Both Intel and AMD processors have the
same X86 architecture, but their computer
The same programs run correctly on both,
because the architecture is the same, but
they may run at different speeds, because the
organizations are different.
keyboard, printer. etc.
Fig 1.2 Organization of a first-generation computer
7. IAS COMPUTER
Program Control Unit (PCU)
AR: Memory Address Register
IR: Instruction opcode register
IBR: Next-instruction buffer register
PC: Program counter
Data Processing Unit (DPU)
AC: Accumulator register
DR: General-Purpose Data register
MQ: Multiplier-quotient register
Main Memory M Fig: Organization of the CPU and
main memory of the IAS
8. THE TWO MAIN PARTS OF THE CPU
Fetching instructions from main memory and
interpreting them this part is variously
known as the program control unit (PCU) or
the I-unit (instruction unit).
Executing instructions and is known as the
data processing unit (DPU), the data path, or
the E-unit (execution unit).
10. SECOND GENERATION
During the period of 1956 to 1963 second generation of
computers were developed. The second-generation
computers development of transistors. The transistor was
invented in 1947 by three scientists J. Bardeen, H.W.
Brattain and W. Shockley. A transistor is a small device
made up of semiconductor material like germanium and
silicon. Even though the Transistor were developed in 1947
but was not widely used until the end of 50s. The transistor
made the second generation computers faster, smaller,
cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their
Transistors were used in place of vacuum tubes.
Second generation computers were smaller in comparison
with the first generation computers.
They were faster in comparison with the first generation
They generated less heat and were less prone to failure.
They took comparatively less computational time.
Assembly language was used for programming.
Second generation computers has faster input/output
12. SOME COMPUTERS OF THE
IBM 7000 Series
CDC 3000 Series
15. SECOND GENERATION
In this time second generation computer also used U.S. Navy
Research and Development Center in Washington, D.C. Second
generation computers replaced machine language with assembly
language, allowing abbreviated programming codes to replace long,
difficult binary codes. During this second generation many high level
programming languages were introduced, including FORTRAN
(1956), ALGOL (1958), and COBOL (1959). Important commercial
machines of this era include the IBM 704 and its successors, the 709
and 7094. The latter introduced I/O processors for better throughput
between I/O devices and main memory.
Then 1962: Max V. Mathews leads a Bell Labs team in developing
software that can design, store, and edit synthesized music.
17. FOURTH GENERATION
A computer built using Very Large Scale Integration
Advantages over third generation:
Are very powerful in operation.
Having huge memory & a fast processing speed.
19. IN FOURTH GENERATION
Technology used: Microprocessor
Size and speed: reduce size & tremendous speed.
Language used: high level language (like c, c++ etc)
Software & Applications
Multiprocessor operating system, Language, compilers, and
parallel software tools
22. THIRD GENERATION OF
Advantages and Disadvantages of Third Generation
More reliable than the first and second generation computer.
Smaller than first and second generation.
Save more electricity than first and second generation computer.
These computers Produce low heat than first and second generation.
Need cold weather.
The functions of this computer are critical compare to first and
23. STRUCTURE OF IBM/360
SR PCIR AR
Program status word PSW
(may be micro
Data processing unit, DPU
Fig: Structure of IBM System/360
24. THIRD GENERATION
Integrated Circuits (IC), which first commercially appear 1961 to
replace transistor (discrete electronic circuits) used in second
The transistor continued as the basic switching device, but IC
allowed large numbers of transistor associated components to be
combined on a tiny piece of semi conductor material, usually
IC technology initiated a long-term trend in computer design
toward smaller size, higher speed and lower hardware cost.
25. THIRD GENERATION
Structure of the IBM System/360
• The special control states gave rise to the concept of a program
status word (PSW) which was store in a special CPU register, now
generally referred to as a status register (SR).
• The SR register encapsulated the key information used by the CPU
to record exceptional conditions such as CPU-detected errors.
26. THIRD GENERATION
• The architecture includes the computer’s instruction set, data
formats and addressing modes as well as the general design of its
CPU, main memory and IO subsystems.
• The architecture therefore defines a conceptual model of a
computer at a particular level of abstraction.
• A computer’s implementation, on other hand, refers to the logical
and physical design techniques .
• computer organization refers to the logical aspects of the
implementation but the boundary between the terms architecture
and organization is vague.
o In 1982, the FGCS project begins and receives $450,000,000
worth of industry funding and an equal amount of
o Also in 1982, during a visit to the ICOT, Ehud
Shapiro invented Concurrent Prolog, a novel concurrent
programming language that integrated logic programming
and concurrent programming.
o 1985, the first FGCS hardware known as the Personal
Sequential Inference Machine (PSI) and the first version of
the Sequential Inference Machine Programming Operating
System (SIMPOS) operating system is released. SIMPOS is
programmed in Kernel Language 0 (KL0), a
concurrent Prolog-variant with object oriented extensions.
o The fifth generation computers will use super
large scale integrated chips.
o They will have artificial intelligence.
o They will be able to recognize image and
o Fifth generation computer aims to be able to
solve highly complex problem including decision
making, logical reasoning.
o They will be able to use more than one CPU for
faster processing speed.
o Fifth generation computers are intended to
work with natural language.
31. o Quantum computation and molecular and
nanotechnology will be used in this technology.
o The term "fifth generation" was intended to
convey the system as being a leap beyond existing
o It was widely believed at the time that this would
instead turn to massive numbers of CPUs for
o The project was to create the computer over a
ten-year period, after which it was considered
ended, and investment in a new "sixth generation"
project would begin.
o Opinions about its outcome are divided: either it
was a failure, or it was ahead of its time.
32. Al is an emerging branch in
computer scince, which
interprets means and method of
making computer think like
human beings. All the high-level
language like C and C+, Java,
Net etc are used in this
33. One of the biggest breakthroughs of artificial
intelligence was in 1997, when an IBM Computer
successfully beat the world champion of chess at
his own game. It was the first time a computer
had beat a human being.
34. Neural Network
Neural networks typically consist of
multiple layers or a cube design, and the
signal path traverses from front to back.
Back propagation is where the forward
stimulation is used to reset weights on
the "front" neural units and this is
sometimes done in combination with
training where the correct result is
known. More modern networks are a bit
more free flowing in terms of stimulation
and inhibition with connections
interacting in a much more chaotic and
35. It is more reliable and works faster.
Available in different sizes with unique features.
Smallest in size it's because of the high component
Low cost than first, second and third generation
The disadvantages of fifth generation computers have
yet to be agreed upon, but many feel that they are two
of its advantages: AI and the overall advanced
technology. The addition of AI worries many due to the
computers possibly becoming smart enough to replace
humans altogether, and many people are becoming
reliant on the advanced technology for tasks that they
can do without computers.