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Burnham Fb Cs Final 25sep09

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This presentation completes the arc between the City Beautiful movement of early 20th century and the current emphasis on place-making using North Michigan Avenue as an example.

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Burnham Fb Cs Final 25sep09

  1. 1. Image from the Art Institute of Chicago Burnham Centennial Website Daniel Burnham: If He Only Had Form-Based Codes in His Time! ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Mahender Vasandani President, M Square | Urban Design APA Upper Midwest Conference September 25, 2009
  2. 2. From Late 19 th -Early 20 th Century Beautiful Movement to… In the Broadest Sense… 2 Late 20 th -21 st Century New Urbanist Movement
  3. 3. What I Will Talk About : <ul><li>Focus on North Michigan Avenue </li></ul><ul><li>(John W. Stamper, “Chicago’s North Michigan Avenue, Planning and Development, 1900-1930) </li></ul><ul><li>Burnham/Bennett Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Post-Burnham Plan Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>What Was Actually Built </li></ul><ul><li>Highlights of Form-Based Codes </li></ul><ul><li>What Could Have Form-Based Codes Done? </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons We Can Learn from the City Beautiful </li></ul><ul><li>Movement/Burnham Plan for Michigan Avenue </li></ul>Specifically… 3
  4. 4. Burnham’s Inspiration Champs Elysees, Paris 4 A Prime Beaux-Arts Example of “City As Architecture”
  5. 5. North Michigan Avenue: Burnham Plan Recommendations A Champs Elysees For Chicago Images Courtesy of John Stamper, Author, Chicago’s North Michigan Avenue 5
  6. 6. Burnham’s Inspiration Rue de Rivoli: Haussmann’s “ Street Architecture” 6
  7. 7. Lessons from Haussmann’s Paris -- 1909 Michigan Avenue: Burnham + Post- Burnham Plan Recommendations Image Courtesy of John Stamper, Author, Chicago’s North Michigan Avenue NCBDA Plan 1918 7
  8. 8. North Michigan Avenue Today Built Urban Form Radically Different from the Burnham Plan Recommendations 8
  9. 9. North Michigan Avenue (North of River): 1920’s 9 Built Urban Form Started to Change in 1920’s; Little Regard For Plan Height Limits Burnham Brothers, Inc. Architects: Central Life Insurance Bldg. 1923-24
  10. 10. Michigan Avenue: Post-Burnham Plan Recommendations Urban Form Study, Andrew Rebori, 1918 Image Courtesy of John Stamper, Author, Chicago’s North Michigan Avenue 10
  11. 11. Michigan Avenue: Post-Burnham Plan Recommendations Image Courtesy of John Stamper, Author, Chicago’s North Michigan Avenue Urban Form Study, Andrew Rebori, 1918 11
  12. 12. North Michigan Avenue: Buildings from 1920s 1921, 24 1929 1925 Michigan Ave. Bridge Opened in 1920 12
  13. 13. “ Corporate” Statements: North Michigan Avenue: 1920s 13 Emphasis on Boldness And Beauty...But on Individual Buildings Tribune Tower Competition 1922 Wrigley Building 1919-22 Medinah Club 1925
  14. 14. North Michigan Avenue (South of River): 1920’s Bell Building 1924 14 Built Urban Form Started to Change in 1920’s; Little Regard For Plan Height Limits 1909 Burnham Plan (Jules Guerin)
  15. 15. North Michigan Avenue (South of River) Today Built Urban Form Radically Different from the Burnham Plan Recommendations Bell 1924 15
  16. 16. Michigan Avenue (South Water St): Post-Burnham (1921) Recommendations Bold Parisian Ambitions: Sill Planning for Uniform Building Heights after… Image Courtesy of John Stamper, Author, Chicago’s North Michigan Avenue South Water Street Fruit Market, 1890s+ 16
  17. 17. Wacker Drive (South Water St) Today Building Bulk and Form Different Today than Conceived in 1921 17
  18. 18. <ul><li>Based on An Adopted Community Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Mix Uses </li></ul><ul><li>Prescribe What is Desirable </li></ul><ul><li>Predictable Building/Urban Form </li></ul><ul><li>(No F.A.R.s or Density Limits, But </li></ul><ul><li>Bulk Limits ) </li></ul><ul><li>Predetermined Vision Based on </li></ul><ul><li>Public Support; Can Help </li></ul><ul><li>Retain Existing Community Character </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural Standards (Also Landscape Standards/Roadway Design Standards) </li></ul><ul><li>Power of Place </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Abstract Zoning Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Segregate Uses </li></ul><ul><li>Proscribe (What Not Allowed) </li></ul><ul><li>Unpredictable Building Bulk/Form </li></ul><ul><li>(Maximize F.A.R.s and Densities) </li></ul><ul><li>Unpredictable Character </li></ul><ul><li>No Architectural Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>No Sense of Place </li></ul><ul><li>FBCs </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional Zoning Codes </li></ul>Highlights of Form-Based Codes As Compared to Conventional Zoning 18
