decision process is the process through which an individual (or other decision-making unit) passes from first knowledge of an innovation, to forming an attitude toward the innovation, to decision to adopt or reject, to implementation of the new idea, and to confirmation of this decision (Rogers, 1993, 1995). Innovation decision process
  16. 16. Adoptor categories 1. Innovator: 2.5 % 2. Early adoptor: 13.5% 3. Early majority: 34% 4. Late majority: 34% 5. Laggards: 16%
  17. 17. Adopter category Personal Characteristics Salient values and social relationships Communication behavior 1.Inovators Highest social status largest farms size, wealthy, Often young, well education often experience in non-farming environment ``Venturesome’’, willing to accept risks, some optional leadership, cosmopolite Closest contact with scientific information sources, interaction with other innovators, relatively greatest use of impersonal sources of information. 2. Early Adopters High social status often large farm size with specialized operations. ``Respectable’’, regarded by many others in the community as a model and influential, greatest opinion leadership Greatest contact with local change agents, competent users of mass media. Characteristics of Farmers in Five Categories of Adoption
  18. 18. Adopter category Personal Characteristics Salient values and social relationships Communication behavior 3. Early Majority Above average social status average sized farms. ``Deliberate’’, willing to consider new ideas only after peers have adopted, some opinion leadership. Considerable contact with change agents and early adopters, medium use of mass media 4. Late Majority Below average social status, small farm sizes little specialization, relatively low income. ``Skeptical’’, overwhelming pressure from peers are needed before adoption leadership. Interaction with peers who are mainly early or late majority, little use of mass media. 5. Laggards Smallest farm size; lowest social status, lowest income, often oldest. ``Traditional’’, oriented towards the past, avoids risks, little if any option leadership almost isolated socially. Neighbors, friends, and relatives with similar values are the min sources of information, suspicious of the change agents. Cont’d
  19. 19. 1. Awareness stage (Knowledge)- the individual learns the existence of the new idea and gains some understanding of how it functions. 2. Interest stage (Persuation)- the individual develops interest in the innovation and forms a favourable or unfavourable attitude toward the innovation. Stages of Innovation decision/adoption process
  20. 20. 3. Evaluation stage (Decision)- the individual makes mental application of the new idea to situation and decides/engages activities that lead to choice to adopt or reject the innovation 4. Trial stage (Implementation)- the individual actually applies and tries the innovation, usually on a small scale to determine the utility in his own situation 5. Adoption stage (Confirmation)- the individual accepts and uses the innovation continuously on a full/large scale. Cont’d
  21. 21. 1. Awareness stage (Knowledge)- Television, Radio, Newspaper, Poster, Exhibition, Friends, Neighbours, Extension agents, Input dealers, Salesman, facebook, mobile, internet etc. 2. Interest stage (Persuation)-Group discussion meeting, farm and home visits, relatives, neighbours, input dealers, sales man, leaflets, bulletins, personal letters, agricultural magazines, TV, exhibition, facebook, mobile, internet etc. Communication media used by farmers at different Stages in the of Innovation decision/adoption process
  22. 22. 3. Evaluation stage (Decision)- Farm and home visit, result demonstration, opinion leaders, method demonstrations, meeting at result demonstration/ field days, personal letters, leaflets, booklets, TV 4. Trial stage (Implementation)- Farm and home visit, visits to result demonstration plots, study tour, circular letters, meeting at result demonstration/ field days, leaflets, TV 5. Adoption stage (Confirmation)- Neighbours, visits to other adopter’s plots, discussion with near peers, discussion with local leaders, friends. Cont’d
  23. 23. Dissemination of Technology i. According to use 1. Individual contact a) Farm and home visit b) Office calls c) Telephone/mobile calls d) Personal letters e) Result demonstration
