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PSY 126 Week 13: Valuing Diversity Globally

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PSY 126 Week 13: Valuing Diversity Globally

  1. 1. Valuing Diversity Globally Matthew L. Eisenhard, Psy.D. Week 13: Psychology for Business & Industry
  2. 2. Diversity • Degree of differences among members of a group or organization. ▫ Major differences in the workplace include racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and ability. ▫ Valuing diversity means including all groups of people in all levels of an organization. • Why is it important? ▫ Companies that diversify do better. ▫ U.S. population 312 million – world 7 billion.  Going global opens up larger markets. ▫ 2040 it is estimated less than 50% of the U.S. population will be Caucasian. ▫ Diversity can be an asset – collaborate, generate new and novel ideas, learn from each other.
  3. 3. Prejudice & Discrimination • Prejudice is prejudgment of a person or situation based on attitudes (usually stereotypes). • Discrimination is behavior for or against a person or situation.
  4. 4. Common Areas of Employment Discrimination • RECRUITMENT ▫ Failure to recruit possible employees from certain selected groups. • SELECTION ▫ Failure to hire people from certain groups. ▫ 80% rule – adverse impact. • COMPENSATION ▫ Unequal pay for same jobs – white males make more money than any other group. • UPWARD MOBILITY ▫ Race and gender are major influences on promotions. • EVALUATION ▫ Failure to base evaluations on job performance.
  5. 5. Valuing Diversity Training • Organizations of all types are training employees to value diversity. ▫ Not just to tolerate it!  Understand current and future demographics.  View the organization from a global perspective.  Recognize detrimental effects of prejudice and discrimination. • To have effective human relations: ▫ Tolerate differences. ▫ Understand differences. ▫ Have empathy for others’ situations in life. ▫ Open lines of communication. ▫ Be aware of and avoid tendency to prejudge and stereotype.
  6. 6. Equal Employment • Equal Opportunity Opportunity Commission (EEOC) ▫ Protects minorities from discrimination in the workplace. ▫ No member of an organization is allowed to ask discriminatory questions when hiring someone. ▫ Guidelines – Bona Fide Occupational Qualifications (BFOQ). • Affirmative Action (AA) ▫ Planned, special efforts to recruit, hire, and promote women and other members of minority groups (for firms doing business with federal government). ▫ Support has declined because “quotas” could not be met and reverse discrimination suits were filed.
  7. 7. Pre-Employment Inquiries • All questions need to be job-related. ▫ Only ask questions that are “legal.” ▫ General questions should be asked of all candidates. • Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ) ▫ Allows discrimination on the basis of religion, sex, or national origin where it is reasonably necessary to normal operation of a particular enterprise.
  8. 8. Legally Protected • MINORITIES ▫ Hispanics, Asian/Pacific Islanders, African Americans, Native Americans/Alaskan Natives. • RELIGIOUS BELIEFS ▫ “Reasonable accommodations” for holidays. • AGE ▫ Over 40’s are protected. ▫ Difficult to prove age discrimination.
  9. 9. Legally Protected • DISABILITIES ▫ Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)  Significant physical, mental, or emotional limitations.  Also includes people with prison records, major obesity, heart disease, cancer, mental illness, AIDS, and rehabilitation alcohol and drug abusers.  Law requires employers have “reasonable accommodations.”  Disabled person can still be required to meet the same productivity standards.
  10. 10. Legally Protected • ALCOHOL & DRUG TESTING ▫ 1 of 6 Americans have a substance abuse problem. ▫ Costs estimated at over $86 billion per year.  Accounts for loss of productivity from absenteeism, health care costs. • AIDS & AIDS TESTING ▫ 40% of reported cases are heterosexual, 50% of newly infected adults are women.  Transmitted via sexual activities, shared needles, infected mother of a fetus, and blood transfusions. ▫ Person infected with HIV or AIDS is protected under the ADA of 1990 and the rehabilitation act of 1973.  ADA approach to contagious diseases states employers may disqualify a person for employment if they are “a direct threat to the health or safety of others in the workplace.” ▫ 1987 federal laws in place barring discrimination against federal workers with AIDS.  Also, disciplinary action for those refusing to work with someone with AIDS.
