1. EFFECTIVENESS OF SIDJAPO SKIN IN
MAKING PAPER AS ALTERNATIVE FOR
Debie Claire R. Logronio
Stephanie P. Ahat
Alyssa B. Cataluna
Mark Vincent R. Casipong
Caila B. Salavedra
Mary Shannel C. Salomon
Jhon Lloyd P. Paulinio
Chan Rhegie L. Ricafort
Brylle Axcel S. Arcayena
Mariell Angiela L. Caboverde
Marelie Ann C. Guadalquiver
• Paper is used all over the world. From the written or printed materials found in
public and private workplaces, to the textbooks and notebooks we use in class,
the wall calendars we use at home, and the daily newspapers that people read.
With the numerous kinds of products that paper can produce, there is no doubt
people will encounter products made of paper every single day.
• According to the Statista Research Department in January 2023, the global
consumption of paper and paperboard totalled 408 million tons in 2021 and the
number is expected to rise in the following years. Thus, further threatens the
effects of paper production in the environment due to the continuous and massive
cutting of trees.
• Paper manufacture has a great unfavorable impact on the environment. Paper
produces 34% of municipal waste and has an effect on the environment both
during production and after they are being used. (Rourke Mace, 2015)
Furthermore, the Union of Concerned Scientists points out that “wood products”
which include paper, are responsible for about 10% of all deforestation. There
have been many improvements that have lessened the loss of forests owing to
paper manufacture, but the story of deforestation from pulp mills and paper
production is complicated. (Daniel Matthews, 2016)
• In the paper and cardboard industry, trees are used in
papermaking because of the cellulose that they naturally
contain. Cellulose is the most vital component of plants and
is the best suited material for making paper since it contains
enough fibers to make products more durable. “Cellulose is
oriented in the direction of the wood fibers that makes the
fiber directionally dependent.” (Chernysaev and Enberg,
Their presence is the main reason why paper is made mostly
from wood and massive trees are being cut down because of it.
• The increasing demand for paper and packaging
products has put a significant strain on the
environment. As a result, there is a growing interest
in finding alternative sources for making paper.
Considering the materials that can easily be found in
our town, one promising alternative that the
researchers have thought of is the Salago fiber, a
natural fiber obtained from the bark of Sidjapo
• Sidjapo is a plant that is native to the Philippines, and it is
also recognized for its properties related to the medical field.
The use of sidjapo skin as a raw material for paper-making
has been explored as a sustainable and eco-friendly solution
that can reduce the dependency on craft papers made from
cellulose fibers. According to the Department of Agriculture’s
Philippine Fiber Industry Development Authority (PhilFIDA),
salago fiber is a very good material for the production of
currency paper, banknotes, specialty papers for art, and other
paper materials. (National Museum Bohol, 2020)
• This research aims to investigate the feasibility and
effectiveness of using sidjapo skin for paper
production by comparing its properties with
commercially produced craft papers. By exploring
this research, the researchers can gain insights on
how sidjapo skin can be utilized as a viable
alternative for making paper and its potential
benefits for the environment.
7. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The main purpose of the study is to determine the effectiveness of Salago
fiber from Sidjapo (Wikstroemia Indica) skin in making paper as an alternative
for paper made from cellulose fiber. The experimental papers should be
comparable in terms of quality to the commercially made papers.
Specifically, this study aims to answer the following questions:
1.) Which of the main variables namely: Craft papers made of salago fibers
and commercially made craft papers are better in terms of:
1.1 physical appearance;
1.3 overall acceptability;
1.5 strength; and
8. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
2. Is there a significant difference between papers made of sidjapo skin and
commercially made craft papers in terms of:
1.1 physical appearance;
1.3 overall acceptability;
1.5 strength; and
9. STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS
Ho: There is no significant difference between
the craft papers made from sidjapo skin and craft
papers that are commercially made in terms of
physical appearance, texture, overall
acceptability, absorption, strength and weight.
10. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The use of alternative raw materials in creating wood-based products
are being pursued. Therefore, the researchers decided to conduct a
study on using Salago Fibers from the Sidjapo (Wikstroemia Indica)
plant in creating a paper. Moreover, the research will be done to
prove the efficacy and feasibility of Salago Fibers as replacement for
cellulose fibers in paper production.
