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STUDENT ENGAGEMENTMary Ann Reilly2012
SITUATING OUR WORK    Richard Elmore (2008) says there are only three     ways to improve student learning at scale:1.   ...
OUR FOCUS    Richard Elmore (2008) says there are only three     ways to improve student learning at scale:1.    Raise th...
ELMORE… What predicts performance is not what teachers  do, but what the students are actually doing. Students must know...
WHAT IS STUDENT ENGAGEMENT?RESEARCH FROM 1983 - 2012                       Behavioral           Emotional          Cognitive
BEHAVIORAL ENGAGEMENT   Student Engagement initially defined by observable    behaviors such as:     participation,    ...
EMOTIONAL ENGAGEMENT   Emotional or affective aspects: feelings of    belonging, enjoyment, and attachment (Connell    19...
COGNITIVE ENGAGEMENT   Student’s investment in learning:       being thoughtful and purposeful in the approach to       ...
FINDINGS FROM STEINBERG, BROWN&DORNBUSCH (1996)   50% of high school students reported that their    classes were boring....
HOW HS STUDENTS SPEND TIME AT SCHOOL *    Activity                                     Percentage of Time    Doing Individ...
Interest Concentration                            Enjoyment                      ActivitySimultaneously experiencing conce...
APATHY: LOW CHALLENGE AND LOW SKILLS
BOREDOM: LOW CHALLENGE AND HIGH SKILLS
ANXIETY: LOW SKILLS AND HIGH CHALLENGE
FLOW: HIGH CHALLENGE AND HIGH SKILLS
PRESENCE OF FLOW ON LEARNING     Condition                                  Percentage of Time Students                   ...
EFFECT OF CONTROL & RELEVANCEStudents reported being significantly more engagedwhen:      •Experiencing high versus low co...
PAYING ATTENTIONActivity                                                       Percentage of Time                         ...
HIGH                                                                ENGAGEMENT                                            ...
HS STUDENT REPORT HIGHEST LEVEL OFENGAGEMENTCoursesArtComputersVocational EducationFrom Shernoff, D.J., Csikszentmihalyi, ...
SkillChallenge                Relevance              Overall            Engagement
WORKS CITED   Brophy, J .(1983). Conceptualizing student motivation. Educational Psychologist, 18, 200–215.   Connell, J...
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Student engagement

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Exploration of student engagement and flow based this research:

Shernoff, D.J., Csikszentmihalyi, M., Schneider, B., & Shernoff, E.S. (2003). Student engagement in high school classrooms from the perspective of Flow Theory. School Psychology Quarterly, 18, (2), 158-176.