  11. 11. Legally Protected • SEXUAL ORIENTATION ▫ Homosexuals (gays, lesbians).  Homophobia is an aversion or discrimination against a person based on their sexual orientation. ▫ EEOC is supposed to cover. ▫ As with age discrimination, is hard to prove.
  12. 12. Grounds for Sexual Harassment in Federal & State Courts • Any unwelcome behavior of a sexual nature. • UNWELCOME SEXUAL ADVANCES ▫ Propositioning – trying to establish an intimate relationship on or off the job. • COERCION ▫ Someone in power asking for sexual favor with stated or implied reprisal if not complied with. • FAVORITISM ▫ If employees are rewarded for sexual favors, then those who refused or were not asked can sue. • INDIRECT HARASSMENT ▫ Being witness to others’ harassment. • PHYSICAL CONDUCT ▫ Actual touch is not required – unseemly gestures also constitute harassment. • VISUAL ▫ Graffiti – displays of nude pictures (or nude calendars.
  13. 13. Women & Sexual Harassment • Women are a legally protected group. ▫ Not a minority – actually a majority. • Sexual harassment difficult to prove due to its subjective nature. • Most charges are against men toward women – but can be vice versa or same sex. ▫ Never heard about it until about 25 years ago – just not brought out publicly. ▫ Number of cases continue to increase.
  14. 14. Dealing with Sexual Harassment • It has a “subjective” quality – litmus test is “comfort level.” • Let the other person know you are offended and need to stop if you uncomfortable with: ▫ Someone touching you. ▫ Showing you sexually graphic materials. ▫ Telling off-color jokes. • If it persists, report to authorities.
  15. 15. Dating Co-workers • A major influence on attraction is proximity. • Office romance changes behavior and can affect job performance. ▫ Some companies have policies against dating co- workers – and may fire people for it. ▫ Same as marriage statistics – half of the relationships fail. ▫ Working with someone after a break-up can be difficult and may lead to harassment.
  16. 16. Political Correctedness • Means being careful not to offend or slight anyone by what we say or do. ▫ Things that would be detrimental to good human relations. ▫ Jokes can be very harmful – use with caution!
  17. 17. Sexism & Racism • Sexism refers to discrimination based on sex. ▫ Not just directed toward women. ▫ Limits the opportunities of both sexes to choose the careers they want. • Racism refers to discrimination based on race. ▫ Culture continues to promote stereotypes. • Job opportunities should be equal – based on a person’s ability to perform.
  18. 18. Women in the Workforce • Self-assessment 13.2 measures your attitudes toward women and minorities in the workplace. • Women make up 46.3% of total U.S. workforce. ▫ Women’s incomes are critical to family financial support. ▫ In general, women want both a career and family. • Equal pay? ▫ Men are paid more for equal positions. ▫ Especially in higher paid executive positions.
  19. 19. Myths about Women Managers • Will leave when they have children. ▫ Research shows they stay on the job. • Too emotional to be managers. ▫ Studies show virtually identical emotional profiles between men and women in management. ▫ Men and women show no differences in leadership abilities. • Not as committed to the organization as males. ▫ Not proven to be true – commitment is equal on the basis of gender.
  20. 20. The “Glass Ceiling” • Today, more women college grads than men. • Women hold 51% of management and professional jobs. ▫ However, men more likely to get promotions. ▫ Women face many barriers in corporate jobs. • Women hold only about 7% of senior executive positions. ▫ Many women opt to start their own businesses. ▫ Only 11 (2.2%) women CEO’s of Fortune 500 companies.  Down from 15% in 2010.
  21. 21. Progress of Minorities • Just like women, many are leaving corporate America to start their own businesses. • Two advancement-related traits are: ▫ Strong desire. ▫ Focusing on getting the job done. • Networking helps – but women and minorities are at a disadvantage because they do not fit the “right” social mold. ▫ Having a mentor helps.
