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Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction

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Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction

  1. 1. M A I N S T R E A M I N G RESPONSE & RESILIENCE: A STORY OF PARTNERSHIP AND PARTICIPATION CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION DISASTER RISK REDUCTION & Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II) Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief, Bangladesh
  2. 2. II MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA improved disaster-proofing of development programming and enhanced technical capacity to incentivise positive long-term changes in planning and investment decisions. have access to specific DRR & CCA information with incorporation of DRR-CCA issues in the curricula of 35 textbooks from classes 3 to 12 through National Curricula and Textbook Board. trained and mobilised for disaster response, search and rescue. This includes 6,970 women volunteers. by the Departments of Fisheries, Agricultural Extension and Livestock Services. potentially saving lives, livelihoods and assets of 88 million people in major river basins. 13 22 3to 5 Increased lead time from days in flood forecasting, 115have access to cell phone based early warning system for possible natural disasters. 30,011 12,892trained on various adaptation options. 27,923adaptation demonstrations million cell phone users urban volunteers farmers million students Departments and 1 ministry 6,712trained on disaster and climate change issues Government professionals
  3. 3. M A I N S T R E A M I N G RESPONSE & RESILIENCE: A STORY OF PARTNERSHIP AND PARTICIPATION CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION DISASTER RISK REDUCTION & Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II) Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief, Bangladesh
  4. 4. Introduction 1 The Context 1 Programme Description EFFORTS IN MAINSTREAMING 4 Bangladesh Meteorological Department 8 Flood Forecasting and Warning Centre 11 Geological Survey of Bangladesh 13 Department of Environment 17 Fire Service and Civil Defence 20 Department of Agricultural Extension 25 Department of Fisheries 27 Department of Livestock Services 30 National Curriculum and Textbook Board 33 Department of Public Health Engineering 35 Department of Women Affairs 37 Directorate General of Health Services 38 Ministry of Land 39 General Economics Division 40 CONCLUSION Table of Contents 1 2 3 Chapter Chapter Chapter
  5. 5. Bangladesh is historically a disaster prone country and climate change hazards are changing there intensity and frequency. Climate change and disasters impact all development sectors directly or indirectly, destroying our past gains and threatening our future development. Realising this, the Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II) aimed to create synergies between disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation through sensitising and educating the planners and decision making professionals of targeted ministries so that they consider disaster and climate change proofing of their development programmes. The impacts of disaster and climate change are not the same and some sectors require early attention. CDMP II has targeted 13 departments and 1 Ministry to enhance their technical capacity in planning to make development programmes climate and disaster proof. CDMP has invested in strengthening the capacity of partner departments and in the expansion of programmes focusing on Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA). This has resulted in a number of positive changes in policies, plans and institutional capacity, and in the lives of beneficiaries. This report highlights some of the key achievements made under these partnerships and demonstrates the value of our approach and investment where we are having the biggest impact and where we face challenges. Mohammad Abdul Qayyum National Project Director, CDMP II Additional Secretary Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief From the National Project Director
  6. 6. VI MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA DAE 3,359,112 FSCD 2,993,321 35% 31% 8% 5% 5% 4% 3% 3% 2% 2% 1% 1% .40% .40% 1% NCTB 199,961 DoF 250,000 DLS 250,126 GSB 400,000 DOE 492,761 FFWC 500,000 BMD 803,700 DWA 100,000 DGHS 118,500 MoL 36,425 DPHE 152,477 Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE) Fire Service and Civil Defence (FSCD) Bangladesh Meteorological Department (BMD) Flood Forecasting and Warning Centre (FFWC) Department of Environment (DoE) Geological Survey of Bangladesh (GSB) Department of Livestock Services (DLS) Department of Fisheries (DoF) National Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB) Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS) Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE) Department of Women’s Affairs (DWA) General Economics Division (GED) and Ministry of Land ( Mol) Investment for Mainstreaming DRR & CCA, 2010-2015: $ 9,695,883 GED 39,500
  7. 7. MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 1 CDMP II is a flagship collaborative initiative of the Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief and UNDP with the support of UKAid, European Union, Australian Aid, Norwegian Embassy and Swedish SIDA. C h a p t e r 1 Introduction The image of Bangladesh around the world is that of a land known for its multitude of rivers, distinctive deltaic beauty and fertile soil. It is also known as a country that is frequently beset with natural calamities. The lives of millions of its inhabitants are disrupted, and yet they strive to adjust, adapt and be resilient against the damage each calamity leaves behind. The determination that the people show to rebuild their lives in the wake of various natural and manmade disasters continue to inspire and encourage national and international response in the form of programmes and initiatives. One such initiative is the Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP), and this is an account of its vision and contribution towards making a difference through mainstreaming disaster risk reduction across government. The Context Bangladesh is highly vulnerable to the impacts of natural disasters and its geography makes the events a frequent occurrence. Although the country has achieved steady progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as well as seen improvements in different socio-economic indicators and infrastructural development, it is considered the fifth most natural disaster-prone country in the world among 173 countries (World Risk Report, 2012). The United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) ranks Bangladesh as the country most at risk in terms of population exposed to floods and cyclones. The Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters estimated that close to 75 million people were directly affected by natural disasters between 2000 and 2010, with economic damage of US$5.8 billion. Bangladesh has incurred an average annual loss equal to 1.8% of the GDP due to natural disasters in the past two decades. As the country is located at the top of the Bay of Bengal, cyclones are funneled towards it, while its low lying deltaic geography results in seasonal flooding and water logging. The geography also makes Bangladesh extremely susceptible to slow onset disasters such as those caused by sea level rise, salinity intrusion and unavailability of fresh water. Programme Description CDMP’s vision is to support a paradigm shift in disaster management from the conventional programmes of urgent response and relief to a more comprehensive and sustainable approach. The concept here is to explore and enable long-term preparedness and risk reduction through finding and using the right entry points, engaging partners and establishing linkage and cooperation across sectors. 75 million people were directly affected by natural disasters between 2000 and 2013, with economic damage of US$10.8 billion. Bangladesh has incurred an average annual loss equal to 1.8% of the GDP due to natural disasters in the past two decades. * ADB TA Report 8144, 2015
  8. 8. 2 MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA In essence, CDMP sought to create the right environment to ensure that the population at risk can have a better chance at preparing against and overcoming the recurrent hazards. Concerted efforts for disaster management in all sectors, availability of timely warning of impending hazards and appropriate information for adaptive measures are at the heart of the approach. Phase-I of the Programme laid the foundation for institutionalising the risk reduction approach and framework. Phase II was designed to further scale up and mainstream disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA) into more sectors. It invested in policies and knowledge building, working with and through the government and the disaster management committees. It addressed risk exposure of the most disadvantaged groups in 40 targeted vulnerable districts, building capacities for mainstreaming DRR and CCA agendas in sectoral policies, plans and budgetary frameworks. The scope of CDMP was ambitious as it aspired to Introduce DRR and CCA into 14 different government bodies under respective ministries. This was in every sense a herculean undertaking as the general trend among government ministries is to go their own way in planning, strategising and implementing respective programmes. The aim of CDMP II was to reach the most vulnerable sections of the population and to integrate DRR and CCA into community level interventions and government policy and plans. Six outcome areas are envisioned as a result of its activities. These include professionalisation of the disaster management system, rural and urban risk reduction, strengthening of management capacity and coordination, mainstreaming of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation – which is the focus of this publication – and community level climate change adaptation. As CDMP draws to an end, questions arise as to how much of its vision was actually fulfilled. Some of the questions relate to how well the programme has managed to bring about effective disaster risk reduction & climate change adaptation, and whether it has succeeded at all in achieving a paradigm shift through commitment, action and ownership of the concept across government. A close look at the relevant interventions and direct results could reveal whether mainstreaming of DRR and CCA in different sectors is truly taking place. For government CDMP’s vision is to support a paradigm shift in disaster management from the conventional programmes of urgent response and relief to a more comprehensive and sustainable approach
