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"Lyotard and Postmodernism" Key Terms and Ideas

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"Lyotard and Postmodernism" Key Terms and Ideas

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Using the topic of postmodernism to teach English.

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  1. 1. Facilitation on “Lyotard and Postmodernism” Key Terms and Ideas By Maricela Jácamo Badilla
  2. 2. 2  Modernity: this term is used in reference to the converging of the social, economic, and political systems employed in the West from around the eighteenth century on.
  3. 3. 3  Postmodernity: this time stresses diverse forms of individual and social identity. It is a movement characterized by awareness of contingency and ambivalence, and, therefore, it is full of ambiguities.
  4. 4. 4  Modernization: this concept remits to the stages of social development based on industrialization.
  5. 5. 5  Modernism: It emphasized experimentation and the aim of finding an inner truth behind surface appearance, and it is directly opposed to classicism. It is an aesthetic self- consciousness and reflexiveness; a rejection of narrative structure in favor of simultaneity and montage, and an exploration of the paradoxical, ambiguous and uncertain open- ended nature of reality.
  6. 6. 6  Postmodernism: The name of a movement in advanced capitalist culture, particularly in the arts, which originated in the 1960s. Some of its central ideas are the deletion of the boundary between art and everyday life, and the collapse of the hierarchical distinction between elite and popular culture.
  7. 7. 7  The postmodern condition: According to Lyotard during the last forty years the leading sciences and technologies have become increasingly concerned with language: theories of linguistics, problems of communications and cybernetics, computers and their languages, problems of translation, information storage and databanks. The technological transformations are having a strong impact on knowledge, and knowledge will be the major component in the world-wide competition for power.
  8. 8. 8  Narrative knowledge and scientific knowledge: Scientific knowledge does not represent the totality of knowledge. Narrative knowledge is an important part of every society, since it comes to define a set of rules that constitute the social bond. Both types of knowledge are equally necessary and are to an extent a complement of the other.
  9. 9. 9  The mercantilization of knowledge: The goal in science – in today's industrial world – is no longer finding the truth, but the best performing method. That is, the best possible input/output equation. Scientists, technicians and instruments no longer work to find the truth, but to augment power. Performativity increases the ability to produce proof, and increases the ability to be right. The shift of attention from ends of actions to its means, from truth to performativity, has been reflected on educational institutions which are becoming more functional; the emphasis is on the skills rather than the ideals.
  10. 10. 10  Bourgeois art and its function in society: The tension between art as an institution and the content of individual works tends to disappear in the second half of the 19th century. All that which is dissociated from the praxis of life now becomes the content of works of art. The terminal point is reached in aestheticism, a movement in which art becomes the content of art.
  11. 11. 11 It must be seen in connection with the tendency towards the division of labor in bourgeois society. The artist turns into a specialist. The negative side is the artist's loss of any social function, while the positive aspect is aesthetic experience. Art’s function in bourgeois society is contradictory: it shows forgotten truths, yet they are detached from reality.
  12. 12. 12  The Main Features of the Avant-garde:  The historic avant-garde has the quality of negating the autonomy of art (individual creation).  It masters artistic techniques of previous epochs (not succession but simultaneity of techniques).  It is completely opposed to society as it is (self- criticism, criticism of art as an institution).
  13. 13. 13  Modernism and Postmodernism: Modernity, for the philosophers of the Enlightment (18th century), focused on the development of objective science, universal morality and law, and autonomous art. However, with cultural modernism, each of these fields became independent, contrary to the expectations, which brought consequences like lack of social identification and obedience and narcissism, among others. Postmodernism emerges as a reaction against the forms of high modernism, and it has a wide range of similarities with the post-structuralist theories.
  14. 14. 14  The Main Features of Postmodernism:  In this process, the grands récits (master narratives) have lost all credibility. “Big stories are bad, little stories are good.”  It is characterized by fragmentation: there is no metalanguage, no one system of domination.  Postmodernism can be summarized as pastiche (imitation of dead styles) and schizophrenia (fragmentation of time).
  15. 15. 15  Totality or Fragmentation: Postmodernists, like Lyotard, emphasize fragmentation and reject totality, similar to the avant-garde movements where the organic quality of the work of art (its coherence and autonomy) was questioned or even destroyed.
  16. 16. 16  On Language Games and the Sublime: Different discourses are language games; each of them has its own rules, structures, and moves, and none is privileged. For Lyotard, this is how the postmodern society works: various language games struggling against diversity and conflict. Kant's notion of the sublime remits to expressing the inexpressible. For Lyotard, the sublime emerges as an indicator of the holes that inhabit the discourses of truth and value.