  22. 22. Overcoming Sexism & Racism • Avoid sexist and racist terminology. ▫ Mail carrier, not “mailman.” ▫ Women are not “girls,” nor men “boys.” • Avoid swearing. • Be assertive – ask the offender to stop – do not tolerate. • It it persists, report to supervisor.
  23. 23. Changing Family Roles • Two income families became the norm in 1994. ▫ Over half of all married couples both work outside the home. ▫ Number of people getting married has decreased. ▫ Women still do most of housework and parenting. ▫ 25% of children are raised by a single parent. • Self-assessment 13.3 looks at your marriage knowledge.
  24. 24. Fathers’ Changing Roles • Strong father figures are correlated with reduced criminality in children. • More fathers routinely stay home to care for sick children. • Some families find that a second paycheck does not always mean living better. • The “gender flip.” ▫ If mom makes more money, she works and dad stays home.
  25. 25. Mothers’ Changing Roles • Many of today’s moms work outside the home as well as being homemakers. ▫ Career track moms.  Choose to stay on the job. ▫ Mommy track moms.  Leave work and plan to return when kids are grown. • Family Leave Act. ▫ Both moms and dads have up to 12 weeks. ▫ Know your rights: contact Department of Labor.
  26. 26. Parenting • Many couples experience a drop in marital satisfaction following the birth of a child. • Two guidelines to follow: ▫ Engage in sensitive play.  Touch, hold, and talk to child.  Give lots of praise. ▫ Develop a warm, loving bond.  Make child feel safe and secure.  Read more, less television.
  27. 27. Work & Family Balance • Work-family spillover. ▫ With technology, the lines between on the job and at home get blurred. ▫ Keeping a balance can be stressful. • Good family relationships are important for total well-being and good job performance. • Business magazines publish lists of best places to work.
  28. 28. Managing Diversity • Some organizations now have Chief Diversity Officers on their executive teams. • Added work-life benefits are being offered. ▫ Telecommuting. ▫ Flextime. ▫ Cafeteria benefits. ▫ Child care. ▫ Work-life balance classes. ▫ Wellness programs. ▫ Tuition re-imbursement. ▫ Employee assistance programs.
  29. 29. Global Diversity • Multinational companies (MNCs) conduct a large part of their business outside their home country. ▫ #1 challenge to business leaders in the 21st century. ▫ Cross-cultural relations important. • 7 areas of diversity (Hofstede’s Model) ▫ CUSTOMS. ▫ ATTITUDES TOWARD TIME. ▫ WORK ETHICS. ▫ COMPENSATIONS (PAY). ▫ LAW AND POLITICS. ▫ ETHICS. ▫ PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT.
  30. 30. Handling Employee Complaints • Four step complaint model: ▫ LISTEN AND PARAPHRASE  Listen to the full story – do not interrupt.  Do not get defensive. ▫ HAVE COMPLAINER RECOMMEND SOLUTION  Ask the person what they want. ▫ SET A TIME FOR FACT GATHERING AND A DECISION  Do not procrastinate – do not promise a decision and then not follow-through – the faster it is resolved, the better.  Talk to others and get all of the facts first. ▫ DEVELOP AND IMPLEMENT PLAN  Use complainer’s resolution if possible.  Always make sure plan is implemented and a follow-up is made.
  31. 31. Handling Customer Complaints • Five steps to follow: ▫ Admit the mistake. ▫ Agree that it should not have happened. ▫ Ask what the customer wants and tell them what you are going to do about it. ▫ Take action to make it up to the customer. ▫ Take precautions to prevent from happening again.
  32. 32. In Summary • Prejudice and Discrimination • Major Laws Protecting Minorities and Women • Legal Questions for Job Interviews • Legally Protected Groups (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission) • 6 Areas of Sexual Harassment • Sexism in Organizations • 7 Areas of Global Diversity • How to Handle Complaints
  33. 33. Summing it all up: Handling Human Relations Problems • Three alternatives: ▫ Change the other person. ▫ Change the situation. ▫ Change yourself.  Assess your abilities and skills.  Develop new skills.  Change your behavior.  Get feedback and reward yourself.

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