  9. 9. MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 3 bodies such as the Bangladesh Meteorological Department, Flood Forecasting and Warning Centre, Geological Survey of Bangladesh, and Department of Environment, the issue in question is how well they are fulfilling their mandates, which have been supported by CDMP, while for others the issue is whether there are evidence-based results Indicating a shift in their activities to accommodate DRR and CCA. Three specific points need to be considered here – adjustments being essayed in the legislative and planning environment to facilitate integrated disaster management, capacity enhancement of government institutions, and of course, inclusion of disaster management in current and planned projects. Agreement to mainstream DRR and CCA in selected sectors were signed between CDMP II, the Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief, and z Flood Forecasting and Warning Centre (FFWC) of the Bangladesh Water Development Board, Ministry of Water Resources z Bangladesh Meteorological Division (BMD), Ministry of Defence z Geological Survey of Bangladesh (GSB), Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral resources z Department of Environment (DoE), Ministry of Environment and Forests z Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE), Ministry of Agriculture z Department of Livestock Services (DLS), Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock z Department of Fisheries (DoF), Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock z Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Cooperatives z Fire Service and Civil Defence (FSCD), Ministry of Home Affairs z Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare z Department of Women’s Affairs (DWA), Ministry of Women and Children Affairs z National Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB), Ministry of Education z Ministry of Land (MoL) z General Economics Division (GED), Ministry of Planning
  10. 10. 4 MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 115 million cell-phone users now have direct access to early warnings of approaching hydro- meteorological disasters by dialling 10941 C h a p t e r 2 Efforts in mainstreaming In terms of a supportive institutional environment and consequent inclusion of DRR and CCA in current and planned projects, the following results have been achieved by the different government departments that are supported by CDMP for strengthening their disaster management capacity. Bangladesh Meteorological Department Background In response to the extreme vulnerability of Bangladesh to tropical cyclones and other natural disasters, the Bangladesh Meteorological Department (BMD) plays a significant role in the early warning of hazards. It is, in fact, the sole authorised government agency to deliver routine forecasts for all extreme events, including aviation forecasts, agricultural advisory to farmers and policy makers, climate data and information dissemination. to relevant public and private stakeholders for overall risk reduction and facilitation of social and economic activities. The revised Standing Orders on Disaster (2010) have also given some additional duties to the BMD for risk reduction, emergency response and rehabilitation. CDMP supported activities The BMD has been a strong partner of CDMP since the first phase of the programme. The programme activities have thus far focused on enhancing on- location and time-specific forecasts for all weather events; making forecast products more accessible, presentable and end-user friendly; establishing a database for archiving and sharing climate data; and enhancing the capacity of BMD officials in using updated and improved equipment and software. 593 BMD professionals have received skill development training to improve their knowledge on meteorological services and ICT. These professionals work at the 57 observatory stations of BMD including at island stations and the head office. The meteorological team working at the main Meteorological Office at Hazrat Shah Jalal International Airport, Dhaka, which performs the
  11. 11. MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 5 593 officials trained on meteorological services and ICT important service of providing 24 hours weather report for flight maintenance, has also received training. Ten BMD officials have received training on a Climate Database Management System . All weather related historical and current data are archived using this system. Researchers, universities, government departments, private organisations and others can access the data for their work. For public access to weather information, a digital display board has also been set up at the main gate of the BMD office. An automatic communication system with high speed internet connection is enabling the Storm Warning Centre (SWC) of the BMD to share and exchange data with its 35 observatory stations in different locations of the country. Furthermore, solar power installed at the observatory stations in the islands of Kutubdia, Sandwip, Hatia and Teknaf is providing uninterrupted quality electricity to ensure constant connection with the SWC. CDMP is also providing support to the BMD in the areas of procurement of hardware and software. A system for collection and processing of weather information on specific locations is currently being developed using GIS and remote sensing software. Results 1. The dynamic BMD Website (www.bmd.gov.bd), redesigned and upgraded under CDMP support, provides people with all types of weather information along with a weather bulletin and seven-day weather forecast. 2. Weather information from the BMD can now be accessed from any cell phone by dialling the number “10941”. 115 million mobile phone subscribers have been provided access to this Interactive Voice Response (IVR) based early warning dissemination. 3. The process of information sharing from the observatories has been entirely digitised. As a result, weather information can be accessed anywhere in the country and around the world from the BMD website. High speed bandwidth is allowing information to be sent quickly to the media and the ministry. 4. Previously, all data were collected and entered manually. Now, using the climate database management system, data generated from the observatories are archived automatically and can be easily accessed for any year, date and area.
  12. 12. 6 MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 70% of weather forecast processing time to be reduced by Weather Research and Forecasting simulation system Storm Warning Centre is strengthened with high speed communication system and solar powered electricity backup 5. Solar energy installation at the weather observatories keeps the system functioning even if there is no sunshine for three days. 6. As a result of skill development, the staff’s accuracy in analysing information has improved and therefore, the accuracy of data from the weather observatories has improved. There have also been some associated results from other interventions of CDMP II: • Around three million people are benefiting from easier access to improved early warning of and response to cyclones through expansion of the Cyclone Preparedness Programme to five new upazilas of two districts (Khulna and Satkhira). • A pilot initiative on availing the IVR for flash flood forecast has been implemented in Sunamganj district. • Radios and batteries, distributed by CDMP II, are helping community radio broadcasting stations to produce quality radio programmes on DRR and CCA and enabling thousands of people to receive weather forecasts. The community radio stations situated in the coastal zone have already extended their broadcasting hours with CDMP’s help. Challenges and opportunities The BMD does not have a system yet for forecasting lightning and thunderstorms. Such a system, although costing a few hundred thousand dollars, would be able to save a hundred lives on average per year. Thus, investment opportunity remains for further technology support and related training.
  13. 13. MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 7 “Cyclones have taken many loved ones from me. Now I will take everyone away from cyclones” Monu Miyah is no stranger to cyclones. “I have survived several cyclones but the memory of losing my family members to them stays with me,” says the fisherman from Moheshkhali. He comes from an impoverished community of fishermen, people so poor that purchasing mobile phones available in Bangladesh that come with some of the lowest tariffs in the world is viewed by them as a luxury. Fishermen have previously depended on traditional prediction methods for cyclones or bad weather before going to sea, and in the absence of advance warning they have either fled with their families to safety and protected their livestock & assets or risked their lives by remaining at home. Speaking of the 1991 cyclone that had claimed more than 100,000 lives in Bangladesh, Monu Miyah recalls, “When Gorky hit, I couldn’t warn my family and neighbors to take necessary precautions; but the situation is different now as the community radio Naf has been airing regular information updates, warning messages and awareness programmes on disaster.” In an effort to reach out to as many listeners as possible, some of the programmes are aired in a widely used local dialect. Monu Miyah informs that his family is now prepared to seek refuge at the nearest cyclone shelter when required and place their important belongings in a safe location. This has become possible only because of the numerous awareness raising messages they constantly receive through the radio. He states “Cyclones have taken many loved ones from me. Now I will take everyone away from them.”
