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  1. 1. Prof. Salman Abdul Moiz School of Computer & Information Sciences UNIVERSITY OF HYDERABAD Technical Paper Writing
  2. 2. Technical Paper Writing Writing is easy.All you do is stare at a blank sheet of paper until drops of blood form on your forehead.--- Gene Fowler
  3. 3. Presentation Layout  Taxonomy ofTechnical Papers  Narrative Flow of the paper  Contents and Logical chronology of the paper  Impact Factor and Indexing
  4. 4. Are you ready to Publish?  Consider publishing when you feel that you have information that contributes to the advances in scientific field.  This can include one of the following:  One is presenting new, original methods and results  Rationalising, refining or reinterpreting the published results  Reviewing or summarising a particular subject or field  A good manuscript is clear, useful and presented in a logical manner such that the readers can grasp its contribution easily.
  5. 5. Technical Paper  Technical paper:Writing of organized analysis of a subject to record and disseminate information or knowledge or to present a point of view on a selected topic.  Objectives  It is usually written for external audience  Briefly and clearly explained  Routine details need to be avoided  Computer Program may not be included.
  6. 6.  Conference Papers  Journal Papers  Survey Paper  Term Paper  Research Paper  White Paper Taxonomy of Technical Papers
  7. 7. Conference Paper  A Conference paper is appropriate to disseminate work in progress research findings.  Its typically 6-10 pages. However it could also include short papers of 2 or 4 pages.  Typically contains 15 references and about 3-4 figures/tables.  A good way to start the research career.
  8. 8. Journal Paper  A Journal paper or full paper is appropriate to disseminate completed research findings.  Its typically 10-20 pages. However it may not have any specific limit on number of pages  Typically contains 25 references and about 5-6 figures/tables.  A good way to build a research career.  Review Paper: Provides a good way to consolidate a scientific research career, typically consist of 10+pages, 5+figures, 50+references
  9. 9. Writing Papers is a Skill  Model – I  Model-II Idea Do research Write paper Idea Do research Write paper Idea Write paper Do research
  10. 10.  You need to have a Novel idea before you can write a paper  Write a Paper and give a talk about any idea no matter how insignificant it may seem to you.  The talk opens a dialogue with others: reality check, critique and collaboration
  11. 11. The Idea  Figure out what your idea is  Make certain that the reader is in no doubt what the idea is. Be 100% explicit:  “The main idea of this paper is....”  “In this section we present the main contributions of the paper.”  Many papers contain good ideas, but do not distil what they are.
  12. 12. Narrative Flow  Here is a problem  It’s an interesting problem  It’s an unsolved problem  Here is my idea  My idea works (details, data)  Here’s how my idea compares to other people’s approaches I wish I knew how to solve that! I see how that works. Ingenious!
  13. 13.  Many papers are badly written and hard to understand.  This is a pity, because their good ideas may go unappreciated.  Following simple guidelines can dramatically improve the quality of your papers.  The feedback you get from others will in turn improve your research
  14. 14. Structure  Title  Author,Affiliation, Email Id //Blind Review//  Abstract  Introduction  RelatedWork  Problem  Idea  Details  Conclusion & FutureWork  References  Acknowledgements
  15. 15. Title  Title draws readers to your work.  Its one of the factors for increasing the impact factor.  Is expected to include keywords of the contribution  Make title interesting and attractive  Shouldn’t be long (may be typically around 12-13 words max)
  16. 16. Abstract  Better write it at the end.  Used by program committee members to decide which papers to read  Four sentences [Kent Beck] - State the problem - Say why it’s an interesting problem - Say what your solution achieves - Say what follows from your solution Keywords
  17. 17. Introduction  Describe the Problem  Introduce the problem. //Give examples if needed//  Background and Context  Articulate the need of the study/work  StateYour contributions  The list of contributions drives the entire paper: the paper substantiates the claims you have made  Reader thinks “gosh, if they can really deliver this, that’s be exciting; I’d better read on”  Outline of the paper  Specify the organization of remaining part of the paper
  18. 18. Related Work Related work Your reader Your idea We adopt the notion of transaction from Brown [1], as modified for distributed systems byWhite [2], using the four-phase interpolation algorithm of Green [3]. Our work differs fromWhite in our advanced revocation protocol, which deals with the case of priority inversion as described byYellow [4].
  19. 19. Presenting the Idea 3.The idea Consider a bifurcated semi-lattice E, over a hyper-modulated signature P. Suppose ai is an element of E. Then we know for every such ai there is an epi-modulus j, such that aj < ai.  Sounds impressive...but  Sends readers to sleep  In a paper you MUST provide the details, but FIRST convey the idea
  20. 20. The details: evidence  Your introduction makes claims.  The body of the paper provides evidence to support each claim.  Check each claim in the introduction, identify the evidence, and forward-reference it from the claim.  Evidence can be: analysis and comparison, theorems, measurements, case studies more importantly formal proofs
  21. 21. Results and Discussion  Simulate your Ideas  Collect Data  Plot Results  Describe the direct observation first  Identify the features/characteristics responsible in achieving the results  Show how the results changes when the features/characteristics are changed.  Note down the trends during scaling  Compare with the earlier approaches
  22. 22. Figures and Tables  The captions should be short and comprehensive.  Axes in the graphs should be labeled properly.  Specify the units on each axes.  If there are multiple curves in graphs, they need to be differentiated appropriately with proper colors or shadings
  23. 23. Conclusion  Summary of the findings.  Summarize your claims  What are key parameters  How results are related to these parameters  How good is your solution/model/approach  How does your work contribute the objectives stated in Introduction section.
  24. 24. Impact Factor  A measure reflecting the average number of citations to articles published.  If a Journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2013, then its papers published in 2011 and 2012 received 3 citations each on average in 2013.The 2013 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows: A = the number of times articles published in 2011 and 2012 were cited by indexed journals during 2013. B = the total number of "citable items" published by that journal in 2011 and 2012. ("Citable items" are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2013 impact factor =A/B.
  25. 25. Thee 2013 Impact factor for the journal A= Number of times articles or other items published in A during 2011 & 2012 were cited in indexed journals* during 2009 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Number of “citable” articles** published in A in 2011 & 2012 That is: Cites in 2013 to items published in 2011 + 2012 = 9533 + 12554 = 22087 Number of items published in A in 2011 + 2012 = 343 + 366 = 709 Impact Factor = Cites to recent items/ Number of recent items published =22087/709 = 31.152
  26. 26. Indexing  Indexation of a journal/conference proceedings is considered a reflection of its quality. Indexed journals are considered to be of higher scientific quality as compared to non-indexed journals  SCI (Science Citation Index)  SCIE (SCI-Emerging)  Scopus  DBLP  WOS (Web of Science)  ICI (Indian Citation Index)
  27. 27.  H-index:The h-index serves as an alternative to more traditional journal impact factor metrics in the evaluation of the impact of the work of a particular researcher. Because only the most highly cited articles contribute to the h-index, its determination is a simpler process.  The h-index of a publication is the largest number h such that at least h articles in that publication were cited at least h times each.  I10-index: Number of publications with atleast 10 citations
  28. 28. Google Scholar
  29. 29. Scopus
  30. 30. Web of Science
  31. 31. ORCID
  32. 32. Microsoft Academic
  33. 33. Choosing the Target Journal  Use the Journals “Guide forAuthors”  Use Journal Finder(s)    Check Journal rankings   Journal rank, H-Index,Total documents, citations, etc.  Special Issues (with Impact Factors)   Top 600 Journals,Top Conferences,
  34. 34. Stay Safe Stay at Home Take Care