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Flower 4 .pdf

  2. CLOVE Synonyms: Flos Caryophylli, Caryophyllus. Part Used: Dried unexpanded flower buds of Eugenia aromatica (Syzygium aromaticum =Caryophyllus aromaticus) (Fam. Myrtaceae). ❖ Clove contains not more than 5% of its stalks and not more than 1% of foreign organic matter and yields not less than 15% v/w of volatile oil.
  3. Buds flowe r
  4. Morphological Description: ❑ The flower bud is bright reddish-brown to dark brown in color. ❑ It bears at the apex four thick, triangular sepals. ❑ The corolla consists of four fragile, unexpanded membranous petals alternated with the sepals. ❑ Stamens: tetradelphous. ❑ The gynaecium consists bicarbellary inferior ovary with numerous ovules attached to an axile placenta. ❑ The hypanthium is wrinkled externally and when indented by the fingernail exudes volatile oil.
  5. Morphological Description: ❑ Internally, the hypanthium shows the inferior ovary in its upper portion surrounded by a large outer zone containing numerous oil glands near the periphery and numerous vascular bundles near the ovary. ❑ Below the ovary, the hypanthium shows a central zone called columella surrounded by a dark lacunous layer in addition to the same outer zone as that surrounding the ovary.
  6. A transverse section in the hypanthium shows the following layers: ➢The Epidermis: It is formed of small, thick-walled cells with thick cuticle and showing anomocytic stomata. ➢The Parenchymatous layer: It contains numerous large oval schizolysogenous oil glands arranged in two or three intermixed layers. ➢The Collenchymatous layer: It contains cluster crystals of calcium oxalate and traversed by a ring of 20-50 vascular bundles. Each vascular bundle consists of xylem formed of delicate vessels, cellulosic phloem and pericycle showing lignified, fusiform, thick- walled pericyclic fibers. Histological Description:
  7. ➢The Lacunous layer: It is formed of thin-walled parenchyma. ➢The Columella: It is formed of parenchyma with numerous cluster crystals of calcium oxalate and surrounded by about 15 closely arranged small vascular bundles. ➢ In the region of the ovary, there is no lacunous layer or columella but instead there is a bilocular ovary. Histological Description:
  8. Microscopical Identification powder: Brown in color, with a strong characteristic aromatic odor and a pungent spicy taste, followed by slight numbness. Microscopically: it is characterized by 1.Fragments of epidermis with thick straight anticlinal walls and few anomocytic stomata. 2.Parenchymatous tissue showing entire or broken oil glands. 3.Parenchyma and collenchyma with cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. 4.Vascular strands showing delicate spiral vessels and lignified thick- walled fusiform isolated fibers. 5.Numerous pollen grains, either as an equilateral triangle with truncate apices or oval in outline. 6.Fragments of the fibrous layer of the anther. 7.Fragments of the filament showing oil glands, calcium oxalate clusters and central vascular strand. 8.Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate, but no prisms.
  9. Active Constituents: ❖Volatile oil (15-20%), which contains about 80 to 90% eugenol and 3% acetyleugenol. ❖Gallotannic acid (13%). ❖A white, odorless crystalline substance (Caryophyllin). Therapeutic Uses: 1. Aromatic stimulant. 2. Antiseptic, antiparasitic, and as digestive aid. 3. As spice. 4. Carminative and antispasmodic. 5. Diluted volatile oil is applied topically for relief of toothaches. 6. Eugenol is a starting material for synthetic vanillin. C6H5.NO2
  10. Drug available in the market containing the cloves
  11. Adverse effects • Liver: No true adverse effects following correct usage, But in overdoses has been suggested that eugenol-induced hepatotoxicity is similar to that seen with paracetamol poisoning. • Mucus membranes: If the essential oil has prolonged contact with gum tissue the herb can be irritating. • Use caution when applying essential oil internally.