  14. 14. 8 MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA Flood forecasting lead time extended to 5 days, which is saving lives, livelihoods and assets of 88 million people living in four river basin areas For every dollar invested in flood early warning, we could expect an estimated return of $ 260 (Value for money study, CDMP II 2015) Flood Forecasting and Warning Centre Background Bangladesh is one of the most flood vulnerable countries in the world, experiencing widespread damage in rural and urban areas that repeatedly sets back the country’s effort in poverty alleviation. Although it has been demonstrated that flood forecasting and early warning services can mitigate flood damage and loss, past flood protection measures (based on 72 hours of lead time of flood forecasting) have proven inadequate. The focus of the partnership with the Flood Forecasting and Warning Centre (FFWC) of the Bangladesh Water Development Board has thus been to increase the lead time (to 5 days during monsoon) as well as produce location-based flood forecast (generated at 54 stations inside the country). The FFWC has the mandate to conduct flood monitoring and forecasting. It disseminates the information to policy makers, ministries, disaster management organisations and district administration through daily flood bulletins, fax, email, website and telephone. Information flow from the district down to upazila level (through district and upazila disaster management committees) is fairly satisfactory. However, communication between upazila and union administration is weak and therefore, by the time flood warning is passed down to the village level, it is often already too late. The technically sound but complicated information is also difficult to interpret and not easily understood by locals to enable them to take appropriate action. CDMP supported activities During the first phase of CDMP, technical and advisory services were provided to enable the FFWC to share water related data with the disaster management information centre. However, following a needs assessment it was realised that the support CDMP was providing to the FFWC needed to be strengthened even further to achieve a real improvement in the information flow. Now, under CDMP II, not only have their professionals received training for capacity development, the local area network (LAN) has been rehabilitated, restored and extended completely with new instruments and equipment. A system has been set up at their office and the office of the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) for continuous dissemination of flood warning. The FFWC has also been equipped
  15. 15. MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 9 with training and audio-visual aids for improving staff training as well as media briefing. Furthermore, it has set up an improved user-friendly website with Bangla features. Results 1. The strengthened support has led to a most tangible result. Flood forecast lead time has been increased from 3 to 5 days, potentially saving the lives, livelihoods and assets of the 88 million people living in four river basin areas. The forecast is also posted on the FFWC website. According to an assessment of early warning systems by the Asian Development Bank, communities can save more than 70% of their movable resources/capital goods, if they get five-day advance warning on flood events. 2. The FFWC website was revamped in July 2014 under CDMP to make it more dynamic. Since then it has received more than 100,228 hits. 3. Ward level profiling along embankments has been initiated for the first time. This structure- based forecasting is enabling managers to find weak points in embankments. CDMP has made an analysis of the costs and benefits of setting up and maintaining the systems that enable early flood warning. The improved FFWC forecast benefits 19.5 million households living in river basins. The increased two days of forecast will make it possible for households to save additionally 20% of their moveable assets – 70% of assets with five days’ advance warning, compared to 50% with three days’ notice which was available when CDMP II started. Assuming that two major events of country-wide flooding will occur over a ten-year period, affecting an average of 2 million households each time, the benefit-cost ratio comes to 260:1. This signifies that for every dollar invested in flood early warning, we could expect an estimated $ 260 return. Challenges and opportunities The available cross section data as well as the software used for computation of forecasts have become outdated. Currently, the FFWC has cross section information on 82000 km of river area: and although the system will require a few years to operationalise if updated, it is nevertheless becoming essential to switch over from the obsolete to a more modern and appropriate software. This obviously has huge cost implications. Encouraged by the promising results of the 5-day forecast which is calculated based on numerical value, the FFWC is undertaking a qualitative forecast for ten days and has already attempted 8-day forecasts with other donor support. Therefore, investment opportunity exists in the area of extending the currently practised 5-day forecast even further. Over 100,000 people visited the redesigned FFWC website for flood forecast since July 2014 Communities can save more than 70% of their movable resources/capital goods, if they get five-day advance warning on flood events. ADB, TA Report-4562, 2006 Flood forecast & warning aims to alert flood-prone communities to minimise loss and damages and to develop resilient communities The extended lead time has the potential to reduce loss of moveable assets by 20% in case of a severe flooding
  16. 16. 10 MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA A female volunteer with strong commitment to perform her volunteer duty CDMP II has undertaken a promising pilot initiative to engage the Bangladesh Ansar & Village Defence Party (VDP) system to close the important last mile gap for flood early warning. Bangladesh Ansar, under the Ministry of Home Affairs, has trained 15,600 VDP volunteers in the flood vulnerable districts of Sirajganj and Gaibandha, using custom-made training modules developed for the pilot. Working hand in hand with the FFWC, the volunteers will disseminate early warning messages to vulnerable communities when needed. Flood marker posts and water gauges have been installed and hand megaphones and cell phones have been distributed to the volunteers to establish a community-based early warning system. The Ansar & VDP have more than six million volunteers nationwide, organised in a gender balanced structure. The organisation can play a significant role in disaster preparedness, response and recovery in the future. Selina Akter from the village Paikpara in Sirajganj is a flood preparedness volunteer and passionate about raising awareness and helping people affected by floods. Her own experience with flood disaster fuels her motivation and commitment to assist her community. “During the last flood I was pregnant and living in a low plinth house, with no close relatives nearby where I could go. Even my closest neighbours did not have enough space to shelter me, so I had to travel far to my uncle’s house. This year I have raised my land and am prepared for the flood. I am happy to be a part of the Flood Preparedness Programme, which gives me the opportunity to share my experience with others and help them prepare for floods.” Another volunteer talked about the challenges that women – pregnant women in particular – face during floods, and their need for access to medical facilities and rescue/ safety equipment. She also expressed her strong commitment to engage in the volunteer programme despite possible challenges. “I can do anything; there is nothing that I cannot do, I have that courage. I can even swim to rescue people,” she said. Selina Akter speaking about her bitter experiences and eagerness to work as a volunteer
  17. 17. MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 11 Geological, geo- morphological, and engineering geological maps of 6 cities have been developed with CDMP support Geological Survey of Bangladesh Background The Geological Survey of Bangladesh (GSB) is a leading scientific and research organisation mandated for all geological, geo-morphological and geophysical mapping, mineral and water resources exploration; geological, urban and environmental engineering and natural geo-hazard assessments. It is also mandated to carry out research work related to geophysical, geotechnical and engineering geological mapping and modelling of the country. CDMP supported activities The purpose of the partnership with CDMP is to ensure capacity building of GSB personnel in earthquake and landslide risk identification and assessment. The technology, knowledge, expertise and experience achieved are expected to be applied in the disaster related projects of the organisation. The GSB has already successfully facilitated land use planning as well as detailed physical city planning by providing risk information generated from seismic hazard assessments and mapping. It has developed earthquake risk maps and ward- based contingency plans for nine targeted major cities. It has created microzonation maps for Dhaka, Chittagong and Sylhet city areas to determine the vulnerability of infrastructures to disasters in these cities (buildings, communication networks, gas, electricity water supply systems etc.). The activity is currently being scaled up to include the township areas of Dinajpur, Rangpur, Tangail, Mymensingh, Bogra and Rajshahi. Results As a result of the partnership knowledge & technology transfer, and capacity building through instrumentation and training have all been achieved. 1. The seismic zonation maps developed have helped to identify the zones that are at risk of
  18. 18. 12 MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA earthquakes. The local people of those areas have been cautioned to move out in times of such events to take shelter in specified locations. Information has been disseminated regarding safe roads to shelters, the nearest hospitals etc. 2. The capacity of the GSB staff in working with seismic microzonation has been developed. This is the first time that the department has worked on active fault identification in the country. They have developed this capacity by working with foreign experts with support from CDMP. In order to ensure that the knowledge and expertise are not lost over time, junior officers are learning through knowledge transfer from their seniors. Furthermore, a network of experts and companies has been established both at home and abroad to facilitate easy sharing of knowledge and data. 3. A procedure for active fault identification from the Bangladesh perspective has been developed. GSB’s geological team is now capable of conducting active fault mapping and characterisation without assistance from foreign consultants. 4. With CDMP funding, the GSB has received certain instruments for the first time, such as the combined seismometer. Also for the first time, as many as 30 accelerometers had been installed in the first phase of the programme and 10 more have been installed in the second phase. Challenges and opportunities Maintenance of the instruments and continuation of the established network are the two main challenges foreseen. Maintenance and cost of running the instruments must become a part of the government setup with strong ownership in order to sustain what has been achieved. Coordination among the scientific agencies also needs to be strengthened. The department organised a workshop to disseminate the lessons learnt to the scientific community and the government and to convey to them that the benefits of strengthening the GSB are such that would be realised over the long term. For example, seismic data, microzonation maps etc. are mainly for use in infrastructural development such as the metro rail project. In the event there is an earthquake after the metro rail is constructed and the structure remains intact, many lives and assets would be saved. Thus, the benefit would be over the long term. Network of Accelerometers in Bangladesh
