1. UNIVERSIDAD TECNICA DE MACHALA
ACADEMIC UNIT OF CHEMICAL
SCIENCES AND HEALTH
Mgs. Barreto Huilcapi Lina Maribel
EIGHTH SEMESTER ‘’A’’
Machala, El Oro
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. The pancreas is a long, flat gland that is
located behind the stomach, in the upper abdomen. The pancreas produces enzymes that
help with digestion and hormones that help regulate how the body processes sugar
Pancreatitis can appear in its acute form, that is, it appears suddenly and lasts a few days.
Or, it may appear in its chronic form, which lasts for many years.
Mild cases of pancreatitis can go away without treatment, but severe cases can cause life-
Pancreatitis occurs when digestive enzymes are activated while in the pancreas, which
irritates the cells of the pancreas and causes inflammation.
If repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis occur, the pancreas may be damaged and chronic
pancreatitis may occur. Scar tissue can form in the pancreas and cause a loss of function. A
pancreas that works poorly can result in digestive problems and diabetes.
3. Conditions that can cause pancreatitis include the following:
The habit of smoking cigarettes
Family history of pancreatitis
High levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia), which may be due to an
overactive parathyroid gland (hyperparathyroidism)
High levels of triglycerides in the blood (hypertriglyceridemia)
Injury to the abdomen
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), a procedure used to treat
gallstones, can also cause pancreatitis.
Sometimes, the cause of pancreatitis can not be found.
Signs and symptoms
The signs and symptoms of pancreatitis can vary, depending on the type you suffer from.
The signs and symptoms of acute pancreatitis include the following:
Pain in the upper abdominal area
Abdominal pain that extends to the back
Abdominal pain that gets worse after eating
Pain with palpation when touching the abdomen
The signs and symptoms of chronic pancreatitis include the following:
Pain in the upper abdominal area
4. Unintentional weight loss
Stool oily appearance and bad smell (steatorrhea)
The tests and procedures used to diagnose pancreatitis include the following:
Blood tests to detect high levels of pancreatic enzymes
Stool analysis in chronic pancreatitis to measure fat levels that might suggest that
your digestive system is not properly absorbing nutrients
Computed tomography (CT) to detect gallstones and evaluate inflammation of the
Abdominal ultrasound to detect gallstones and inflammation of the pancreas
Endoscopic ultrasound to detect inflammation and blockages in the pancreatic duct
or bile ducts
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect abnormalities in the gallbladder,
pancreas, and ducts
The doctor may indicate other tests, depending on your particular situation.
Initial treatments at the hospital may include:
Fast. You will stop eating for a couple of days in the hospital so that your pancreas
Once the inflammation of the pancreas is controlled, you can start drinking clear
liquids and eating soft foods. Over time, you can go back to your usual diet.
If the pancreatitis persists and you still have pain when eating, the doctor may
recommend a tube (feeding tube) so you can nourish yourself.
Medications for pain. Pancreatitis can cause severe pain. Your health care team will
give you medicines to control pain.
Intravenous fluids. When your body devotes energy and fluids to repair the
pancreas, it is possible that you dehydrate. For this reason, you will receive extra
fluid through a vein in your arm during your hospital stay.
5. Once pancreatitis is controlled, your care team can treat the underlying cause of
pancreatitis. Depending on the cause of pancreatitis, treatment may include the following:
Procedures to relieve obstructions of the bile ducts. Pancreatitis caused by narrowing or
obstruction of the bile ducts may require procedures to open or widen the bile duct.
A procedure called endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography uses a long tube with
a camera on the end to examine the pancreas and bile ducts. The tube is inserted through
the throat and the camera sends images of the digestive system to a monitor.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography can facilitate the diagnosis of problems
in the bile duct and pancreatic duct, and their repair. In some people, particularly in the
elderly, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography can also cause acute pancreatitis.
Surgery of the gallbladder. If the cause of your pancreatitis is gallstones, your doctor may
recommend removing the gallbladder (cholecystectomy).
Pancreatic surgery You may need surgery to drain fluid from the pancreas or to remove
Treatment for alcoholism. Taking several drinks a day for many years can cause
pancreatitis. If this is the cause of your pancreatitis, the doctor may recommend you to
enter a treatment program for alcohol addiction. Continuing to drink can worsen your
pancreatitis and cause serious complications.
Additional treatments for chronic pancreatitis
Depending on your situation, chronic pancreatitis may require additional treatments, such
Pain treatment. Chronic pancreatitis can cause persistent abdominal pain. Your
doctor can recommend medications to control pain and refer you to a pain specialist.
Severe pain can be relieved by options, such as endoscopic ultrasound or surgery, to
block nerves that send pain signals from the pancreas to the brain.
Enzymes to improve digestion. Pancreatic enzyme supplements can help the body
break down and process the nutrients in the food you eat. Pancreatic enzymes are
taken with all meals.
Changes in your diet Your doctor can refer you to a dietitian, who can help you plan
meals that are low in fat and high in nutrients.
Although any healthy person can suffer an episode of acute pancreatitis, there are a number
of factors that favor its appearance, and an avoidable risk factor is the consumption of
Those with biliary colic and gallstones in the gallbladder should consider an operation to
remove the gallbladder and avoid a pancreatitis in the future. A diet low in fat will also
decrease the incidence of gallstones. The evolution of acute pancreatitis is very variable,
and can range from very mild to fatal.
About 25% of patients with the disease have serious complications. The presence of large
amounts of fluid in the peri pancreatic space and hemorrhage can lead to hypotension. 20%
of those affected present acute respiratory distress syndrome, and between 10 and 15% of
patients have pseudocysts associated with hemorrhage. Pancreatic infection is associated
with mortality greater than 50%.
To reduce the chances of suffering from chronic pancreatitis, the main risk factor, which is
the habitual consumption of alcohol (responsible for 90% of cases), should be avoided. It is
also advisable to follow a balanced diet and not abuse fat. When the disease is due to
alcohol intake, eradicating the habit significantly improves symptoms and long-term
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