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Un organized drugs , chemical tests.pdf

  1. Unorganized drugs Definition: They are materials that consist of mixtures of chemical substances, having a fairly uniform structure and are not composed of cells. ✓ They are usually derived from parts of plants or animals by some processes of extraction, incision (opium), decoction (agar), expression (oils) or they are natural secretions (beeswax). ✓ They are frequently solid, but some are fluids e.g. oils and balsams..
  2. based on their origin and nature they can be classified into: 1- Dried Latex (e.g. Opium) 2- Dried Juices (e.g. Aloes) 3- Extracts (e.g. Catechu, Agar and Gelatin) 4- Gums (e.g. Acacia and Tragacanth) 5- Resin & Resin combinations : a- Acid Resin (e.g. Colophony) b- Glycosidal Resin (e.g. Podophyllum) c- Oleo-resin (e.g. Copaiba) d- Oleo-gum-resin (e.g. Asafoetida and Myrrh) 6-Balsams (e.g. Benzoin and Balsam Tolu) Classification
  3. 1- DRIED LATEX Latex is an emulsion or suspension, it occurs in the plants in lactiferous cells, tubes or vessels, from which it is obtained by incision of the plant.
  4. OPIUM: [Raw Opium] Sources: Opium is the dried latex obtained by incision of the fully grown but unripe capsules of the opium poppy Papaver somniferum Linné (F.: Papaveraceae). It is official in E. P . under the name Opium and known in commerce as Raw Opium. Geog. Sources: Turkey, former Yugoslavia, Iran, Bulgaria, India and Pakistan.
  5. Collection and Preparation: ➢ Incisions are made into the wall of the capsule in the afternoon. ➢ a milky exudate (latex) soon collects around these incisions and is scraped off with a knife early on the following morning. ➢ The latex is dried partly by spontaneous evaporation and partly by artificial heat. ➢ The manner of making incision, method of drying latex and the shape of opium cake differs according to the country of origin. Cont. Opium
  6. Active constituents: Opium contains about 25 alkaloids occur in combination with meconic acid: 1- Phenanthrene alkaloids: morphine (9.5 to 20 %, when acetylated forms heroin), codeine (methyl morphine, 0.3 to 0.4%) and thebaine. 2- Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids : papaverine and narcotine (noscapine). 3- Phenylethylamine alkaloid : narceine. Cont. Opium
  7. Heroin Phenanthrene ring
  8. Cont. Opium Chemical tests: 1- Test for meconic acid: The solution + FeCl3 : deep purple color which is not destroyed by boiling or by adding cold dil. HCl or mercuric chloride. 2- Test for morphine : Morphine is sparingly soluble in cold water but readily soluble in NaOH solution: (a) Deniges test: 10 ml solution + 2 ml 3% H2O2 + 1 ml 10% ammonia + one drop of CuSO4 : red color.
  9. (b) Marquis test: evaporate the solution in a dish, then add one drop of formaldehyde + 1 ml H2SO4: purple blue colour changes to blue. 3- Test for papaverine : Warren’s test: a small crystal of potassium permanganate is mixed with 0.5 mg of papaverine then treated with 0.2 ml of Marqui's reagent (2 - 3 drops of 40% formaldehyde solution are mixed with 3 ml of conc. sulphuric): green color rapidly. Cont. Opium
  10. Cont. Opium Uses: ➢ Morphine is used as a sedative, hypnotic and it is a powerful narcotic analgesic agent (in trauma, fracture bones, surgical operations, pain of cancer ......etc). ➢ Codeine and narcotine are used as antitussive (Cough sedative) ➢ Papaverine is used as antispasmodic, in peripheral thrombosis, bronchial asthma and myocardial infarction. ➢ In general, Opium is used in treatment of diarrhoea and as diaphoretic.
  11. 2- DRIED JUICES Juices are aqueous liquids containing dissolved substances. They occur in special structures as cells or cavities and obtained by incision or cutting.
  12. ALOES Sources: Aloes is the solid residue obtained by evaporating the liquid which drains from the transversely cut leaves of various species of Aloe, : Aloe ferox Miller (Cape aloes), Aloe barbadenesis Miller = Aloe vera Linné (Curacao aloes), Aloe perryi Baker (Socotrine or Zanzibar aloes) (F.: Liliaceae). Geog. Sources: (1) Cape aloes : South Africa and Kenya. (2) Curacao aloes : West Indian island of Curacao. (3) Socotrine or Zanzibar aloes: island of Socotria in East Africa.