  12. Chemical Identification: 1. Test for Eugenol: With Alcoholic 5% KOH, needle- shaped crystals of potassium eugenate are formed. 2. Test for Tannin: Mix a little of powdered cloves with a few drops of FeCl3 solution; a deep blue color is produced in all elements except fibers. Alc.5% KOH
  13. Other Clove Products and Adulteration: 1. Clove stalk: ❑ The main axis of the inflorescence shows opposite decussate branching and is called clove stalk. ❑ It is brownish, rough and irregularly wrinkled longitudinally, with less pleasant odor and yields about 5% volatile oil. ❑ It can be detected in powdered cloves by: o Presence of isodiametric thick-walled sclereids from the cortex. o Presence of prisms of calcium oxalate from the cortex and pith. 2. Mother Clove: ❑ It is the ripe fruits of clove; ovoid, brown and unilocular containing a single seed (only one ovule of the numerous ovules present in the bilocular ovary develops into a seed). It contains much less volatile oil. ❑ It can be detected in powdered cloves by presence of abundant starch, which is absent in clove. 3. Exhausted Clove: ❑ It is clove free from all or most of the oil, which has been removed by steam distillation. It can be detected by being darker, much shrunken and floats in H2O.
  14. LAVENDER Part Used: Dried flowers of Lavendula officinalis (Fam. Labiatae). Lavender flower contains not more than 2 % of foreign organic matters and yeilds not less than 0.5% v/w of volatile oil. Morphological Description: The flowers are nearly sessile. Lavender has a fragrant aromatic odor and an aromatic bitter some what camphoraceous taste. The Calyx: is formed of 5 united sepals, tubular, hairy, greyish-blue to bluish-violet in color. The corolla: is bilabiate, hairy, dark blue in color; the posterior lip is bilobed while the anterior is trilobed. The stamens: are 4, epipetalous and didynamous. The ovary: superior, bicarpellary and tetralocular.
  15. Histological Description: The epidermial cells of the bract shows diacytic stomata. ❑ Calyx and corolla bear: -Glandular hairs with very short unicellular stalk and 4 to 8-celled head of labiaceous type -- Characteristic branched unicellular and multicellular non-glandular hairs (candelabra hair) with pointed ends and warty cuticle, or branched with smooth cuticle. ❑ Corolla bears on the inner surface The epidermis has central papillae. Characteristic glandular hairs with unicellular globular head and a bicellular stalk, its basal cell being long and the other cell short and cylindrical. ❑ Anthers are covered with whip-shaped, unicellular non-glandular hairs. ❑ Pollen grains are almost spherical or hexagonal with 6 germ pores. ❑ Stigma is papillosed.
  16. Active Constituents: Volatile oil (0.8-2.8%), containing not less than 35% of the ester linalyl acetate, alcohols as linalool and geraniol, limonene and a sesquiterpene. Therapeutic Uses: 1. In manufacture of perfumes. 2. As flavoring agent in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. 3. Recommended for: burns, headaches, psoriasis, skin problems, stress, depression. 4. It is beneficial for the skin. 5. For fumigating clothes to keep them free from moths.
  17. HIBISCUS Synonyms: Karkadeh, Red Sorrel, Roselle. Part Used: Dried calyx and epicalyx of the flowers of Hibiscus subdariffa (Fam. Malvaceae). Morphological Description: ❖Hibiscus has a characteristic aromatic oduor and a warm, slightly acidic mucilaginous taste. ❖The drug consists of dark crimson red, 8-10 linear or oblong villose epicalyx segments, and purplish to crimson red, cup- shaped, 5 united segments of petaloid calyx
  18. Histological Description: 1. Epicalyx: Epidermal cells showing anomocytic stomata. Non-glandular Hairs, arising from ring-like cicatrix surrounded by epidermal cells. 2. Calyx: The outer (lower) epidermis consists of polygonal, tabular cells, showing anomocytic stomata, and non-glandular hairs of various types: ❖ Unicellular hairs as those of epicalyx. ❖ Alembic hairs near the veins. ❖ Cottony non-glandular hairs. ❖ Stellate cottony hair. ❖ Stellate hairs of large, straight, unicellular arms. ❖ Asperities of multicellular uniseriate structure, situated near the margin.