  19. 19. MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 13 300 government officials have received training and orientation on preparing climate resilient development projects Climate Change Knowledge Network involving 40 member organisations established Department of Environment Background The Climate Change Cell set up at the Department of Environment (DoE), Ministry of Environment and Forest, in 2004 with support from CDMP is considered as a pioneer initiative of the government to combat climate change impacts. When the second phase of CDMP started, the Cell was further strengthened as “Support to the Department of Environment’s Climate Change Cell, Bangladesh” project. The main objective of the project is to enhance the technical capacity of the DoE for supporting the government in climate change related policy and programme development. The efforts are also aimed at integrating climate change considerations into existing development interventions and supporting the government in coordination and negotiation efforts related to DRR and CCA. If the project objective is achieved, it is expected to facilitate successful implementation of the Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan with a focus on disaster management, which is one of the six pillars of the Strategy. CDMP supported activities In recognition of the importance of mainstreaming DRR and CCA in its activities, the DoE has set up a new section named ‘Climate Change Cell’ in phase I of the programme. CDMP II continued to support the cell in phase II. The Cell directly supports the DoE for strengthening its capacity in data and information services, preparing reports on relevant issues, and organising workshops. The activities of the Cell also include providing support to the ministry with technical papers for international negotiations, conducting studies on sea level rise impact and sectoral vulnerabilities, organising consultation workshops & seminars and so on. The partnership with CDMP has also led to the establishment of a knowledge network titled “Climate Change Knowledge Network” that involves 40 member organisations. This network disseminates climate change research findings of the Cell and other line agencies. As a part of its activities, awareness-raising materials such as factsheets, booklets, bulletins, leaflets etc. have been developed and disseminated among stakeholders. The Cell also organises training workshops from time to time to enhance the capacity of government officials in preparing climate resilient development projects. Since the inception of the second phase, the Cell has organised five workshops and training programmes and intends to organise more such events involving the National Institute of Local Government (NILG) to
  20. 20. 14 MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA train local level government officials so that they can deal with the climate change issues properly. A manual on “Coastal Vulnerabilities to Climate Change and Adaptation Best Practices” has been developed and shared with relevant government institutions. Advocacy initiatives will be carried out for incorporation of its contents into their respective academic and training curricula. Apart from this, the Cell undertakes research initiatives on nationally important climate change issues. The Cell also provides financial support to Bangladesh delegations to international climate negotiations. It provided logistics support for the Bangladesh booth and the side events at the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties-COPs (COP 10-20). The Cell prepared the report of the tenth meeting of the Cartagena Dialogue (CD) held in Dhaka during 8-10 April 2013, and very often provides support in preparing Bangladesh Position Papers to COPs. The recent initiatives of the Cell include preparation of two books titled ‘‘International Climate Change Negotiations and Bangladesh” and “UNFCCC: A Compilation of major Documents and Decisions”. These activities of the Cell strengthen the national capacity of the country in international climate negotiations that ultimately contribute to ensuring the national interests in international forums. Continuation of the Cell may greatly contribute to developing an independent department on climate change in the country. Results 1. 300 government officials have received training on preparing climate resilient development projects. 2. The initiative to develop climate proofing guidelines for different sectors is helping to build the capacity of sectoral departments and agencies so that they can develop climate sensitive projects in their respective sectors. Such a guideline is in the process of being developed for the DoE. 3. The operation of the Cell has indirectly caused incorporation of climate change issue in the amended National Environment Policy, 2013. The policy will help to enforce integration of adaptation and mitigation issues into all development projects to tackle the adverse Climate-induced displaced people and visualizing their ultimate lives and livelihoods... Assessment of sea level rise and vulnerability of the costal zone of Bangladesh using trend analysis conducted by the Climate Change Cell
  21. 21. MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 15 impacts of climate change across the country. Researchers, practitioners, academia, NGO professionals and others frequently visit the Cell for information and knowledge documents. 4. In pursuit of climate change advocacy and diplomacy initiatives both at home and abroad, two documentaries have been produced by the Cell. The documentaries, one on the impacts of climate change and the other on tracking climate-induced displaced people, serve as supportive documents to prove Bangladesh’s vulnerabilities to climate change. 5. Data and information services are accessed by stakeholders and organisations from the comprehensive web-enabled database on climate change, which is the first of its kind in the country, developed by the Cell. The database facilitates research and necessary and relevant policy and programme development. Opportunities It is expected that more concrete achievements will be seen in the future. Firstly, it is hoped that institutionalisation of the Cell will be achieved through establishment of a Divisional Climate Change Information Cell with involvement of DoE divisional staff. Secondly, the DoE is currently preparing a Ten-Year Action Plan. Thirdly, training manuals have been developed for building the capacity of government officials in drought, flood and flash flood prone regions. The Cell also plans to prepare a specific manual on impacts and adaptations to climate change in the forestry sector. Institution/Policy Adaptation & InteractionCLIMATE CHANGE DATABASE Natural & Geographic Physical/Infrastructure HydroMeteorologicalData Physical/InfrastructureSocial- Economic Agriculture Emission Causative Factors CCImpacts&Disasters Adaptation&Interaction Mitigation InternationalContext “The Department of Environment, as a technical hand of the Ministry of Environment and Forests, is mandated to deal with climate change issues at national level. The Climate Change Cell housed at the DoE and funded by CDMP is supporting the Climate Change Section of this Department in a wide array of ways to successfully handle climate change related national issues. The DoE highly appreciates the cooperation extended by CDMP in this regard.” Director General, DoE
  22. 22. 16 MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA
  23. 23. MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 17 30,011 (of whom 6,970 are female and 23,041 are male) urban community volunteers trained Fire Service and Civil Defence Background In Bangladesh, earthquakes are not as frequent as floods and cyclones. Nevertheless in the last 250 years, eight major earthquakes have occurred around the country. According to the UN-IDNDR- RADIUS report (2000), Tehran and Dhaka are the most vulnerable cities to earthquake, not only due to tectonic behaviour but also as a result of unplanned urbanisation, lack of coordination between relevant institutions, lack of experience in urban search and rescue and inadequacy of rescue equipment. The urban clusters of the country also experience frequent fire hazards causing a high number of fatalities and injuries. In addition, infrastructural collapse and traffic & boat accidents are also very common incidents in Bangladesh. The Fire Service and Civil Defence (FSCD) is one of the government-mandated first responders to urban disasters in Bangladesh. However, it has only 6000 regular rescuers/firefighters, which is wholly inadequate for responding to a major disaster event, particularly an urban earthquake. Since its first phase, CDMP has been training volunteers in search and rescue operations. The key interventions in the second phase have included support in the form of fire-fighting and rescue equipment and development of urban community volunteers. The equipment is also used in simulation drills to develop the capacity of the volunteers to cope with real emergency situations. CDMP supported activities Training has been conducted for as many as 30,011 urban community volunteers from Dhaka, Chittagong, Sylhet, Dinajpur, Rangpur, Bogra, Rajshahi, Tangail, Mymensingh, and Cox’s Bazar. The volunteers are selected from among local people for a basic three-day course on collapsed structure search and rescue operations. It is the first responder training to teach how to operate relevant equipment, and conduct search and rescue within the first 72 hours of a disaster. CDMP has provided the equipment for demonstration of rescue operations and also support to establish 10 model fire stations from outcome 3 and 4. Some of the community facilitators and volunteers are trained in the Community-based Landslide Early Warning System. A database has been developed on the number of available trained volunteers, their specific skills as volunteers, their locations, etc. The volunteers can be contacted directly using the SMS service on mobile phones. Results 1. The volunteers are capable of providing valuable assistance during fire hazards, floods and other major disasters. The initiative to train women volunteers is significant particularly because women do not traditionally participate in disaster relief activities, which can be a problem especially when providing assistance to female victims. 2. People from different walks of life show interest and are brought under the training programme. The volunteers, although mostly high school students, also include doctors, engineers and high level government officers. In some cases, entire families step up to take part in the programme inspired or influenced by some event.