  13. Cont. Aloes
  14. Cont. Aloes Active constituents: Anthraquinones, aloe-emodin, aloetin, aloenin and alomicin. C-glycosides of anthrone derivatives (aloin). The glycosides (aloin) contains not less than 70% of barbaloin. isobarbaloin found in quantity in Curacao and in smaller amounts in the Cape and absent from Socotrine aloes. Mucopolysaccharides, organic acids (tartaric and malic), amino acids, minerals and saponins.
  15. O OH OH CH2OH Gluc. Barbaloin Cont. Aloes Barbaloin can be decomposed by FeCl3 + HCl (oxidative hydrolysis) : aloe-emodin anthrone + glucose.
  16. Cont. Aloes Chemical tests: A- General tests: Boil 1g of drug with 100 ml of water, add Kieselguhr and filter 1- Schönteten's reaction: To 5 ml of the filtrate add 0.2 g of borax and heat until dissolved, transfer 5-10 drops of this solution to test tube full of water : green fluorescence (positive with all types of aloes, due to anthranols). 2- Bromine test: To 2 ml of the filtrate add 2 ml of bromine water : yellow ppt. (positive with all types of aloes, due to anthranols).
  17. Cont. Aloes B- Special tests: 1- Nitrous acid test : (for isobarbaloin) To 5 ml of the filtrate add 0.1 g of sod. nitrite + 3 drops of 30% acetic acid : a) a pink to carmine red color (Curacao) b) a lesser pink color (Cape) c) little change in color (Socotrine) 2- Modified Bornträger's test : (for aloe-emodin) To the filtrate add FeCl3 + HCl (oxidative hydrolysis); extract the liberated anthraquinones with CCl4 and shake with dil. ammonia : rose red color.
  18. Cont. Aloes Uses: 1- Purgative (anthraquinones) 2- for skin care, falling hair, dandruff and alopecia (amino acids, organic acids and may be mucopolysaccharides) 3- Antitumor (alomicin and mucopolysaccharides) 4- Hypotensive (mucopolysaccharides) 5- Antidiabetic (may be mucopolysaccharides) 6- Improves liver functions (mucopolysaccharides) 7- Efficient against gastritis and gastric and deudenal ulcer (aloin, aloe-emodin and aloenin).
  19. 3- EXTRACTS Extracts are drugs prepared by evaporating the aqueous decoctions of certain plant or animal organs.
  20. I- CATECHU: [Gambir or Pale Catechu] Sources: is a dried aqueous extract prepared from the leaves and young twigs of Uncaria gambir (Hunter) Roxb.(F.: Rubiaceae). Geog. Sources: Malaya and Indonesia. Active constituents: 7% catechins, 22-50% catechutannic acid and gambir- fluorescein. Flavonoid quercetin.
  21. Cont. Catechu
  22. Cont. Catechu
  23. Cont. Catechu Chemical Tests: 1- Gambir fluorescein test: ➢ Extract 0.5 g powder with alcohol and filter, to the filtrate add 5 ml NaOH, shake, add pet. ether and shake : green fluorescence in the organic layer (c.f. Black catechu). 2- Test for Catechin: ➢ Immerse a piece of wood in the aqueous extract of powdered gambir, dry it, immerse it in HCl, then put it on a flame : magenta red colour (Catechin: Phloroglucinol). ➢ Extract the powder with boiling water then filter. To the filtrate add FeCl3: green colour. 3- Test for Chlorophyll: Extract the powder with CHCl3 A yellowish green residue (c.f. Black catechu).
  24. Cont. Catechu Uses: ➢ As a local astringent in the form of lozenges. ➢ As general astringent in diarrhoea. ➢ In industry of dying and tanning.
  25. II- BLACK CATECHU Sources: It is the aqueous extract of the heart wood of trees known as Acacia catechu Wild.(F.: Leguminosae). Geog. Sources : India and Mayanmar (Burma). Active constituents: 2-12% catechins, 25-30% phlobatannin. Flavonoids quercitrin and quercitin. Chemical tests: 1- Gambir fluorescein test : -ve (c.f. Pale catechu). 2- Test for Catechin : +ve 3- Test for Chlorophyll : -ve (c.f. Pale catechu). Uses : As an astringent in diarrhoea and in industry of dying and tanning.