The researchers affirm that the research will be beneficial to the
12. SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
• The study will be conducted at the researcher's
residence in Purok 3, Cogon Sur, Loon, Bohol, during
the academic year 2023-2024.
• Furthermore, the Sidjapo shrub is abundant in many
towns of Bohol, specifically in the mini forests of Loon.
Thus, the researchers will be collecting the bark of
Sidjapo shrub at Lintuan, Loon, Bohol because of its
accessibility for the researchers’ area.
13. SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
• This study will mainly focus on making a paper from
sidjapo skin and to determine whether the Salago fibers
from Sidjapo are effective fibers for craft papers.
• To find out if there is or there is no significant difference
between the two products which are the commercial and
the handmade craft papers, we will only be conducting
these various tests, namely:
absorption, strength, weight, appearance, texture, and
the overall acceptability of papers.
14. DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
• Cellulose fiber.
It is a type of fiber that is extracted from woody plants or trees and is one of the most
widely used fibers for the production of paper.
• Salago fiber.
It is a natural fiber that is abundant in the Philippines and is best known for the
manufacture of ropes, strings, and even high-grade specialty papers.
It is a type of shrub that is very sturdy and is abundant in the Philippines. It is also the
main source of salago fiber in the country.
• Craft papers.
It is a common and commercially produced paper that is widely used as wrappers, paper
projects, and most especially, for arts and crafts.
• Bast fiber.
It is a kind of fiber that can be collected from the skin or phloem of the plant.
15. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
(B. NagarajaGanesh, B. Rekha, V. Mohanavel, and P. Ganeshan, 2022)
Even during the ancient times, paper has been used in order to record and
preserve important documents for future purposes. The evolution of
literature, development of industries, high demand on proper
communication, and the increasing number of world population have
advanced the use of paper and its related products. The high demand for
paper products is evident in nearly every industry regardless of the
existence of technology and the period of digitalization.
16. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
(Lopena & Millare, 2021)
Natural Fibers had disparate applications. Because of these, other natural
fibers gained significance, acceptance and recognition in the craft
production. These natural fibers had demonstrated preferable over
synthetic materials particularly in terms of environmental effect,
lightweight characteristic, availability and affordability.
“Due to the increase in demand for natural fibers, there is a need to
explore other sources of fibers and study their possible use in different
matrices. In the Philippines, one of the sources of natural fiber is salago.”
Salago is an indigenous Philippine shrub whose bast fiber can be used to
produce high quality paper goods. Salago is an auspicious alternative for
craft papers but further research and study are needed to determine its
use and acceptability in the craft industry.
17. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
(Taylan, O., Oksman, K., & Bozdogan, A.,2015)
One study published in the Journal of Fiber Bioengineering
and Informatics explored the mechanical and physical
resources of salago fiber extracted from coconut trunk bark.
The researchers develop that salago fiber had a high tensile
strength and elasticity, making it suitable for use in combined
materials. Traditionally, it is a material that is used for
producing durable ropes, baskets, and other handicrafts in the
18. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
(Reyes, J. 2019)
Another article published in The Manila Times discussed the
potential uses of sidjapo as a sustainable alternative to plastic
packaging. According to the article, sidjapo has antimicrobial
properties and is biodegradable, making it a more eco-
friendly option for packaging.
19. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
Republic Act No. 9175
also called the “Chain Saw Act of 2002”. This act has the
definite course of the State to keep, develop and defend the
resources of the forestland under sustainable administration.
Republic Act No. 10068
also known as the "Organic Agriculture Act of 2010" which
formally asserted the principle of the State to encourage and
carry out the practice of organic agriculture in the Philippines.
Moreover, it aims to cultivate and make it advance that will
improve its condition, increase the production of farms,
minimize the damage of our environment and prevent the
shortage of natural resources.
20. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
• From the study conducted by Pouriman, Caparanga,
Ebrahimi, and Dahresobh in the Characterization of
Untreated and Alkaline-Treated Salago Fibers Salago
fiber (genus wikstroemia spp.),
Salago is a phloem or skin natural fiber that is native to the
Philippines. This fiber can be found in many parts of our
country and has different kinds of uses. Some of its
applications includes bank notes or currency papers and