  24. 24. 18 MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 10 Model Fire Stations with highly specialised search and rescue equipment established 3. The volunteers are taking on a leading role in community response to disasters. They proved their value in the search and rescue operations during the Rana Plaza collapse in April, 2013. As many as 920 volunteers worked shifts for 19 days, risking their own lives to save others. Habib-ul-Is lam Sumon, Chief Volunteer Coordinator, responded to FSCD’s call and quickly organised a team to assist the search and rescue operations. Within hours he had 180 trained volunteers en route to Savar. The team comprised ordinary citizens like himself, trained in post disaster rescue work with CDMP’s support and driven by a zeal that saved 2,500 lives from the rubble. Sumon and his team of volunteers have received training from the FSCD in urban disaster response, including fire and earthquake response operations. These urban volunteers were called into action many times before the Savar tragedy. They have responded to fires across the city and were previously instrumental in evacuating a dilapidated building in Shakhari Bazar. However, nothing could have prepared them for what they encountered in Savar. “Our team took buses to reach the disaster site, and only after we got down did we realise the scale of the tragedy. But our training kicked in and we used the search and rescue techniques that we learned from the training,” said Sumon. “We did what any person would have done, the only difference is that we were able to work in a coordinated manner using our training and facilitate the search and rescue operations efficiently. The volunteers worked round the clock in 8-hour shifts putting the lives of others before theirs. I salute them.”
  25. 25. MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 19 28 Fire Service and Civil Defence and Ministry of Home Affairs officials received overseas training on search and rescue and 2,088 professionals received in-country training Challenges and opportunities The training is originally designed for a duration of 10 days, but due to fund constraints it was condensed into a three-day course consisting of two days of basic search and rescue training and one day of fire-fighting training. In order to keep the existing volunteers active, some advanced type of training is required which will give them a more involved role. Options are being explored to select those volunteers who continue to show interest in taking a leadership role in their localities and train them as trainers in basic search, rescue and crowd control. Targeted training on specific skills could also be provided such as training to create volunteer groups of divers to take part in rescue operations during boat capsize. Some thought is also being given to linking the volunteers with a current plan to establish 10 model fire stations in Dhaka and Chittagong. The idea is that in the event a fire breaks out and before the fire-fighting trucks are deployed, these volunteers could become the first responders in terms of crowd control and in keeping the roads free for arrival of the rescuers. The equipment purchased with CDMP fund has become damaged from repeated use during demonstrations in the training sessions conducted so far, and need to be replaced. The government is making efforts to secure funding to purchase 250 new sets of equipment.
  26. 26. 20 MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA
  27. 27. MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 21 6,342 farmers, 1,017 officials and 3,900 Climate Field School members trained Department of Agricultural Extension Background Agriculture is a key economic sector in Bangladesh, accounting for nearly 16.3% of the GDP and 44% of the labour force . The people’s incomes and livelihoods, particularly rural livelihoods in this country, are greatly dependent on assets such as crops, livestock, fisheries, forestry etc. However, these are at the mercy of nature and climatic conditions including floods, droughts, water logging and so on, and farmers, fishermen, daily labourers and women are all affected in terms of reduction in natural, financial and physical capital. For example in 2007, the cyclone Sidr caused damage and loss worth BDT 30.3 billion in the crop, fisheries and livestock sectors. Climate change and variability also bring great risks and create negative impacts on productivity. Therefore, disaster and climate change management in agriculture is a major challenge for Bangladesh in achieving sustainable development. CDMP supported activities CDMP has supported climate-proof agriculture in Bangladesh through strengthening capacity of the Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE) in Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation. Various initiatives have been taken, including training of DAE personnel, exchange visits and motivational tours e.g. in climate vulnerable areas with cold spell effects on boro rice seedlings, and strengthening of ICT facilities at 52 upazila and district level DAE offices. DAE officials at field level are ensuring that the disaster forecasts and warnings from the FFWC reach farmers. The DAE has also introduced a new curriculum in the 156 Climate Field Schools (CFS) in CDMP intervened upazilas and districts. The curriculum covers issues such as climate change and disasters, their impacts on agriculture, suitable adaptation technologies etc. Through the CFS (90 of which are now fully furnished and have the necessary agri-equipment for demonstration sessions), thousands of farmers are being trained by DAE personnel in the implementation of different CCA and DRR technologies. Results The results include farmer and community capacity development in CCA as well as national recognition and replication of projects initiated under CDMP. 1. CCA technologies are being well demonstrated and implemented. 2. As part of the curriculum of the CFS, a field day is observed involving a huge gathering from the community. On that day, the technology introduced to the CFS farmers and various types of disaster related knowledge are shared with the community. The event serves to motivate local people into adapting many of the technologies demonstrated, e.g. the practice of flood tolerant and saline tolerant crop varieties. Mushroom production in saline prone areas is increasing Training on Climate Change Adaptations for the members of Climate Field Schools
  28. 28. 22 MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 156 Climate Field Schools established Bangladesh Technical Education Board has incorporated “Climate and Disaster Management” subject in the curriculum of the Agriculture Training Institute 3. Farmers field schools have been restructured and established as Climate field schools and equipped with weather monitoring and agriculture tools to continue climate change adaptation options in disaster prone and climate risk areas. 4. Many CFS farmers have been trained in implementing the Manikganj Model of dry seedbed technology for raising seedling during cold spells and rice production in dry season. The project has received a national award as an innovative response to climate change impact on crop cultivation. Md. Mizanur Rahman of Maluchi, a small village in Manikganj, is among those farmers who have received training under the Disaster and Climate Risk Management in Agriculture (DCRMA) project and learned about dry seedbed preparation. With technical support from the Upazila Agriculture Office, Mizanur Rahman collected seed from reliable sources and successfully produced healthy, disease- free seedlings using the recommended technology package. He earned a gross income of Tk. 20,000 by selling seedlings from 10 decimal of dry seedbed. He harvested about 1.2 ton/33 decimals at the cost of Tk. 6000 and sold about Tk. 18,000 worth of seedlings. This has made him very happy as he can now cultivate and produce disease-free healthy seedlings at minimum cost and gain a higher yield and income. He says, “I plan to organise the farmers of my area to grow seedlings this way using the dry seedbed method. Like me, they can benefit from producing healthy, strong and stout seedlings.” 5. Another striking result of climate change adaptation in agriculture is the quick harvest of paddy by farmers before flash floods occur. This is now possible due to the paddy/ wheat reaper and small water monitoring tool provided through the CFS to farmers. Normally, around 3500 taka is required for harvesting one acre of land with paddy/wheat with the involvement of 10-12 labourers. On the other hand, a single operator can use the reaper and achieve the same task in only 1.5 to 2 hours at one third of the cost. Climate change adopted farm produce is being demonstrated...