  19. 19. <ul><li>Adopted for a Specific Urban Area </li></ul><ul><li>More graphic; More Easily Understood and Enforced </li></ul><ul><li>Includes Integrated Standards for: </li></ul><ul><li>Thoroughfares, Frontages, Building Types, Public Space, </li></ul><ul><li>Landscaping – All Linked to a Regulating Plan </li></ul>Highlights of Form-Based Codes 19
  20. 20. If DHB Had Got a FBC Adopted in His Time to Implement the 1909 Plan: Uniform Heights and Bulk, and “Street” Architecture; No Eclectic Architecture or Corporate “Statements” ( If Politically Feasible) 20
  21. 21. Fundamentally…Is Eclectic Architecture Better, Or Is Uniform Architecture Better? It Depends… … on How Good Is the Architecture 21
  22. 22. Is Eclectic Better, Or Is Uniform Better? An Ensemble of Well-Designed Buildings in Different Styles Can Work Well 22
  23. 23. Is Eclectic Better, Or Is Uniform Better? Poorly Designed Buildings Can Neither Work as An Ensemble Nor as “Street Architecture” Bottom Line: Whether Eclectic or Uniform, Quality of Architecture Is Important in Establishing Character of a Place; Form-Based Codes Provide Control Over Character in Place-Making 23
  24. 24. Character of a Place Is Defined By: How Buildings Relate to the Public Realm at the Street Level 24
  25. 25. Character of a Place Is Defined By: The Types of Uses Allowed in an Area (Michigan Avenue was designed from Day One to be an Up-Market Street) 25
  26. 26. Character of a Place Is Defined By: The Placement of Buildings in Relation to the Street 26
  27. 27. Character of a Place Is Defined By: The Type of Landscaping and How It Relates to the Buildings and Streets 27
  28. 28. Character of a Place Is Defined By: And How the Landscaping Relates to Sidewalks 28
  29. 29. Character of a Place Is Defined By: The Way BULK and Height of Buildings Relate to Streets/Street Widths 29
  30. 30. Lessons Learned from Michigan Avenue Daniel Hudson Burnham Inspired Architects and Planners of His Time and Subsequent Generations To Think Big. And, to Emphasize Civic Beauty of a City . About Paris, He Said: “… more beautiful, unified and efficient arrangement of all its parts, all interconnected with handsomely landscaped streets and boulevards. Gracing this noble city would be noble (public) architecture…” 30
  31. 31. Lessons Learned from Michigan Avenue 31 While Uniform Heights were a casualty of successful businesses were creating unique identities, Beautiful Architecture –individual and civic – is a legacy of the Burnham Plan Landscaped Streets and Boulevards are another legacy of the Burnham Plan Over the years, in the spirit of Burnham, Chicago has made North Michigan Avenue into a world-class destination. Many of the City’s design achievements (without a Form-Base Code) can be more easily achieved today by other communities with the help of FBCs.
  32. 32. Lessons Learned from Michigan Avenue for a Good Form-Based Code <ul><li>Create Good Architecture – Private and Civic -- With Form-Based </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural Standards (This is A Must) </li></ul><ul><li>Create Building Bulk and Building Placement Standards </li></ul><ul><li>3. Create Street and Sidewalk Standards </li></ul><ul><li>4. Create Streetscape and Landscaping Standards </li></ul><ul><li>5. Create a List of Permitted Uses (Typically not included in FBCs) </li></ul><ul><li>Create an Urban Design Plan and a Regulating Plan with the above </li></ul><ul><li>Standards (This actually is the first step) </li></ul>32
  33. 33. Daniel Burnham: If He Only Had Form-Based Codes in His Time! ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Thank You! Mahender Vasandani President, M Square | Urban Design T: 630.845.1202 E: mgv@msqre.com

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