  19. The inner (upper) epidermis consists of polygonal tabular cells, larger than the lower, with straight, beaded anticlinal walls, smooth cuticle and no hairs or stomata. The mesophyll is parenchymatous, showing cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. Active Constituents: 1. Organic acids (15%), mainly citric, tartaric, malic and hibiscic acids. 2. Large amount of mucilage. 3. Coloring matter of anthocyanins (Hibiscin). 4. Flavonoids (hibiscetin).
  20. Therapeutic Uses: - Emollient. - Sedative, slightly diaphoretic. - Mild laxative. - Weight-reducing agent as hibiscin. - Digestive. mild antihypertensive agent. - Weight-reducing agent as hibiscin. - A substitute for tea and coffee. Chemical Identification: ➢ Boil 100 g of powdered Hibiscus flower in 300 mL of 1% HCl, filter; the filtrate is dark red. ➢ The filtrate + KOH → a blue color is produced. ➢ The filtrate + sodium acetate → a violet color appears. ➢ The filtrate + dilute NH4OH and 1-2 drops of FeCl3 →full black color is produced. ➢ The filtrate + conc. NH4OH → a green color appears. ➢ The filtrate + 10% lead acetate solution → a blue precipitate is deposited, due to the formation of a metal complex.
  21. Jasmin flower Origin: The flower of Jasminum grandifolium L., J. auriculatum L. and J. mesnyi L. Family: Oleaceae Description: The flower is white in color, fragrant aromatic odour and aromatic in taste. Histology: The calyx epidermis of isodiametric, slightly elongated cells with straight anticlinal walls, and covered with smooth cuticle showing anomocytic stomata, nonglandular, multicellular hairs biseriate at the base, uniseriate at the top. Corolla epidermis has no stomata and hairs.
  22. Constituents: Volatile oil contain benzyl acetate (65%), linalol (15.5%), linalyl acetate (7.5%), benzyl alcohol (6%), jasmone (3%), indole (2.5%), methyl anthranilate (0.5%), farnesol, geraniol and nerol Alkaloids as jasminine Uses: In preparation of Perfumes Cosmetics
  23. Tiliae flower Origin: Tilia is the dried inflorescence, with their attached bracts of Tilia europea L., Tilia cordata Mill., and Tilia platyphylla Scop. Family: Tiliaceae. ❖Tilia europaea is a large deciduous tree up to 15– 50 m tall with a trunk up to 2.5 m radius ❖Inflorescence: compound racemose inflorescence (a panicle) ❖The flower must be dried in the shade in thin layers, if dried in the sun or artificially, the drug loses completely its odour. Constituents: Glycosides, mucilage, tannins, bitter substances volatile oil and saponin. Uses: The infusion is used as: 1-Diaphoretic. 2- Stomachic. 3- Anodyne (relieving pain) in cough.
  24. Stylus Maydis (Corn Silk) Origin: The dried styles and stigma of Zea mays L. Family: Graminae Constituents: 1- Volatile oil as carvacrol and pyrocatedral. 2- Resin. 3- Volatile alkaloids. 4- Crystalline substances as maizinic acid. 5- Saponin. 6- Bitter glycosides. Uses: 1- Diuretic in renal tea. 2- Hypoglycaemic. 3- Antitumour against Carcinoma.