  29. 29. MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 23 6. Sub assistant agriculture officers, agriculture officers and agriculture extension officers who have received training in climate change impact and adaptation technology are both building community capacity and contributing in mainstreaming CCA in other projects of the DAE. For example, the concept of floating gardens is now being implemented in more than 40 upazilas and the dry seed bed technology in 52 upazilas. The DAE staff discusses at their own initiative the disaster issues in different meetings and forums and includes CCA in the various trainings they impart. 7. The Bangladesh Technical Education Board: has Incorporated “Climate and Disaster Management” subject focusing on climate change, disaster, DRR, CCA and Farmers Field School in the curriculum of the Agriculture Training Institute. 8. The implications of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in crop selection are becoming a part of the DAE’s planning strategy. Previously, the focus was on how and what crop would bring more yield whereas now the department is looking at not just the yield but also what to do against disaster risks. At the krishi projukti mela, held in December, 2014 in Dacope upazila, the DAE arranged to include the technology demonstrated in the FSCs. 9. As a result of ICT support the DAE control room has been strengthened in 52 upazilas of 26 districts of DAE working areas, and the staff are able to provide online reports because of internet connection. Temperature and rainfall data as well as area-based production data and fertilizer status all over Bangladesh are now available on the DAE website. Challenges and opportunities A total of 156 Farmers Field schools were supported and developed as climate Field School in 52 upazilas. Out of 156, only 34 are registered and as Integrated Pest Management club. If these Climate schools could be registered, these could be sustained and use as a vehicle for mainstreaming DRR and CCA at the local level. The resources given to those Climate Field Schools would be used under the supervision of DAE. With infrastructure support it will be possible to plan their sustainability through e.g. use of the schools for multi-purposes such as NGO training venue on payment, meeting room for farmers, and “office” of sub assistant agriculture officers where they could provide advice and technical support to farmers. The school premises should also include a storage space for agri-equipment. DAE has developed an action plan for the next five years with over 30 activities for mainstreaming DRR and CCA in their projects. The action plan recommend a Cell comprising a core team of senior officers of the DAE who will work with the mainstreaming issue. Linking the Cell with the DMIC would facilitate archiving of and access to consistent data and easy sharing of information. Currently, different kinds of information are available from different sources e.g. information on crop loss or damage due to disasters. Therefore, efforts are underway to link the central database with different departments for facilitating access to information from a single integrated source. Mini ponds are used to ensure irrigation for paddy and vegetable cultivation in saline prone areas Farmer selling vermi-compost “I have earned Tk 15000 by selling vermi compost, produced in my homestead area in 2014” Alam Mia, Gaibandha
  30. 30. 24 MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA
  31. 31. MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 25 250 DoF officials trained 1350 fishermen trained through 110 demonstration ponds Disaster Risk Reduction Action Plan for Department of Fisheries prepared Farmers have been trained in a cross-sectoral collaborative effort by the DoF, DAE and DLS through model villages. Department of Fisheries Background The fisheries sector plays a vital role in the agro-based economy of Bangladesh through its contribution to employment and income generation, foreign exchange earnings, and food & nutrition. More than 1.2 million people are involved directly and 15 million indirectly in this sector. Climate change impacts, however, have huge bearing on the sector. Due to prolonged dry spells, upstream river flow will reduce and salinity intrusion will occur in fish breeding grounds. Aquaculture will also be exposed to both extreme flood and drought events. CDMP supported activities The activities have focused on enhancing capacity of both Department of Fisheries (DoF) staff and fish farmers. Training modules have been developed and training has been provided to 250 officials to facilitate better understanding of climate change risks and adaptation options for fresh water and coastal marine fisheries as well as aquaculture. Training modules have also been developed for fish farmers for the practice of short-term safe aquaculture in hazard-prone areas. In total, 1,350 farmers have received training including hands-on training through 110 demonstration ponds. With the introduction of the short term safe aquaculture method, the participating farmers successfully learnt how to harvest two types of fish crops in short term twice a year. The DoF has also conducted an assessment of the impact of climate change on fisheries in Bangladesh the assessment emphasized on, (i) to assess the people perceptions about climate change, hazards and risks (ii) to assessed and prioritized hazard prone area specific risks, vulnerabilities, impacts, coping mechanisms and adaptation strategies. DoF has also developed a DRR & CCA action plan for future programmes on fisheries in the country. Results 1. Thousands of farmers and officers have been trained in a cross-sectoral collaborative effort between the DoF, DAE and the DLS supported by CDMP. Ten model villages have been set up with integrated interventions in the three sectors. 2. Fish farmers used to practise a single crop throughout the year, which carried high risks. With the introduction of the safe aquaculture method, they have successfully learnt how to harvest two types of fish crops in short term twice a year. 3. In response to climate change, fish sanctuary projects for the enhancement of fish biodiversity and beel nurseries for stock enhancement are being undertaken. 4. As per a directive issued by the Director General of the DoF, the training module on CCA has been replicated by the department’s own fund to train 40 of its staff as a part of its regular training programme. Challenges and opportunities The process of selecting 10 model villages was completed in a rush, as the decision for undertaking this innovative initiative was taken midway through the second phase of CDMP. The field
  32. 32. 26 MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA Short term safe aquaculture demonstrated in 110 ponds A training module on short term safe aquaculture has been developed for farmers and has been adopted and used by the Department of Fisheries officers had to move quickly to select the sites, which were not all very suitable and therefore the interventions were most effective in just six out of the 10 villages. The DoF is working on an action plan that will propose to set up a DRR Wing, already endorsed by the Director General of the department. As it will require a few years to set up a permanent DRR Wing recognised by the Ministry of Establishment with posts formally created, it will be created in an ad hoc form for the time being. The existing staff of the department will take on the work in addition to their regular duties until the Wing is established in its permanent form. The Wing will implement the activities of the action plan including collection of data on the changing environment of fisheries due to river erosion, drought, salinity etc. It will communicate and coordinate with the Planning Wing which formulates new projects of the DoF, in order to ensure incorporation of DRR and CCA in those projects. The DRR Wing will also coordinate with the Training Wing to ensure that CCA is incorporated in the training programmes of all DoF projects.
  33. 33. MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 27 2,500 demonstrations for farmers and 500 farmer meetings conducted Department of Livestock Services Background Natural disasters have a significant impact on the livestock sector. As a result of the flood that occurred in 2007, the sector suffered an estimated damage and loss of BDT 608.55 million. This included infrastructural damage of 2794 ruminant and 5412 poultry farms. In the same year, almost 80% of the animals and 76% of the birds were killed by the cyclone Sidr in the four worst affected districts. The impact of climate change is expected to heighten the vulnerability of livestock production systems in the country and, particularly for rural communities, loss of livestock assets could trigger a progression towards chronic poverty. The Department of Livestock Services (DLS) has the mandate to expand the country’s livestock production systems and to carry forward activities in different phases of disasters, i.e. risk reduction, and emergency preparedness and response. Considering the impact that climate change has on the livestock sector, the DLS has a significant role to play in making the sector climate resilient. CDMP supported activities CDMP is supporting the DLS for improving disaster resilient programme planning and enhancing its technical capacity. Six hundred regional and DLS officers, government poultry and dairy farm officers, and local veterinary assistants have also received training on bio-security measures for government poultry farms. Sixty local veterinary assistants have been trained as emergency livestock workers to protect and take care of the livestock in their localities during natural calamities. They are now ready to provide, in addition to crisis related livestock management, primary treatment to injured and ailing livestock. Furthermore, 2500 demonstrations for farmers and 500 farmer meetings have also been held. ICT rooms and control rooms have been set up at the DLS headquarter to network and connect with livestock developments occurring throughout the country.
  34. 34. 28 MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 600 officers have received training on bio-security measures Results 1. CCA technology demonstrations and farmer meetings in 50 targeted upazilas have increased awareness on local disasters. Awareness has been created through a participatory approach as the farmers were encouraged to identify themselves the disasters that occurred in their own areas. 2. Around 600 DLS officers have received training on bio-security measures and they in turn are raising the awareness of other DLS officers at meetings and different forums. They are also giving training to farmers and dairy farmers on precaution against anthrax during cold spells etc. 3. To adapt with flood situations, farmers are being advised to estimate the flood levels in their areas in the past 10 years and to construct their farms 3 feet above the recorded highest flood level. 4. A local volunteer programme has been launched in Hatia Island to vaccinate livestock and poultry against the foot and mouth disease in the wake of floods. Local livestock assistants have been developed with skills in providing support to livestock. 5. Resilient Integrated agricultural model villages are being established in 3 upazilas integrating agriculture, livestock and fisheries to help the villagers sustain and adapt themselves to any kind of disaster. So far, 50 farms have been selected for the purpose. Opportunities The DLS has ventured to draw up an action plan to demonstrate its commitment to sustain mainstreaming of DRR-CCA in its projects and activities. The plan will be implemented by the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock with the involvement of donor agencies, the civil society and the private sector. Cost effective priority programmes for immediate implementation and others to be started in the next 5 years will be identified. Special attention will be given to the needs of the poorest and most vulnerable livestock farmers in the community as well as the need to create an enabling environment to promote climate resilient investment.