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Student engagement

  1. 1. STUDENT ENGAGEMENTMary Ann Reilly2012
  2. 2. SITUATING OUR WORK Richard Elmore (2008) says there are only three ways to improve student learning at scale:1. Raise the level of content that students are taught.2. Increase the teachers’ skill & knowledge that they bring to teaching of that content.3. Increase the level of students’ active learning (engagement) of the content.
  3. 3. OUR FOCUS Richard Elmore (2008) says there are only three ways to improve student learning at scale:1. Raise the level of content that students are taught.2. Increase the teachers’ skill & knowledge that they bring to teaching of that content.3. Increase the level of students’ active learning (engagement) of the content.
  4. 4. ELMORE… What predicts performance is not what teachers do, but what the students are actually doing. Students must know what they are expected to do, but also how they are expected to do it, and what knowledge and skills they need to learn how to do it well. It is also vital to have students know why they should want to do the work. Itshould have value and meaning to the student.
  5. 5. WHAT IS STUDENT ENGAGEMENT?RESEARCH FROM 1983 - 2012 Behavioral Emotional Cognitive
  6. 6. BEHAVIORAL ENGAGEMENT Student Engagement initially defined by observable behaviors such as:  participation,  time on task,  involvement in academic, social, or extracurricular activities (Brophy 1983; Natriello 1984). Crucial for achieving positive academic outcomes and preventing dropping out (Connell and Wellborn 1990; Finn 1989).
  7. 7. EMOTIONAL ENGAGEMENT Emotional or affective aspects: feelings of belonging, enjoyment, and attachment (Connell 1990; Finn 1989). Focuses on the extent of positive (and negative) reactions to teachers, classmates, academics, and school. Creates student ties to the institution and influence students’ willingness to work (Connell and Wellborn 1990; Finn 1989).
  8. 8. COGNITIVE ENGAGEMENT Student’s investment in learning:  being thoughtful and purposeful in the approach to school tasks,  being willing to exert the effort necessary to comprehend complex ideas or master difficult skills,  Using deep rather than superficial strategies (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, and Paris 2004)  Self-regulating (Miller et al. 1996).
  9. 9. FINDINGS FROM STEINBERG, BROWN&DORNBUSCH (1996) 50% of high school students reported that their classes were boring. 33% reported ‘surviving school’ by ‘goofing off’ with friends. From Steinberg, L.D., Brown, B.B., &Dornbusch, S. M. (1996). Beyond the classroom: Why school reform has failed and what parents need to do. NY: Simon & Schuster.
  10. 10. HOW HS STUDENTS SPEND TIME AT SCHOOL * Activity Percentage of Time Doing Individual Work 23% Listening to Lectures 21% Taking Exams 13% Taking Notes 10% In Discussion 9% Watching TV or Video 7% Doing Homework or Studying 7% Doing Group of Lab Work 6% Other Activities (Watching demos, 4% Giving presentations) Talking with Teacher Individually Less than 1% From Shernoff, D.J., Csikszentmihalyi, M., Schneider, B., &Shernoff, E.S. (2003). Student engagement in high school classrooms from the perspective of Flow Theory. School Psychology Quarterly, 18, (2), 158-176.
  11. 11. Interest Concentration Enjoyment ActivitySimultaneously experiencing concentration, interest, and enjoyment in an activity leads to Flow.
  12. 12. APATHY: LOW CHALLENGE AND LOW SKILLS
  13. 13. BOREDOM: LOW CHALLENGE AND HIGH SKILLS
  14. 14. ANXIETY: LOW SKILLS AND HIGH CHALLENGE
  15. 15. FLOW: HIGH CHALLENGE AND HIGH SKILLS
  16. 16. PRESENCE OF FLOW ON LEARNING Condition Percentage of Time Students Attended to Instruction Flow 73% Apathy 42% Anxiety 70% Relaxation/Boredom 58% From Shernoff, D.J., Csikszentmihalyi, M., Schneider, B., &Shernoff, E.S. (2003). Student engagement in high school classrooms from the perspective of Flow Theory. School Psychology Quarterly, 18, (2), 158-176.
  17. 17. EFFECT OF CONTROL & RELEVANCEStudents reported being significantly more engagedwhen: •Experiencing high versus low control over situations •When instruction is perceived as having high versus low relevance. From Shernoff, D.J., Csikszentmihalyi, M., Schneider, B., &Shernoff, E.S. (2003). Student engagement in high school classrooms from the perspective of Flow Theory. School Psychology Quarterly, 18, (2), 158-176.
  18. 18. PAYING ATTENTIONActivity Percentage of Time Students Say they Pay AttentionTaking an Exam 83%Doing Individual Work 78%Participating in Group Work 75%Listening to Teacher Lecture 65%Watching TV/Video 57%From Shernoff, D.J., Csikszentmihalyi, M., Schneider, B., &Shernoff, E.S. (2003). Studentengagement in high school classrooms from the perspective of Flow Theory. SchoolPsychology Quarterly, 18, (2), 158-176.
  19. 19. HIGH ENGAGEMENT Individual & Group Work Lecture, TV, TestLowEngagementFrom Shernoff, D.J., Csikszentmihalyi, M., Schneider, B., &Shernoff, E.S. (2003). Studentengagement in high school classrooms from the perspective of Flow Theory. SchoolPsychology Quarterly, 18, (2), 158-176.
  20. 20. HS STUDENT REPORT HIGHEST LEVEL OFENGAGEMENTCoursesArtComputersVocational EducationFrom Shernoff, D.J., Csikszentmihalyi, M., Schneider, B., &Shernoff, E.S. (2003). Studentengagement in high school classrooms from the perspective of Flow Theory. SchoolPsychology Quarterly, 18, (2), 158-176.
  21. 21. SkillChallenge Relevance Overall Engagement
  22. 22. WORKS CITED Brophy, J .(1983). Conceptualizing student motivation. Educational Psychologist, 18, 200–215. Connell, J.P. (1990). Context ,self, and action: A Motivational analysis of self-system processes across life-span. In D. Cicchetto (ed.), The self in transition: Infancy to childhood. Chicago: University of Chicago. Finn, J. D. (1989). Withdrawing from school. Review of Educational Research, 59, 117–142. Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., Friedel, J., and Paris, A. (2005). School engagement. In K. A. Moore and L. Lippman (Eds.), What do children need to flourish?: conceptualizing and measuring indicators of positive development. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press. Miller, R. B., Greene, B. A., Montalvo, G. P., Ravindran, B., and Nichols, J. D. (1996). Engagement in academic work: the role of learning goals, future consequences, pleasing others, and perceived ability. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21, 388–422. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2004). Engaging schools: fostering high school students’ motivation to learn. Committee on Increasing High School Students’ Engagement and Motivation to Learn. Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Division of Behavioral and Social Science and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academy Press. Natriello, G. (1984). Problems in the evaluation of students and student disengagement for secondary schools. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 17, 14–24. Shernoff, D.J., Csikszentmihalyi, M., Schneider, B., &Shernoff, E.S. (2003). Student engagement in high school classrooms from the perspective of Flow Theory. School Psychology Quarterly, 18, (2), 158-176. Steinberg, L.D., Brown, B.B., &Dornbusch, S. M. (1996). Beyond the classroom: Why school reform has failed and what parents need to do. NY: Simon & Schuster.

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