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Important determinants of buying behaviour process
Of buying behaviour process
SMART LEARNING WAY
Flow of presentation
• Factors of buying behaviour
• Buying behaviour process
• Review of the presentation
• Buyer behaviour is the attempt to understand
and predict human actions in the buying role. It
has assumed growing importance under
market–oriented or customer- oriented
marketing planning and management .
• Buyers market for many product and the
growth of consumerism and consumer
legislation since 1960.Buyer behaviour is one
of the most important keys to successful
• Edward W. Cundiff and Richard R. Still
defined “ Process whereby individuals
decide whether, what, when, where, how
and from whom to purchase goods and
Webster defined as “ all
psychological, social and physical behaviour of
potential customer as they become aware of,
evaluate, purchase, consume, and tell others
about products and services.”
each element of this definition is
1. Buyer behaviour involves both individual
processes and group processes.
2. Buyer behaviour is reflected from awareness
right through post-purchase evaluation
indicating satisfaction or non-satisfaction
3. Buyer behaviour includes communication,
purchasing and consumption behaviour.
4. Consumer behaviour is basically social in
nature. Hence, social environment plays an
important role in shaping buyer behaviour.
5. Buyer behaviour includes both consumer and
business buyer behaviour.
Factor of buying behaviour
cultural social personal psychological
1. Cultural factors:-
Cultural factors have deep related influence on
consumer behaviour. These factors include
culture, sub-culture and social class.
2. Social factors:-
The social factors which include
reference groups, family and social roles and
status also influence the consumer behaviour.
Designing a marketing strategy, the marketer
must carefully consider the nature and extent
of social influences on the potential customers.
3. Personal factors:-
A consumer behaviour is also influenced
by personal factors like age and life cycle,
occupation, economic circumstances, life style
4. Psychological factors:-
psychological factors like motivation,
perception, learning and beliefs and attitudes
influence the consumer behaviour
Buying behaviour process
1. Perceived want or desire
2. Information search
3. Evaluation of alternatives
4. Purchase decision
5. post-purchase experience and behaviour
1. Perceived want or desire:-
Buying process begins when a person
begins to feel that a certain need or desire has
arisen and it has to be satisfied.
The intensity of want will indicate the
speed with which a person will move to fulfill the
unsatisfied want. Other less pressing wants may
have to be postponed as the buyer cannot have
unlimited purchasing power.
marketing management should offer
appropriate cues in the communications which
can promote the sale of products.
Communication-mix not only triggers
true needs and desires of customers but also
offers attractive cues or selling point in the
2. Information search :-
Aroused needs can be satisfied promptly
when the desired product is not only known but
also easily available, e.g., water to satisfy our
thirst. But when it is not clear what type or brand
of the product can offer best satisfaction and
where and now it can be secured, the person
will have to search for relevant information
about the brand, location and the manner of
obtaining the product.
Consumer can tap many sources of
information e.g. family, friends, neighbors,
opinion leaders and acquaintances. Marketers
also provide relevant information through
salesmen, advertising, dealers, packaging, sales
promotion and window display.
we have also mass-media like newspapers,
radio, television. Package label can provide
organizations also can offer necessary
information and guidance.
marketers are expected to provide reliable,
up-to-date and adequate information regarding
their products or services.
This is the pressing demand of
consumerism. Average consumers are always in
need of reliable guidance and information. Seller
is expected to provide these services.
3. Evaluation of alternatives :-
available information can be employed to
evaluate the alternatives (products or brands).
This is the critical stage in the process of buying
particularly costly durable goods.
There are several important elements in
the process of evaluation :
1. A product is viewed as a bundle of attributes.
These attributes or features are used for
evaluating alternative brands.
• for example, a product like tea has certain
common attributes such as taste, flavour,
strength, aroma, colour, number of cups per
packet and price. Consumers will have
different preferences for these attributes.
2. Information cues or hints about a set of
characteristics of the product or brand such as
quality, price, distinctiveness, availability, etc.
are provided by marketers. These can be
compared and evaluated in the buying process.
3. Brand images and brand concepts can help in
the evaluation of alternative.
4. In order to reduce the number of alternatives,
some consumers may consider only more critical
attributes and mention the level for these
in saree purchases, women first specify
price range to eliminate many alternatives then
specify colours to further reduce alternatives and
finally compare the remaining alternatives like
quality, price, texture, length etc.
5. Occasionally, consumers, may use an
evaluation process permitting trade offs among
marketers should grasp thoroughly the
process and utility function for designing and
promoting a product that will be readily
acceptable in the market.
4. Purchase decision :-
while the consumer is evaluating the
alternatives, she/he will develop some likes and
dislikes about the alternative brands. This
attitude towards brands influences her/his
intention to buy. Other factors which may
influence the intention to purchase are
1. Social factors e.g. attitude of reference group
members on whom she/he relies for final
selection she/he may have to need their
2. Situational factors like availability, dealer terms,
falling prices due to recession, loss of job or
3. Perceived risk may influence the decision to
purchase. Higher priced products involve higher
degree of risk. Sophisticated products involve
performance risk. Consumers may not have
confidence in foreign products involving higher
cost and they would prefer national brands to
reduce risks and problems of service after sale.
5. post-purchase experience
The brand purchase and the product use
provides feedback of information regarding
attitudes. If the level of satisfaction derived is as
per expectations. It will create brand preference
influencing future purchase. But if the purchased
brand does not yield desired satisfaction.
Negative feelings will occur and this will create
anxiety and doubts. This phenomenon is called
cognitive dissonance (post-purchase anxiety).
There will be lack of harmony between the
buyer’s beliefs and his/her purchase decision
(behaviour). The consumer will wonder (after
buying a godrej refrigerator) whether he/she
would have been better off by buying a
kelvinator refrigerator. The greater the
importance of your purchase decision and more
the attractiveness of your rejected alternative
(kelvinator), the higher will be the degree of
dissatisfaction or dissonance.
A dejected buyer may try to reduce his
dissonance by returning goderj refrigerator, if
possible and buy kelvinator. He may reduce the
dissonance cognition by changing his beliefs and
develop liking for godrej. Marketer may try to
create dissonance by attracting users of other
brands to his brand. Advertising and sales
promotion can help marketer in this job of brand
switching. onida TV. ads achieved this.
• For marketing management the most
important behaviour on the part of a
prospective buyer or consumer is the
process of deciding whether to buy or not to
• The purchaser passes through five distinct
stages in taking a decision for
purchasing a particular commodity. These
stages are need arousal, information
search, evaluation behaviour, purchase
decision, post-purchase feelings.
Review of the presentation
• Factors of buying behaviour
• Buying behaviour process
• marketing management
- S. A. Sherlekar
Himalaya publishing house
• principle and practice of marketing in India.
-Dr. C. B. Mamoria
-R. L. Joshi
-Dr. N. I. Mulla
• Marketing a managerial introduction
- J. C. Gandhi
Tata MC Graw –Hill Publishing company
• Modern marketing
- PILLAI R. H. N.
Himalaya publishing house