  35. 35. MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 29 60 vaccinators have received training on vaccination In brief, the plan is to build the capacity of the DLS towards institutionalisation of DRR by: i) setting up a Disaster Risk Reduction Cell within the DLS, a central inter divisional/ institutional disaster management group as well as disaster management committees at all levels; ii) ensuring enhanced application of early warning systems in livestock through training and basic facilities, strengthened collaboration with partners and national and international livestock research organisations on DRR, dissemination of livestock related early warning to communities and a standardised monitoring system for DRR; and iii) knowledge management, capacity building and awareness creation (by technology transfer through training using updated operational field manuals and guidelines of the DLS, and enhanced capacity of DLS training institutes and trainers), and enhancing and maintaining livestock related database of the DLS and linking it with the central database of the Ministry. The investment has resulted in the development of a number of new DRR-CCA mainstreaming guidelines and a DRR–CCA Action Plan for different sectors. It has also enhanced the capacity of government officials across sectors on disaster risk management and climate change adaptations, bringing about changes in the lives of thousands of beneficiaries in different hazard zones through increased awareness, better understanding and capacities and implementation of thousands of risk reduction interventions implemented by the partner departments in different geographic locations to address different hazards. Training provided to the local volunteers on vaccination of poultry birds and cattle
  36. 36. 30 MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA
  37. 37. MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 31 DRR and CCA issues have been incorporated in 35 text books of primary to secondary education system National Curriculum and Textbook Board Background An assessment of the present level of understanding of students on disasters such as earthquakes, fires and floods, has led to measures at elementary and secondary levels to educate the next generation in better disaster and climate change preparedness. With financial and technical support from CDMP, the National Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB), Ministry of Education has reviewed available literature and educational materials on disaster and climate change. They have developed a revised curriculum based on a comparative analysis of the curricula of different countries. The proposed curriculum has been endorsed by the National Curriculum Coordination Committee of the Ministry of Education. CDMP supported activities The revised textbooks for elementary to higher secondary levels now include a chapter on disaster risk identification; risk prevention, mitigation and treatment; emergency response; and climate change along with adaptation techniques. Thirty-one text books (nine for primary, 14 for secondary and eight for higher secondary level) contain disaster and climate change subjects. Schools have started using these revised textbooks from the year 2012 to teach children about DRR and CCA. Supplementary learning materials on DRR and CCA, developed by renowned writers of Bangladesh will also be used to inform students on aspects not covered in the textbooks as well as to reach dropout and out-of- school children. Eighteen Supplementary Learning Materials have also been developed to facilitate the DDR and CCA education. Results 1. Over 22 million students (8 to 17 years of age) now have access to DRR and CCA knowledge. 2. As a result of awareness-raising workshops held in six divisions for teachers, education officers and school management committee members, the participants have pledged their commitment to take action to advocate and disseminate DRR and CCA knowledge in schools and among guardians and local communities. Challenges and opportunities The main challenge here is monitoring and supervision to ensure proper implementation of the new curriculum. One way this can be ensured is by motivating and preparing teachers and education officers. A curriculum has been developed for implementation at the Primary Teachers Training Institute and the Bachelor of Education Training Institute. The curriculum aims to prepare teachers to help children learn about disaster risks and climate change. A training module on possible health hazards during disasters and appropriate measures has been developed also for teachers and students. Awareness-raising workshops have been conducted in 6 divisions of Bangladesh. The final workshop
  38. 38. 32 MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA Over 22 million students (from classes III to XII) of every academic year now have access to DRR and CCA knowledge will be held in Dhaka with the compiled results of the 6 other workshops. Education policy makers will be invited to reflect on the outcome of the workshops and come up with recommendations, and the final report will be sent to the Ministry of Primary and Mass Education. The expected outcome is the issuance of a circular for school management committees, directing headmasters all over the country to ensure that their schools follow the new curriculum. There is also a plan to set up school disaster management committees comprising teachers and students. Among other things, the committee will organise regular earthquake drills in schools. Some of the associated results of other interventions of CDMP II • Teacher training has become a part of the endeavour to mainstream disaster preparedness and CCA in the formal learning process through the Department of Higher Secondary Education • Training of supervisory staff of the Education Department • School drills for earthquake preparedness • There is also a provision for the teacher training module to be incorporated in the training curriculum of the primary teachers’ training institute and the teachers’ training institute. • The safer school intervention has been institutionalised with at least twice a year country-wide earthquake drills.
  39. 39. MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 33 Department of Public Health Engineering Background Access to pure drinking water is an acute problem for children, women and the general population of both rural and urban communities during and after disaster events. According to the 2013 MDG report of the Government of Bangladesh, the proportion of population using an improved drinking water source is 85% (including water safe from arsenic contamination). However, climate change is threatening previous achievements of the country in the water and sanitation sector. The water quality deteriorates drastically during floods, cyclones and storm surges; while during droughts, most of the usual water sources dry up, forcing people to travel long distances to collect water to meet their barest requirements. Over five million people in the coastal region face acute scarcity of safe drinking water due to declining water table, salinity and arsenic in ground water. Tube wells in some locations cannot be used because of ground water salinisation. In some places, the situation is so bad that fresh drinking water can only be lifted from a depth of 700 ft using deep tube wells. Natural calamities like cyclones make the situation even worse. When the cyclone Aila hit the coast of Bangladesh in 2009, embankments were breached within 10 minutes causing widespread flooding that lasted long after the hazard. Most ponds in the region became inundated with saltwater, creating a severe crisis of drinking water. Salinisation is expected to affect more and more areas as the sea level continues to rise. The Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE) is the national lead agency for ensuring provision of safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene promotion, including waste management. It has specific responsibilities to ensure clean drinking water for the population during disaster periods as well as to establish a water supply system for regular supply of safe drinking water in today’s changing natural environment.
  40. 40. 34 MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 50 deep tube wells, 38 rainwater harvesting units, one underground water reservoir installed in saline prone coastal areas CDMP supported activities The partnership with CDMP is helping the DPHE to carry out research and to design alternative and sustainable options for the supply of safe drinking water. In response to the problem of lowering water table that prevents installation of deep tube wells in some areas and in other areas where ground water is saline, the department has established rainwater harvesting units at household and community levels. Results 1. The steps that the DPHE has taken since the cyclone Aila hit the country provide over a million of the affected people with better access to safe drinking water. Its activities have significantly reduced the risk of water borne diseases. 2. More than 550,000 women now have improved access to safe drinking water, as a result of which the risk of acquiring water-borne diseases has been reduced. Their domestic workload (traveling long distances to fetch water and having to make do with very little water for household chores) has been reduced along with cases of abuse associated with disaster periods. 3. Rainwater harvesting units installed at household and community levels are benefiting the people of those areas where deep tube wells cannot be installed due to lowering of the water table. The rainwater harvesting units ensure safe drinking water for the community round the year. 4. Tube wells with high raised platforms as precaution against flooding and multi-headed tube wells each serving many users through multiple connections are benefiting the communities of many areas. 5. As a result of CDMP support, it has been possible for the department to select project intervention locations independently without any political influence. The intervention sites have all been selected based on the vulnerability of each area as well as community requirement. Challenges and opportunities A study to identify positive options for safe water supply is under process with CDMP support. Based on the report that will be produced, recommendations will be invited at a workshop to explore best options to be set up and included as appropriate in the different programmes of the DPHE.