Descripción

Using the topic of postmodernism to teach English.

Transcripción

  1. 1. Facilitation on “Lyotard and Postmodernism” Key Terms and Ideas By Maricela Jácamo Badilla
  2. 2. 2  Modernity: this term is used in reference to the converging of the social, economic, and political systems employed in the West from around the eighteenth century on.
  3. 3. 3  Postmodernity: this time stresses diverse forms of individual and social identity. It is a movement characterized by awareness of contingency and ambivalence, and, therefore, it is full of ambiguities.
  4. 4. 4  Modernization: this concept remits to the stages of social development based on industrialization.
  5. 5. 5  Modernism: It emphasized experimentation and the aim of finding an inner truth behind surface appearance, and it is directly opposed to classicism. It is an aesthetic self- consciousness and reflexiveness; a rejection of narrative structure in favor of simultaneity and montage, and an exploration of the paradoxical, ambiguous and uncertain open- ended nature of reality.
  6. 6. 6  Postmodernism: The name of a movement in advanced capitalist culture, particularly in the arts, which originated in the 1960s. Some of its central ideas are the deletion of the boundary between art and everyday life, and the collapse of the hierarchical distinction between elite and popular culture.
  7. 7. 7  The postmodern condition: According to Lyotard during the last forty years the leading sciences and technologies have become increasingly concerned with language: theories of linguistics, problems of communications and cybernetics, computers and their languages, problems of translation, information storage and databanks. The technological transformations are having a strong impact on knowledge, and knowledge will be the major component in the world-wide competition for power.
  8. 8. 8  Narrative knowledge and scientific knowledge: Scientific knowledge does not represent the totality of knowledge. Narrative knowledge is an important part of every society, since it comes to define a set of rules that constitute the social bond. Both types of knowledge are equally necessary and are to an extent a complement of the other.
  9. 9. 9  The mercantilization of knowledge: The goal in science – in today's industrial world – is no longer finding the truth, but the best performing method. That is, the best possible input/output equation. Scientists, technicians and instruments no longer work to find the truth, but to augment power. Performativity increases the ability to produce proof, and increases the ability to be right. The shift of attention from ends of actions to its means, from truth to performativity, has been reflected on educational institutions which are becoming more functional; the emphasis is on the skills rather than the ideals.
  10. 10. 10  Bourgeois art and its function in society: The tension between art as an institution and the content of individual works tends to disappear in the second half of the 19th century. All that which is dissociated from the praxis of life now becomes the content of works of art. The terminal point is reached in aestheticism, a movement in which art becomes the content of art.
  11. 11. 11 It must be seen in connection with the tendency towards the division of labor in bourgeois society. The artist turns into a specialist. The negative side is the artist's loss of any social function, while the positive aspect is aesthetic experience. Art’s function in bourgeois society is contradictory: it shows forgotten truths, yet they are detached from reality.
  12. 12. 12  The Main Features of the Avant-garde:  The historic avant-garde has the quality of negating the autonomy of art (individual creation).  It masters artistic techniques of previous epochs (not succession but simultaneity of techniques).  It is completely opposed to society as it is (self- criticism, criticism of art as an institution).
  13. 13. 13  Modernism and Postmodernism: Modernity, for the philosophers of the Enlightment (18th century), focused on the development of objective science, universal morality and law, and autonomous art. However, with cultural modernism, each of these fields became independent, contrary to the expectations, which brought consequences like lack of social identification and obedience and narcissism, among others. Postmodernism emerges as a reaction against the forms of high modernism, and it has a wide range of similarities with the post-structuralist theories.
  14. 14. 14  The Main Features of Postmodernism:  In this process, the grands récits (master narratives) have lost all credibility. “Big stories are bad, little stories are good.”  It is characterized by fragmentation: there is no metalanguage, no one system of domination.  Postmodernism can be summarized as pastiche (imitation of dead styles) and schizophrenia (fragmentation of time).
  15. 15. 15  Totality or Fragmentation: Postmodernists, like Lyotard, emphasize fragmentation and reject totality, similar to the avant-garde movements where the organic quality of the work of art (its coherence and autonomy) was questioned or even destroyed.
  16. 16. 16  On Language Games and the Sublime: Different discourses are language games; each of them has its own rules, structures, and moves, and none is privileged. For Lyotard, this is how the postmodern society works: various language games struggling against diversity and conflict. Kant's notion of the sublime remits to expressing the inexpressible. For Lyotard, the sublime emerges as an indicator of the holes that inhabit the discourses of truth and value.

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