  26. III- AGAR: [Japanese Isinglass] Sources: It is the dried colloidal concentrate from a decoction of various red algae, particularly species of Gelidium, Petrocladi (F.: Gelidiaceae) and Gracilaria (F.: Gracilariaceae). Geog. Sources: Japan, Korea, South Africa and USA. Active constituents: Agar is a heterogenous polysaccharide, the two main constituents are : agarose which is neutral galactose polymer responsible for jell strength and agaropectin which is a sulphonated polysaccharide responsible for the viscosity of Agar solution.
  27. Cont. Agar Chemical tests: Prepare 1% Agar solution in water 1- Hydrolyse by boiling with HCl (D, L galactose and sulphate ion) then neutralize the solution : a- Solution + Fehling's: red ppt. (galactose) b- Solution + BaCl2 : ppt. (sulphate ion) 2- Mount powdered agar with a- ruthenium red: staining pink (c.f. Acacia and Tragacanth) b- Iodine solution: crimson to brown colour 3-Test for protein: with Millon's reagent or chromic acid : no ppt. (c.f. Gelatin) 4- Test for nitrogen: boil with soda lime : no ammonia odour (c.f. Gelatin) Uses: 1- In the preparation of bacteriologic culture media. 2- As an emulsifying agent. 3- In the treatment of chronic constipation.
  28. IV- GELATIN: [Gelatinum] Sources: It is a mixture of reversible gel-forming proteins obtained by boiling the collagenous tissues of animals such as skin, tendons, ligaments and bones with water. After decolorization and filteration, the extract is concentrated to a solid form Active constituents: proteins Chemical tests:Test for proteins :a- Solution + mercuric nitrate (Millon's reagent) : white ppt. becoming brick red on warming. b- Solution + picric acid: yellow ppt. c- Solution + tannic acid: white ppt. Test for nitrogen: heat with soda lime : ammonia odor (due to nitrogen). Uses : For preparation of capsules, as a coat of pills and as a base for suppositories.
  29. 4- PLANT GUMS Gums are a heterogeneous group of acidic substances, which have the common property of swelling in water to form either gels or viscous, sticky solutions. Gums are produced by trees either spontaneously or as a result of mechanical injury.
  30. Chemical structure: Gums are neutral salts of complex polysaccharide acids which contain methylpentose , pentose, hexose and uronic acid residues [gums = sugars + uronic acid residues; on hydrolysis Gum acacia gives sugars + glucuronic acid residues, Gum tragacanth gives sugars + galacturonic acid residues]. Cont. Plant gums
  31. I- GUM ACACIA: [Gum Arabic] Sources: It is the dried gum obtained by incision from the stems and branches of Acacia senegal (Linné) Willd. and other species of Acacia (F. Leguminosae). Geog. Sources: Sudan, Nigeria and Senegal. Description: It occurs as rounded or ovoid tears, white or pale yellow in color. The tears break rapidly with a glassy fracture. It is odourless and has a mucilaginous taste.
  32. Cont. Gum Arabic Preparation: ➢ Acacia senegal is a tree about 6 meters in height. ➢ When trees are about 6 years old, a transverse incisions are made under the bark without injuring the cambium. ➢ This cambium produces new phloem with secretory cavities and in about 20-30 days the tears of gum which have formed on the surface are picked off.
  33. Cont. Gum Arabic Active constituents: ➢ Arabin which is the calcium (with traces of magnesium and potassium) salt of arabic acid. On hydrolysis with dil. sulphuric acid, it yields L-rhamnose, D-galactose, L-arabinose and glucuronic acid. ➢ Oxidase enzyme. Chemical tests: Prepare 10% solution: 1-For oxidase enzyme: solution + benzidine + H2O2: blue color. 2- Solution + lead acetate: -ve. 3- Solution + lead subacetate: white ppt. 4-Solution + Iodine solution: -ve (no starch) 5- Powder + KOH : no color.