  41. 41. MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 35 Disaster Risk Reduction Action Plan, Earthquake Contingency Plan and gender toolkit developed for DWA Department of Women Affairs Background Women are disproportionately vulnerable to disaster and climate risks. They bear more of the resulting impacts compared to males. They are often discouraged from learning coping skills and strategies, such as survival skills of swimming or climbing trees during storm surge or inundation. In some instances, they are discouraged and prevented from leaving their homes without the consent of their husbands or elders, even when evacuation is the only means of survival. Cultural dress codes also inhibit movement of women during crises and have often been the cause of high mortality. When the 1991 cyclone hit Bangladesh, 59% of those who died were women. During disaster events young girls and women often face intimidation, gender-based violence, sexual harassment and rape. The long-term social impact of disasters often leads to early marriage, unplanned displacement and human trafficking. CDMP supported activities CDMP has successfully advocated for the incorporation of gender issues in key policies and capacities of the government and in cyclone shelter design and features. Training on addressing the vulnerabilities of women and ensuring equal opportunities in pre- and post-disaster situations have also been provided to district and upazila level officers of the Department of Women Affairs (DWA). With the help of CDMP, the DWA has prepared a Contingency Plan to cope with earthquake hazards, developed a Disaster Risk Reduction action plan, a “Gender Toolkit” to incorporate gender sensitivity in its policies, projects, programmes and documents. IEC materials like posters and leaflets have been developed to raise awareness on the need for gender sensitivity in disaster response. Challenges and opportunities As an appropriate and timely step to achieve mainstreaming of DRR and CCA in its activities, the DWA took the initiative to prepare and implement a Disaster Risk Reduction Action Plan
  42. 42. 36 MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA Training of Trainers conducted in 10 districts 250 officials have received training on disaster and climate change with technical and financial assistance from CDMP. For the medium term, the plan envisaged a 5-year programme (2013-2018) to build the capacity and resilience of the DWA and its beneficiaries to meet the challenges posed by different disasters. The programme was structured around four pillars viz, institutionalisation, knowledge management and capacity building, increasing resilience, advocacy and awareness building. The awareness building activity proposed in the action plan along with training of trainers was carried out in 10 districts, and 100 vulnerable women received training and assets for alternative income generating activates. Honourable State Minister of Women & Children Affairs addressing the national sharing workshop organised by DWA
  43. 43. MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 37 National Health Crisis Management and Archive Centre established Guidelines for non- structural vulnerability assessment for hospitals and post earthquake comprehensive health care action plan for urban cities developed Directorate General of Health Services Background However improved the disaster response system may be, disease outbreaks and health problems are risks to look out for in post disaster periods. The response to health risks is planned from the Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS) for different stages of disaster events along with continuous collaboration, coordination and linkages between all relevant parties and programmes. It is an integral part and the largest executing authority of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), having over 100,000 health officials and staff operating the health care delivery system all over the country. CDMP supported activities Two disaster related guidelines have been developed – a health related comprehensive post-earthquake action plan/guideline for urban cities (developed in accordance with the National Strategy on Disaster Management), which provides an action plan on response and short-term recovery operations related to earthquakes. A non-structural vulnerability assessment and guideline has been developed for hospitals at central, district and upazila levels. It is mainly intended for hospital staff and managers who bear the responsibility of ensuring the stability of the hospital structures and assets during earthquakes. It may also be used by hospital authorities and disaster risk managers responsible for hospital emergency preparedness. Health service providers in three upazilas have received training in Emergency Preparedness and Response for response and rescue of disaster victims A National Health Crisis Management and Archive Centre for disaster records and early warning are now operational. Through this centre, the DGHS maintains, collects and analyses data from all sources such as local health authorities, the BMD, and different government and non-government sources. The DGHS also updates its Emergency Management Databank using information from that centre.
  44. 44. 38 MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA Ministry of Land Background Land and other natural resources degradation continue in Bangladesh. The survival of ecologically sensitive wetlands and forest areas is also a burning issue which needs due attention. The National Land Use Policy 2001 of the Ministry of Land (MoL) highlights the need and importance of land zoning for ensuring criteria-based land use, helping to integrate planning and management of natural resources. The increasing trend of population displacement due to river/beach/char erosion and climate change effects is leading to unplanned settlements and increased density in urban areas, which is multiplying people’s vulnerability. Land use planning including resettlement planning is an important issue for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation, and rightly prioritised by the MoL and CDMP II. CDMP Supported Activities A national level workshop on the Agricultural Land Protection Act 2011 and 15 validation workshops on the Land Zoning Map have been held. Sixteen seminars (10 at district and 6 at upazila level) have been conducted to disseminate the findings of the land zoning map activity and to build participant awareness about the importance of developing the map. The workshops have improved the capacity of the participants to make investment plans considering disaster risk, climate vulnerabilities, food security and sustainable development.
  45. 45. MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 39 Development planning aligned with DRR and CCA in the DPP format General Economics Division The General Economics Division (GED) of the Planning Commission, in partnership with CDMP II undertook an initiative to strengthen capacity on “Disaster and Climate Change Inclusive Development Project: Development Project Proforma (DPP) Format” of the Economic Cadre Professionals of the Government (Assistant Chief to Deputy Chief) working in planning and project design. The duration of the training course was 3 days. In total 210 planning professionals, mainly from the Planning Commission and agencies like the Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Ministry of Water Resources, Department of Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Fisheries & Livestock, BARD, WARPO, etc., were trained. The training helped the government officials to be acquainted with disaster and climate issues which will ultimately result in better planning and integration of DRR and CCA with development projects. In terms of benefits, (i) officials will be able to link national development planning and financing with local DRR and CCA needs, (ii) there will be better use of local and regional resources for risk reduction and capacity building aspects and (iii) the involvement of stakeholders will increase, especially of vulnerable groups including women, children, etc.
  46. 46. 40 MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA As is the case with most projects having a long-term vision to be achieved within a short period, a look at CDMP’s partnership efforts with the different departments brings to light a few “could-have-been” and “should-have-been”. While many activities show promises of considerable impact, concrete evidence- based activity results of some of the departments are still not apparent. Those engaged in the programme activities under the different departments feel that in spite of challenges much has been achieved. Innovative ideas are emerging, and plans are being conceived to further the work that has been started. Some common threads of ideas appear to run through a few of the departments. For example, it is believed that the action plans would be best developed after finding out what has worked and what the requirements and gaps are after implementation of the activities, as it would help to identify what is needed for mainstreaming DRR and CCA in their projects. There is also a commonly felt need for a central database on DRR and CCA information relevant to all the departments. Some thoughts have emerged on how the different ministries could work together as partners on the DRR and CCA issues. The concept of the model village is proposed as a platform for bringing them together. It is suggested that some villages should be selected where every sector would be addressed with their own target groups and activities. The areas selected should be in a cluster having problems of salinity, drought, flooding etc. A baseline study identifying suitable areas might be a starting point for future support, promoting a comprehensive approach to mainstreaming DRR and CCA in the projects of the Government of Bangladesh. Building on the successful roll-out of early warning systems, it is now important to strengthen community based dissemination of warnings and forecasts by linking ICT and social mobilisation in a community alerting system that would include harnessing the potential of volunteers. At the same time, warning technology should continue to be upgraded for improved accuracy and further extended lead time. The DRR/CCA link to development planning that has now been recognised in national level planning tools should be taken forward to Integration of comprehensive risk management into local development plans and deployment of adequate resources to implement these plans at local level. It is also crucial to ensure a gendered approach to disaster and climate resilience in all Government planning, policy frameworks and programmes across ministries and sectors, taking into account the gendered nature of risk and vulnerability. Building on the Government’s commitment to DRR/CCA convergence, a national platform for disaster and climate change resilience needs to be created. Recognising that only Government led engagement can achieve the scale needed for the country to become resilient to disasters and emerging climate change, the platform would also need to engage civil society and the private sector to realise the concerted effort of all stakeholders that it will take to build a resilient nation. C h a p t e r 3 Conclusion
  47. 47. MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA 41
  48. 48. 42 MAINSTREAMING OF DRR & CCA BMD Bangladesh Meteorological Division CCA Climate Change Adaptation CDMP Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme CFS Climate Field Schools DAE Department of Agricultural Extension DGHS Directorate General of Health Services DLS Department of Livestock Services DMIC Disaster Management Information Centre DoE Department of Environment DoF Department of Fisheries DPHE Department of Public Health Engineering DRR Disaster Risk Reduction DWA Department of Women Affairs FFWC Flood Forecasting and Warning Centre FSCD Fire Service and Civil Defence GED General Economics Division ICT Information Communication Technology IEC Information, Education, Communication MDG Millennium Development Goal MoDMR Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief MoL Ministry of Land NCTB National Curriculum and Textbook Board NGO Non-Government Organisation NILG National Institute of Local Government SWC Storm Warning Centre UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change VDP Village Defence Party WAPDA Water and Power Development Authority acronyms
  49. 49. We are indebted to CDMP Partner Ministries and Departments for taking on an additional case-load of interventions, leading to mainstreaming of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation across the Government, and for their contributions to CDMP II results. © CDMP II, July 2015 All rights reserved. Text by Asifa Rahman Edited by Md. Golam Mostafa Photography by CDMP & partner department Design by Mahbub/Drik Production by Drik acknowledgement
  50. 50. www.cdmp.org.bd

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