  24. 24. Cont’d 2. Group contact a) Lecture meeting b) Leader training meeting c) Method demonstration d) Result demonstration meeting e) Conference f) Farmers schools g) Tours
  25. 25. Cont’d 3. Mass contact a) Bulletins b) Leaflets and folders c) Circular letters d) Radio e) TV f) Exhibits g) Posters
  26. 26. Cont’d ii. According to form 1. Written a) Bulletin b) Leaflets c) News stories d) Circular letters e) Personal letters g) News papaers
  27. 27. Cont’d 2. Spoken a) General and special meetings b) Farm and home visit c) Office calls d) Telephone /mobile calls e) Radio
  28. 28. Cont’d 3. Visual a) Result demonstration b) Exhibition c) Posters d) Charts and graphs e) Slides f) Photographs g) Flash cards 4. Spoken and visual a) Method demonstration b) Result demonstration c) TV d) Folk songs and drama e) Movie
  29. 29. Problems of technology dissemination 1. Technology itself - cost of innovation - simple - divisible - profitable - labour and time saving - communicability - physical compatibility (free from diseases , drought resistant) - cultural compatibility
  30. 30. Cont’d 2. Rapid changing of situations (Biological , socio-cultural, political, organizational) 3. Population 4. Education 5. Lack of seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, credit, irrigation 6. Lack of training/ information 7. Rapid changing of situations 8. Inadequate linkage of research and extn 9. Ignorance of farmers indigenous technology
  31. 31. Cont’d 10. Inattentive extn workers 11. Rapid changes of needs of people 12. Marketing 13. Inadequate infrastructure development (road, highways, market place etc.) 14. Lack of seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, credit, irrigation 15. Communication channels not appropriate 16. Lack of training/ information 17. Ignorance of real needs of the majority farmers 18. Ignorance of role of women and youth
  32. 32. Name of Variety Quantity Rice 24 Wheat 1 Jute 3 Oil Crops Mustard-10, Groundnut-10, Sesame-4, Soybean-6 30 Pulse Crops Lentil-11, Mungbean-10, Chickpea-10, Blackgram-1, Grasspea-1 33 Vegetables: Tomato 13 Horticultural crops (Garlic-1, Chili-2, Lemon-2, Onion-2, Termeric-1) 8 Total = 112 Commodity technologies (Crops: 18; Varieties: 112) Using Peaceful Nuclear energy and other Breeding Techniques
  33. 33. Crop variety Selected strain Increased yield (%) 1. Lentil BINA LT-18 15-30 2. Chickpea BINA-CP-2 20-40 3. Mungbean BINA-MB-1 18-35 4. Cowpea BINA-COP-7 25-45 5. Groundnut BINA-GN-2 20-40 6. Soybean BINA-SB-4 70-150 7. Dhaincha BINA-DC-9 25-50 8. Blackgram BINA-BG-1 20-35 9. Felon Binabiofertilizer-10 10-25 Nine innocula developed for leguminous crops Commodity Technology: BINA Developed Biofertilizer
  34. 34. Cropping Pattern Location Remarks T. aman (Binadhan-7)  Mustard (Binasarisha-4)  Boro rice (BRRI dhan 28) Kushtia, Jhenaidah, Jashore and Chuadanga - Increased net profitability by 58%over existing cropping pattern; - Facilitates mustard as an extra crop between aman and boro; - Cropping intensity increased from 200 to 300% 1. Profitable cropping patterns Non Commodity Technology
  35. 35. BRRI dhan28 Binadhan-7 Binasarisha-4
  36. 36. Cropping Pattern Location Remarks T. aman (Binadhan-7)  Mustard (Binasarisha-4)  Tosha jute Faridpur and Narail Increased net profitability by 30% over existing cropping pattern 2. Profitable cropping patterns Contd.
  37. 37. Binadhan-7 Binasarisha-4 Tosha jute (JRO 524)
  38. 38. Contd.) Cropping Pattern Location Remarks T. aman (Binadhan-7)  Lentil (Binamasur-5/6)  Sesame (Binatil-1/2) Narail, Faridpur, Kushtia, Jhenaidah, Jessore and Chuadanga Increased net profitability by 45% over existing cropping pattern 3. Profitable cropping patterns
  39. 39. Binamasur-5 Binatil-1 Binadhan-7
  40. 40. Cropping Pattern Location Remarks T. aman (Binadhan-7)  Mustard (Binasarisha-4)/Chickpea (Binasola-4)/Wheat (BARI gom 26)  Mungbean (Binamoog-8)/Sesame (Binatil-1/2) Barind areas Save about 80% water, profitable up to 68% compared to existing pattern. 4. Cropping pattern for Barind areas Cropping Pattern Location Remarks T.aman (Binadhan-7)  Mustard (Binasarisha-4)  BRRI dhan29 Netrokona (Haor area) Profitable up to 55% compared to existing pattern.  Cropping intensity increased by 200 to 300% 5. Profitable cropping pattern for Hoar area Contd.
