Post Harvest Technology
Post harvest management is compulsory for
freshment and quality of vegetables.
Reducing postharvest losses
Main objectives of applying postharvest technology
3. Post Harvest Tech. Inculdes:-
Sorting and Grading
Washing and Sanitizing
Cooling and Storage
Quality cannot be improved after harvest, only
maintained; therefore, it is important to harvest at the
proper maturity stage and at peak quality.
Immature or over mature produce may not last as long
in storage as that picked at proper maturity.
5. Sorting and Grading
Importance Of sorting and Grading
Basis on which leafy vegetables are sorted and graded
Several types of grading machines have been developed
for different vegetables.
6. Washing & Sanitizing
Most leafy vegetables are washed in clean water
to remove dirt and other debris and surface
This is especially important during rainy weather
as the produce often is contaminated with soil.
Essential factors of sanitation
Proper packing is essential to maintain the freshness of
Design of packaging
Different kinds of containers are used for leafy
vegetables, depending on the market and value of the
For export and the local markets.
8. Modified Atmosphere Packaging(MAP)
Use of MAP
MAP is exemplified by the use of polymeric film as
packing material, which can be employed during
transport and storage.
Plastic films can be used to pack specific volumes of
produce, as individual wrapping, or as container liners.
Cooling is the foundation of produce quality protection.
Cooling extend the shelf life
Cooling and Storage
Use of ice :-
In developing countries, ice packing or top icing is
increasingly used for leafy vegetables due to increasing
availability of ice.
Ice packing can be used to cool vegetables during
transport, distribution and storage .
10. Cold storage
• If refrigerated facility is available use it , the most effective
method in preserving produce quality
• Tropical produce (tomato, chilli , bitter gourd, cucumber,
egg plant , yard long bean) is chill-injured below
recommended temperature. Injury is hastened at low
relative humidity (RH).
Minimizing losses during transport necessitates special
attention to vehicles , equipment, infrastructure, and
In transportation major losses
By improper handling during loading and unloading
over loading without separation of produce, which
leads to overheating and mechanical injury to produce at
the bottom of the stack
lack of ventilation of the produce.
So, Postharvest operations must address
Stacking of containers in the transport load provides one
of the major challenges to reduce mechanical injury.
This is a particular problem for vegetables such as
cabbages packed in baskets or big plastic bags
It is very important that horticultural produce reaches the
market as soon as it is possible and at a time when the
market needs it the most.
A perfect and efficient marketing system is essential to
avoid the losses of fruits and vegetables, and also to get
a good return from the same.
Glutting should be avoided and the market should be so
facilitated as to reduce the loss to the minimum.
14. POST HARVEST HANDLING AND
STORAGE of OKRA :-
Okra has a short storage life.
A fresh good pod can be stored for 7-10 days at 7-10 ˚C
temperature and 90-95% relative humidity.
At temperatures below 7˚C Okra is subjected to chilling
injury, which results in surface discoloration, pitting and
15. POST HARVEST HANDLING OF
• MAP: (modified atmosphere packaging) is a technique
used for prolonging the postharvest life of fresh fruits and
• Storage of broccoli in MAP reduced weight loss and
respiration rate , maintained ascorbic acid , total antioxidant
activity, gluco sinolate contents and visual quality of
• Colour measurement.
Post-harvest loss of fruits and vegetables can be
considerably minimized and their storage life can be
greatly increased by careful manipulation of these
The loss can be minimized by adopting necessary
cultural operations, careful handling and packaging.
The use of appropriate chemicals at pre and post-
harvest stage, may extend the availability of fruits
and vegetables over a long period by protecting
them from microbial as well as environmental
Therefore, steps as already mentioned should be
adopted, according to the suitability, and post-
harvest loss of green leafy vegetables should be
kept at minimum.