LinkedIn emplea cookies para mejorar la funcionalidad y el rendimiento de nuestro sitio web, así como para ofrecer publicidad relevante. Si continúas navegando por ese sitio web, aceptas el uso de cookies. Consulta nuestras Condiciones de uso y nuestra Política de privacidad para más información.
LinkedIn emplea cookies para mejorar la funcionalidad y el rendimiento de nuestro sitio web, así como para ofrecer publicidad relevante. Si continúas navegando por ese sitio web, aceptas el uso de cookies. Consulta nuestra Política de privacidad y nuestras Condiciones de uso para más información.
Se ha denunciado esta presentación.
¡Ha desbloqueado descargas ilimitadas en SlideShare!
How to write your synopsis
DR MARYAM ALAM KHAN
SURGICAL E WARD
KHYBER TEACHING HOSPITAL
Choosing a topic according to CPSP rules
1st year of training/ take workshop and start off
Submit it in 2nd year before IMM
Collect data in 3rd year
Write dissertation in 4th year
Submit a few months before your training ends
What is a synopsis and its components
The synopsis is a brief out line (about four A-4 size pages or 1000 words is the
maximum limit) of your future work.
METHODS AND MATERIALS
DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE
Should reflect the objectives of the study. It must be written after the whole synopsis has been written so that it is a
true representative of the plan (i.e. the synopsis).
Not be studied in last 5 years in Peshawar
Should not be original ….!
Should not be cross sectional/ community based; they prefer RCT’s
Should be very relevant to your speciality
“COMPARISON OF FREQUENCY OF SEROMA FORMATION IN FLAP FIXATION VS CONVENTIONAL CLOSURE AFTER
MODIFIED RADICAL MASTECTOMY AND AXILLARY CLEARANCE”
Find an exactly similar research done elsewhere within 5 years
If there are many, find the one with most significant results
Use this to calculate sample size
GOOGLE SCHOLAR: MESH KEY WORDS
SAMPLE SIZE CALCULATOR
CONFIDENCE INTERVAL 95%
MARGIN OF ERROR 7%
POWER OF STUDY 80%
In RCT You need means +-SD or you need proportions
Generalized statements to more specific statements
Local /regional statistics
Risk factors? Causes? Types of treatments/ surgeries
Discuss the method u will be using
Mention 2/3 articles
“An objective is an intent of what the researcher wants to do stated in clear measurable terms.”
To compare the frequency of seroma formation after modified radical mastectomy and axillary
clearance in patients of breast cancer undergoing flap fixation method of wound closure vs
conventional simple closure.
“Flap fixation is more effective that conventional closure in reducing the frequency of seroma
formation after Modified Radical Mastectomy and Axillary Clearance for Breast Cancer”
OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS: Is the definition of the exposure
and outcome variables of interest in context to objective in a
particular study and their means of measurement/determination
Will be defined as presence of an evidence of malignancy in a clinically palpable breast lump; (invasive ductal
carcinoma or invasive lobular carcinoma).
Modified radical mastectomy with axillary clearance:
The modified radical mastectomy is defined as the removal of breast tissue with skin and nipple areola complex but
sparing the Pectoralis muscle where mastectomy will be performed with electro-cautery, level II axillary clearance will
be done and a single closed suction drain will be placed in axillary space.
It is defined as a palpable collection of serous fluid under the skin flaps after MRM documented by needle aspiration
and confirmed by ultrasound as an anechoic collection on the seventh post op.
It is a method of wound closure that involves quilting of the cranial and caudal skin flaps to the underlying chest wall
muscles using absorbable suture (vicryl 2/0) thus obliterating the potential dead space.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
STUDY DESIGN: Mention the name of the appropriate study design.
SETTING: Name and place where the research work is to be conducted.
DURATION OF STUDY: How long will the study take with dates.
SAMPLE SIZE: How many patients will be included. If there are groups how many
SAMPLING TECHNIQUE: Type of sampling technique employed.
Inclusion criteria: on what bases will patients be inducted in the study.
Exclusion criteria: On what bases will patients be excluded from the study.
STUDY DESIGN: Randomized Controlled Trial
SETTING: Department of Surgery, Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar.
DURATION OF STUDY: Six months after the approval of synopsis.
SAMPLE SIZE: The sample size is total of 68 patients, 34 patients in each group, which is calculated with the
WHO calculator for proportions using the Sakkary study as reference11
Taking 95% as confidence interval and 80% as power of study.
SAMPLING TECHNIQUE: Non Probability Consecutive sampling technique.
Adult females age (18-65 years) with Primary breast cancer in Stage I and Stage IIA undergoing Mastectomy
with axillary dissection
Patients with bleeding disorders, assessed by PT/APTT and platelet count.
Patients with Hypertension which increases risk of seroma.
Data about demographic , clinical, Operative variables and postoperative variables.
will be collected from the patients fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria and entered
on pre-tested questionnaire (attached).
Informed consent will be taken and the patient will be assured that their data will be
The study will include randomly selected patients assigned groups by lottery method.
What will you do in each group
What will you measure
When will you do follow up and what will you look for
The data will be entered in SPSS version 20.0.
Continuous variables like __________ will be presented by mean and standard
Frequency and percentage will be calculated for categorical/ nominal variables like
OUTCOME VARIABLE will be stratified among __________
Chi Square Test / Independent T test will be applied to compare the two groups.
A p value <0.05 will be considered significant.
5 years rule
DeSantis C, Ma J, Bryan L, Jemal A. Breast cancer statistics, 2013. CA Cancer J Clin.
Keep it simple
Name/ age/ gender/ admission number
Group A/ B
NAME / AGE/ GENDER / GROUP A/B
PRE OPERATIVE VARIABLES
ENTER DATA IN SPSS
MOST IMPORTANT PART
NOMINAL e.g gender, marital status
ORDINAL e.g literacy level, stage of tumor, income groups,
CONTINUOUS/ INTERVAL e.g age, drain output, LOHS, VAS
Dependant / outcome variable! E.g PAIN, SEROMA, DRAINAGE, RECURRENCE,
HOW TO ANALYZE DATA
Find means and SD and range for all your continuous variable / if groups find for
Find proportions/ percentage for all categorical variables ( frequency )
Now find P VALUE