  41. 41. contd 6. Soil Health services to farmers 7. Use of sewage slydge in crop production 8. Minimum tillage for wheat cultivation 9. Wheat cultivation in saline soil 10. Use of micronutrient for higher mungbean and mustard production 11. N-fertilizer management in rice cultivation 12. Use of press mud instead of TSP 13. Phosphetic fertilizer management in rice based cropping system
  42. 42. contd 14. Integrated nutrient management for three dominant cropping pattern: i) Boro  Grean manure  T. aman; ii) Wheat  T. aus  T. aman; iii) Mustard  Boro  T. aman 15. A new cropping pattern for saline soil of Feni 16. Control of pulse beetle by plant oils 17. Irrigation scheduling for the mustard varieties (Safal and Agrani) 18. Water saving in rice cultivation 19. Water-logging tolerance limit of sugarcane 20. Supplement irrigation for Binasail rice 21. Low cost irrigation
  43. 43. contd 22. Cultural management of disease 23. Varietal resistance to major diseases 24. Nitrate leaching in rice field 25. Solar energy in irrigation 26. Ground water status 27. Development of groundwater level measuring device (Water level indicator) 28. Climate change study 29.Shallow tube well installation to lift arsenic free water
  44. 44. contd 30. Development of new cropping pattern for salt affected soils through water management practices 31. Arsenic uptake by rice plant, and movement of arsenic in soil-plant system 32. Salt tolerant wheat genotypes 33. Water management in saline area 34. Farmers reasons for cultivating local varieties of T aman rice 35. Factors contributing to communication effectiveness 36. Profitability of Binasail cultivation 37. Homestead gardening model for year round fruit harvest 38. Use of urea super granule to reduce nitrogenous fertilizer
  45. 45. Procedures of technology dissemination 1. Adaptive trial / FOTs /Block farming / Demonstration (a) FOT (Farmers observation trial)/Adaptive trial / On-farm trial (b) Block farming /Block demonstration 2. Training (a) Farmers training (b) SAAO training (c) DAE, BADC, NGO personnel training 3. Seed distribution (Farmer, seed dealer, BADC, NGO, etc) 4. Field days 5. Field visit 6. Farmers rally 7. Mass media campaigns (Electronic and Print Media) (a) TV News, Radio News, Radio Talk, News Paper etc 8. Agricultural fair
  46. 46. Demonstration Demonstration is a visual as well as audio-visual teaching device that is effectively used for the farmers to understand and use of a technology/ an innovation
  47. 47. Types of Demonstration Result demonstration is a visual teaching technique when the results of a technology/ innovation are shown to the farmers demonstration. Method demonstration is an audio- visual teaching technique where the ways of doing certain activities are shown to group of people by an extension worker or trained leader.
  48. 48. Objective of Demonstration 1. It brings research to the doors of the farmers 2. It upholds the principles of seeing is believing and learning by doing 3. It is used as a vital media for communication dissemination and diffusion of information 4. It provides scientists with a `field laboratory’ and problem-solving platform
  49. 49. Cont’d 5. It shows the worth, value and potentialities of techniques 6. It provides the advantages of improved practices 7. It develops local leadership among farmers 8. It accelerates and provides subject-matter for training in the forms and use of extension methods
  50. 50. Types of result demonstration 1. Validation trial (small scale) i) Before release a variety: advanced line/ mutants- Adaptive trial/ALART/FOTs ii) After release a variety: new varietie(s)- Adaptive trial/ALART/FOTs 2. Up scaling (Large scale): popular varietie(s)- i) Block farming/demonstration