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Mapping Cultural Heritage Information to CIDOC-CRM

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Presentation at the Semantics & Cultural Heritage meet-up at The British Museum, London, September 12, 2014

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Mapping Cultural Heritage Information to CIDOC-CRM

  1. 1. Mapping Cultural Heritage Information to CIDOC-CRM Maria Theodoridou Foundation for Research and Technology – Hellas Institute of Computer Science
  2. 2. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014  X3ML An interface for sustainable management of data mapping process  Use Case Mapping the dFMRÖ coin database to CIDOC-CRM 2 Overview
  3. 3. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014 X3ML An interface for sustainable management of data mapping process Haridimos Kondylakis, Martin Doerr FORTH-ICS Gerald de Jong Delving B.V. Dominic Oldman British Museum 3
  4. 4. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014 Cultural Diversity and Data Standards  Cultural information is more than a domain:  Collection description (art, archeology, natural history….)  Archives and literature (records, treaties, letters, artful works..)  Administration, preservation, conservation of material heritage  Science and scholarship – investigation, interpretation  Presentation – exhibition making, teaching, publication  But how to make a documentation standard?  Each aspect needs its methods, forms, communication means  Data overlap, but do not fit in one schema 4
  5. 5. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014 “One model to rule them all” The CIDOC CRM  The CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model  A collaboration with the International Council of Museums  An ontology of 86 classes and 137 properties for culture and more  With the capacity to explain hundreds of (meta)data formats  Accepted by ISO TC46 in September 2000  International standard since 2006 - ISO 21127:2006  Serving as:  intellectual guide to create schemata, formats, profiles  A language for analysis of existing sources for integration/mediation “Identify elements with common meaning”  Transportation format for data integration / migration / Internet 5
  6. 6. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014 Mappings  Mapping Rule “a sufficient specification for the transformation of each instance of a source schema into an instance of a target schema while preserving as much as possible its initial ‘meaning’ ”  In practice mappings are produced manually by Domain/IT experts  Labor-intensive  Error prone  Time consuming CIDOC-CRM DB1 DB2 … DBn Mappings 6
  7. 7. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014 Existing Mapping Approaches  Enormous amount of work already developed  Relational databases to RDF/S and OWL models  Files/XMLs to RDF/S  However previous approaches lack understanding of:  the borders between semantics and programming  the semantic heterogeneity cases between models  the business process that should be part of it 7
  8. 8. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014 X3ML Workflow Schema Matching CIDOC -CRM DB2 DB2 DB2 Domain Experts Schema Matching Definition file URI generation specification IT Experts Terminology Mapping 8
  9. 9. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014 X3ML Mapping format 9
  10. 10. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014 X3ML – Additional Nodes 10
  11. 11. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014 X3ML - Intermediate Paths 11
  12. 12. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014 X3ML – Variables, Conditions, Info & Comments Blocks <if> <exists>[xpath]</exists> </if> <if><not> <if><exists>[xpath]</exists></if> </not></if> <if> <equals value="[value-for-comparison]">[ xpath]</equals> </if> <if><not> <if><equals value="[value-for-comparison]">[ xpath]</equals></if> </not></if> <x3ml> <info> ... various fields describing the mapping ... </info> <namespaces/> <mappings> <mapping> <domain> <comments> ... various notes about the domain ... </comments> </domain> <link> <path> <comments> ... various notes about the path ... </comments> </path> <range> <comments> ... various notes about the range ... </comments> </range> </link> </mapping> </mappings> <comments> ... various notes about the mappings ... </comments> </x3ml> <entity variable="p1"> [generate the value] </entity> 12
  13. 13. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014 Use Case: Mapping the dFMRÖ coin database to CIDOC-CRM 13 Martin Doerr, Maria Theodoridou FORTH-ICS Edeltraud Aspöck, Klaus Vondrovec ÖAW
  14. 14. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014 Advanced Research Infrastructure for Archaeological Dataset Networking in Europe FP7-INFRASTRUCTURES-2012-1 EU project , no: 313193 http://www.ariadne-infrastructure.eu/ Primary goals  To integrate existing archaeological research infrastructures  To enable the use of distributed datasets and services  To develop new and powerful technologies as an integral component of the archaeological research methodology 14
  15. 15. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014  CIDOC-CRM was chosen as ARIADNE’s integration platform since its primary role is to enable information exchange and integration between heterogeneous sources of cultural heritage information.  During the first year of ARIADNE, several mapping activities were initiated trying to convert existing schemata of archaeological data to CIDOC-CRM  Content providers were supported by FORTH  ÖAW worked on the mapping of four data bases:  dFMRÖ, a relational database of ancient Roman coin finds from Austria and Romania  UK Material Pool Database (Site DB)  UK Thunau Database (Image DB)  Franzhausen Kokoron Database (Cemetery DB) 15