  34. Cont. Gum Arabic Uses: ➢ Stabilizer in emulsion. ➢ It has a demulcent properties so used in cough, diarrhea and throat preparations. ➢ Suspending agent, adhesive and binder in tablet granulation.
  35. II- GUM TRAGACANTH Sources: It is the dried gummy exudate flowing naturally or obtained by incision from the stems of Astragalus gummifer Labill. (F. Leguminosae). Geog. Sources: Syria, Iraq, Iran and former Soviet Union. Description: Occurs in thin, flattened and curved ribbon -shaped flakes, white or pale yellowish-white in colour and almost tasteless.
  36. Gum tragacanth Preparation: ➢ The mode of formation of tragacanth is different from that of Acacia, the gum exuding immediately after injury (the gum is produced physiologically). ➢ The cell walls of the pith and medullary rays of the stem are gradually transformed into gum. ➢ The gum absorbs water and creates internal pressure within the stem. ➢ When the stem is injured, the gum exudes immediately to the surface of the tree. Gum is collected two days after incision. It is obtained from the plant in its second year.
  37. Gum tragacanth Active constituents: 1- A water-soluble fraction known as tragacanthin. 2- A water-insoluble fraction known as bassorin. On hydrolysis with dil. sulphuric acid it yields galacturonic acid, D-galactose, L-arabinose and D- xylose. Chemical tests: 1- Test for oxidase enzyme: -ve 2- Solution + lead acetate: white ppt. 3- Solution + lead subacetate: -ve 4- Solution + Iodine solution: few particles stain blue 5- Powder + KOH: orange yellow color Uses: 1- As a Suspending agent. 2- As a binder in pills and tablets. 3- As emulsifying agent for oils and resins.
  38. 5-RESINS & RESINS COMBINATIONS Resins are solid or semisolid amorphous organic substances of complex chemical nature, usually obtained by extraction or by incision. They are complex mixtures of different chemical types of substances include acids, esters, alcohol or glycosidic compounds.......etc., and they are free from nitrogen.
  39. ACID RESINS COLOPHONY RESIN: [Rosin] Sources: It is the residue (resin) left after distillation of the oil of turpentine from the crude oleo-resin of various species of Pinus (F. Pinaceae). Geog. Sources: USA, France, Italy, Spain, India and China. Description: It occurs as translucent glassy masses, pale yellow to brownish- yellow in colour with a slightly bitter taste.
  40. Active constituents: Resin acid (abietic acid) which is a diterpene acid, resens (neutral inert substances) and esters of fatty acids. Chemical tests : Test for abietic acid: ➢Extract the powder with pet. ether, filter and shake the filtrate with twice the volume of dil. copper acetate : emerald-green colour in the pet. ether layer. ➢ Dissolve 0.1 g of powder in acetic anhydride, add one drop of H2SO4 on the wall of the tube : purple colour change to violet. Uses: As an ingredient of ointments and plasters. It has stimulant and diuretic properties. Cont. Colophony resin
  41. Cont. Colophony resin
  42. OLEO-RESIN It is a mixture of volatile oil and resin. COPAIBA Sources: Obtained by incision of the trunks of various Copaifera species (F. Leguminosae). Geog. sources: Brazil, North and South America. Active constituents: Volatile oil (sesquiterpene hydrocarbon and diterpenes), resin acids (copaivic acid and illurinic acid) and fluorescent substance. Uses: As a urinary antiseptic and in chronic bronchitis.
  43. OLEO-GUM-RESIN It is a mixture of volatile oil, gum and resin. I- ASAFOETIDA Sources: It is an oleo-gum-resin obtained by incision of rhizomes and roots of Ferula foetida Regel (F. Umbelliferae). Geog. sources : Iran and Pakistan. Active constituents: Volatile oil (contains sulpher compounds), resin (contains asaresinol ferulate and free ferulic acid) and gum. It contains combined umbelliferone and it doesn't contain free umbelliferone (c.f. galbanum).