  25. Synonyms: Spanish Saffron, Za’faran, Crocus, Stigma croci. Part Used: Dried stigmas of Crocus sativa L. (Fam. Iridaceae). Morphological Description: ➢ The stigma is reddish brown in color. ➢ Has a strong characteristic odor and bitter taste. ➢ The stigma is trifid attached at the base to a short portion of the pale yellow style. SAFFRON
  26. Active Constituents: Two mole of picrocrocin - Clourless glucosides - Bitter taste - Water-insoluble - Ether-soluble and one mole of crocin - Yellow glycoside - Water soluble - One part of crocin imparts yellow colour to 100,000 parts of water. Upon treatment with cold dil KOH α,β crocetin (yellow to reddish crystalline ppt) two molecules of Gentiobiose sugar. By steam distillation volatile oil product safranal glucose 1- The fresh drug contains protocrocin glycoside ❖Both crocin and crocetines (α,β ) give blue color with conc. H2SO4 Protocrocin suffer pyrolysis during drying to give 2- Volatile oil and wax.
  27. Chemical Identification: With 80% v/v H2SO4; a deep blue color is developed which changes to violet and finally to wine red. It imparts yellow color to H2O and saliva. Therapeutic Uses: ➢Non carcinogenic, natural coluoring agent. ➢Stimulant ➢Antispasmodic. ➢Diaphoretic ➢Emmenagogue
  28. Adultration of saffron: Owing to its high price (100,000 flowers are required to give one kg of the drug), saffron has always been subjected to substitution and adultration. The substances used may be grouped in three categories: I. Substitution with other materials which have some external resemblance to saffron e.g. styles of saffron, stamens and strips of corolla of saffron. Corollas of florets of calendula officinalis, safflower, stigmas of zea mays etc. II. Exhausted saffron recolored by dyes e. g. log wood, brazil wood and aniline dyes. III. Substances added to saffron in order to increase its weight e.g. minerals, vegetable oils and glycerin. Substitution: Several cheaper substitutes are used.
  29. Violet flower Botanical origin: the dried flowers of Viola odorata Family: Violaceae Common Names: Blue Violet, Sweet Violet, Veilchen Constituents - Saponins. - Methyl salicylate - Alkaloids including violine, odoratine - Essential oil. - Flavonoids including rutin. Medicinal Action and Uses - Anti-inflammatory. - Expectorant. - Antineoplastic. - Diuretic.
  30. Red clover Botanical origin: The flower heads of Trifolium pretense Family: Fabaceae Active constituents Flavonoids including the isoflavone pratol Phenolic acids including salicylic and coumaric acids Volatile oil containing more than 40 compounds. Therapeutic Uses: Dermatological agent in case of childhood eczema and has a value in other chronic skin conditions such as psoriasis. Mild antispasmodic Expectorant
  31. Evening Primrose Botanical origin: The flower of Oenothera biennis family Onagraceae. Common names: Suncups, Common Evening Primrose, Fever Plant, Field Primrose, King's Cure all, Night Willow-herb, Primrose. Active constituents: Fatty acids (FA): the gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and linolenic acid (LA). Oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid. Steroids: campesterol, β-sitosterol. 3-O-trans-Caffeoyl esters of triterpene acids (betulinic, morolic, and oleanolic acids). Evening primrose also contains low in molecular weight phenolic compounds that include catechin, epicatechin and gallic acid.
  32. Therapeutic Uses: Female disorders associated with pelvic fullness 1.Menopausal symptoms 2.Menstrual problems 3.Relieves menstrual cramping 4.Symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS) 5.Reducing symptoms of a kind of skin disorder called atopic dermatitis (eczema).
  33. Drugs available in the market
  34. Botanical origin: The dried flowers of Sambucus nigra Family: Adoxaceae Active constituents Flavonoids and Phenolic acids. Triterpenes mainly ursolic acid. Volatile oils. Mucilage. Sterols. Tannins. The flowers are rich in minerals especially potassium. Elder flower Therapeutic Uses: Elder Flowers are ideal for the treatment of colds and influenza. They are indicated in any catarrhal inflammation of the upper respiratory tract such as hay fever and sinusitis. It has: Diaphoretic, anti-inflammatory and anticatarrhal actions. Has diuretic effect. Also have role in skin lightening preparation.