  16. 16. dFMRÖ digitale FundMünzen der Römischen Zeit in Österreich Austrian Academy of Sciences Numismatic Commission Klaus Vondrovec klaus.vondrovec@khm.at Access DB since 1999 MySQL DB online since 2007 http://www.oeaw.ac.at/numismatik/projekte/dfmroe/dfmroe.html 16
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  18. 18. Tables
  19. 19. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014 dFMRÖ coin db: mapping Coin 19 Target Domain: E22 Man-Made Object Source Domain: //COIN  Two approaches for defining Coin  Introduce a specialization of E22 Man-Made Object: Exx Coin subclass of E22 Man-Made Object  Define the Type of E22 Man-Made Object: E22 Man-Made Object. P2 has type: E55 Type = “Coin”  To choose we need to answer the question: Does the new class Coin have new properties that are not available in E22? E55 Type Coin
  20. 20. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014 dFMRÖ coin db: Identifiers 20 Target Range: E41 Appellation Target Domain: E22 Man-Made Object Target Path: P1 is identified by Source Path: ID Source Domain: //COIN Source Range: ID E55 Type Coin Guideline: We map local identifiers in relational database tables explicitly only if these identifiers are visible in the user interface and used in other documents as well. Alternatively, we use the local database identifiers only for generating URIs for the record instance, here the coin instance, and do NOT map the COIN.ID at all.
  21. 21. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014 Mapping joins 21 Target Range: E4 Period Target Domain: E22 Man-Made Object P108i was produced by Source Path: COUNTRY_ID == COYNTRY_ID Source Domain: //Coin Source Range: //COUNTRY P10 falls within E12 Production p1
  22. 22. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014 Mixing categorical and factual info  Need to separate categorical and factual data Inconsistent information:  Find spot -> for a specific coin  Historical facts -> for a category of coins 22
  23. 23. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014 Categorical production 23 P108i was produced by PC2 is example of PC1 produced things of type  Need to extend the model in order to support categorical production (similar to FRBR R26 produced things of type and R7 is example of)  Type can take values such as "AU from Rome, mint ..." which characterize the "edition" of the mint that can be recognized to be outcome of the same minting process.  Typically we would assume that there is a unique stamp used. E12 Production p1 E55 Type AU from Rome E22 Man-Made Object MyCoin
  24. 24. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014 P2 has type P17 was motivated by Needs specialization “gave order” P108 has produced P2 has type E55 Type AU from Rome, mint … Mixing categorical and factual info PC1 produced things of type E55 Type “AU” (DENOMINATION) E55 Type Issuing E22 Man-Made Object MyCoin E12 Production p1 E7 Activity ia1
  25. 25. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014 Issuer 25 Target Range: E39 Actor Target Domain: E22 Man-Made Object P108i was produced by Source Path: ISSUER_ID == PR_ID Source Domain: //COIN Source Range: //ISSUER P14 carried out by E12 Production p1 "Issuer" is an accidental role, does not characterize an actor independently from particular contexts of activity. Therefore the Actor does not have the type "Issuer" but the activity only has the type "Issuing" P17 was motivated by E7 Activity ia1 E55 Type Issuing
  26. 26. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014 dFMRÖ coin db 26
  27. 27. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014 dFMRÖ coin db 27
  28. 28. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014 dFMRÖ coin db 28
  29. 29. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014 CIDOC CRM Mapping Repository 29 Published schema matching definitions are available at: http://139.91.183.3:9080/mapping_technology/ The schema matching definition (Version 1.0) format is available: http://139.91.183.3:9080/mapping_technology/xsd/x3ml/x3ml_v1.0.xsd The Mapping Memory Manager (3M) is available: http://139.91.183.3:9080/3M/ Domain experts are able to easily understand & edit X3ML mapping files You are kindly invited to send us your schema matching definition.
  30. 30. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014 Lessons from mapping experiences  Semantic Interoperability can be defined by the capability of mapping  Mapping for epistemic networks is relatively simple:  Specialist/primary information databases frequently employ a flat schema, reducing complex relationships into simple fields  Source fields frequently map to composite paths under the CRM, making semantics explicit using a small set of primitives  Intermediate nodes are postulated or deduced (e.g., “production” from “coin”, “birth” from “person”). They are the hooks for integration with complementary sources  Cardinality constraints must not be enforced= Alternative or incomplete knowledge  Domain experts easily learn schema mapping  IT experts may not understand meaning, underestimate it or are bored by it!  Intuitive tools for domain experts needed:  Separate identifier matching from schema mapping  Separate terminology mediation from schema mapping 30
  31. 31. BM meet-up “Semantics and Cultural Heritage”, London, September 12, 2014 Thank you! 31

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