  44. Chemical tests: 1- To the freshly fractured surface of a tear add drops of : (a) conc.H2SO4 : reddish-brown colour changing to violet on washing with water. (b) HNO3 diluted with equal volume of water : green colour (c.f. galbanum). 2-Formation of umbelliferone (test for combined umbelliferone): Powdered drug + dil.HCl, boil then filter into ammonia: blue fluorescence (due to formation of umbelliferone). Uses: Carminative, antispasmodic and expectorant. Cont. Asafoetida
  45. II- GALBANUM Sources: It is an oleo-gum-resin obtained by incision of stems of Ferula galbaniflua Boiss. et Buhse (F. Umbelliferae). Geog. sources: Iran and Pakistan. Active constituents: Volatile oil, gum and resin, combined and free umbelliferone. Chemical tests : Test for free umbelliferone: Triturate the drug with sand, boil with alcohol, cool, then filter into alkalinized alcohol (with ammonia): blue fluorescence. Uses: As a stimulant in plasters.
  46. III- AMMONIACUM Sources: It is an oleo-gum-resin obtained by incision of the stems and branches of Dorema ammoniacum D. Don (F. Umbelliferae). Geog. sources : Iran and Southern Siberia. Active constituents: Volatile oil, gum and resin. Free salicylic acid and no umbelliferone. Chemical tests: Test for free umbelliferone : -ve Test for Salicylic acid : Digest with water, filter, add FeCl3 : reddish violet colour. Uses: As a stimulant in plasters. As a disinfectant and expectorant in bronchitis.
  47. IV- MYRRH Origin: oleogumresin obtained from the stems and branches of Commiphora molmol and other species of Commiphora F. Burseraceae Geog. sources: North-east Africa and Somalia.
  48. Active constituents: Volatile oil (contains terpenes and sesquiterpenes, esters, cuminaldehyde and eugenol), gum (contains galactose, arabinose and oxidase enzyme) and resin (contains α, β and γ commiphoric acids). Chemical tests: Evaporate the etherial extract of myrrh to dryness on a porcelain dish : (a) Expose the resinous film to bromine vapour : violet colour. (b) Expose the resinous film in another dish to few drops of HNO3 : purplish-violet colour. Uses : In perfumes. It has stimulant and antiseptic properties, used in mouth wash. Recently, it showed antibilharizial activity. Cont. Myrrh
  49. 6-BALSAMS They are resinous mixtures containing large proportions of benzoic or cinnamic acids or both or esters of these acids. I- BENZOIN: [Gawi] Sources: It is a balsamic resin obtained by incision of stems of Styrax benzoin Dryander [Sumatra benzoin] and Styrax tonkinensis (Piérre) Craib [Siam benzoin] (F. Styracaceae).
  50. A- Sumatra Benzoin : Geog. sources : Sumatra. Active constituents: It contains free cinnamic and benzoic acids and their esters, triterpenoid acids and vanillin. Uses: Internally as expectorant and antiseptic. It is used world-wide as an ingredient of cosmetic lotions, drinks and perfumes.
  51. B- Siam Benzoin : Geog. sources : Siam. Active constituents: Coniferyl benzoate, coniferyl alcohol, traces of cinnamic acid, free benzoic acid, triterpenoid acids and vanillin. Uses: It is mainly used in perfumery.
  52. Cont. Siam Benzoin Chemical tests for Sumatra and Siam Benzoin: 1- Heat 0.5 g in a dry test tube, it melts giving irritating fumes which condenses on the wall of the test tube and consist of : a- Cinnamic and benzoic acids (Sumatra B.) b- Benzoic acid (Siam B.) 2- Warm 0.5 g of powdered drug with 10 ml of KMnO4 soln. : a-Odour of benzaldehyde (oxidation of cinnamic acid) (Sumatra B.) b- No odour of benzaldehyde (Siam B.) 3- Alcoholic extract + Alc. soln. of FeCl3: green colour (Siam B.)
  53. II- BALSAM TOLU Sources: It is obtained by incision from the trunk of Myroxylon balsamum (Linn.) Harms (F. Leguminosae). Geog. sources: Central America (Colombia and Venezuela). Active constituents: About 80% of resin alcohol combined with cinnamic and benzoic acids, free cinnamic and benzoic acids, benzyl benzoate, benzyl cinnamate esters, eugenol, ferulic acid and a little vanillin.
  54. Chemical tests: 1- Alc. solution + FeCl3 : green colour 2- Boil 1 g with 5 ml water, filter, add 3 ml of KMnO4 soln., warm : odour of benzaldehyde. Uses: It has antiseptic and expectorant properties. It is a common ingredient of cough mixtures. Cont. Balsam tolu